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4. Who succeeds to the presidency in case the President does not complete his term ?
5. What is the annual salary of the President?
7. What officers are appointed by the President alone? President and Senate ? President and Civil Service Commission ?
8. How are other officers chosen ? 9. For what term are the various officers chosen ? 10. What officers may be removed by the President? 11. Who appoints diplomatic officers? Who receives those from foreign countries ?
12. Who makes treaties? If a treaty and law of Congress conflict which will the courts enforce ?
13. What powers has the President as commander-in-chief of the army and navy ?
14. Explain the President's power over legislation by means of (1). messages, (2) extraordinary sessions, (3) the issuance of ordinances, (4) the veto, and (5) extra-legal methods.
15. What persons may be pardoned by the President? May he pardon such persons conditionally? May he return a fine? May he commute a sentence? What is meant by amnesty ?
16. Can a court compel the President to perform a duty ? Can he be punished after he is out of office for a crime committed while in office?
17. How is the Vice-President chosen ? Term ? Qualifications? Salary? Duties?
18. How many members are there in the President's cabinet ? Name the ten secretaries ? For what term are they appointed ? Salary? Need the President accept their advice?
QUESTIONS FOR DiscuSSION
2. Explain how Mr. Harrison was elected President in 1888 although Mr. Cleveland received more popular votes.
3. The indirect method of electing the President of the United States is no longer of value. Discuss a better method.
4. The Southern Confederacy provided that its president should hold office for six years and not be re-eligible. Give reasons why you favor or oppose a like term for the President of the United States. How could this change be made ?
5. President Taft travelled 125,000 miles during his four-year term. How much per mile was he allowed by the government?
6. What federal officers or employees reside or have duties in your city or county? How are they appointed ?
7. W is it proper for the President to be left pra cally unrestricted in selecting and dismissing the members of his Cabinet?
8. The veto power has, in times past, been considered an instrument of kingship, but no king or queen of England has dared to use it for two centuries. Yet, Andrew Jackson, the Father of Democracy,” was the President who used this power most extensively. Explain why this apparent inconsistency is really not inconsistent.
9. The President of France may veto a bill and state his reasons, but a bare majority of the House of Deputies and the Senate may override it. Do you prefer the French or the American veto?
10. The President has absolute pardoning power for all offences committed against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. Under what circumstances do you think this power should be used?
11. Why is the vice-presidential office one of the worst features of our government?
12. Who are the members of the present cabinet ?
13. Congress provided for the building of a government railroad in Alaska. The President was authorized to select the route, determine other details, and have the road built. What other similar undertaking was so successfully carried out by the President?
14. In 1921 there were provisions in the Army Appropriation Bill prohibiting the President from using any of the army appropriation money to maintain troops in China, or more than 500 in Europe, or more than 5000 in the Panama Canal Zone, or more than 5000 in Hawaii. This provision was finally eliminated from the bill. If it had remained, should the President have vetoed it? What constitutional question is involved ?
15. Would a State with a large population or one with a small population gain influence by the popular direct election of the President? Would you vote for or against it if you lived in Nevada ? In New York ?
16. Would the popular direct election of the President be an incentive for honest or dishonest elections in a one-party State such as Pennsylvania or South Carolina ? In the direct election every vote would count.
THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE
73. The Secretary of State ranks first among the Cabinet officers. At cabinet meetings he sits at the right of the President, and on all ceremonial occasions he is given precedence over his colleagues. In case of death or removal of both the President and Vice-President the Secretary of State is the first in line for the presidency. The duties of the Secretary of State are partly connected with domestic affairs, but to a much greater extent with foreign affairs.
Domestic Duties of the Secretary. — The Secretary attends to all correspondence between the President and the governors of the several States. Thus, if the President calls for a State's national guard for war, or if a governor requests the extradition 2 of a criminal who has taken refuge in a foreign country, the correspondence takes place through the Secretary of State.
1 There are three assistant secretaries of State who, with the advice and consent of the Senate, are appointed by the President. The Second Assistant Secretary is by custom a permanent occupant of the office. The present incumbent has held the office for thirty years, and has been connected with the diplomatic service and the department since 1870. He has charge of the diplomatic business, and his knowledge of precedents makes him almost indispensable. His predecessor held the office for twenty years.
2 Extradition means the handing over by one State to another of fugitives from justice. The United States has extradition treaties with the leading nations of the world. When a person accused of crime flees from an American State to a foreign state the governor of the State applies to the Secretary of State for the return of the fugitive, furnishing evidence of probable guilt. The governor also names a person who will go for the fugitive. The proper papers are sent to our diplomatic representative, and he is instructed to request the extradition of the fugitive. The “President's Warrant” is given the agent whom the governor has designated to bring back the accused.. Frequently an application is made by telegraph for the provisional arrest and detention of the fugitive in advance of the presentation of formal proof.
When a State ratifies an amendment to the Constitution of the United States the Secretary of State is notified, and when three fourths of the States notify him he must certify that the amendment has been adopted. Also, when Congress admits a new State into the Union the Secretary of State
Copyright, Underwood & Under wood, N. Y. STATE, WAR, AND NAVY BUILDING.
issues a proclamation declaring the fact. He is custodian of the original copies of the Constitution, treaties, and all laws enacted by Congress.
The Secretary of State also has charge of the Great Seal of the United States, which he affixes to all executive proclamations, to various commissions, such as civil appointments made by the President, and to warrants for the extradition of fugitives from justice.
1 As distinguished from the Great Seal there is another seal of each of the ten administrative departments and one for each court.
Foreign Duties of the Secretary. — In most other governments the officer corresponding to our Secretary of State is called “Secretary of Foreign Affairs." Our Secretary of State is the head of the diplomatic service and of the consular service, grants passports for the protection of American citizens who travel or reside in foreign countries, and is the “head of a great clearing house of international claims." These several duties require a detailed treatment.
74. Diplomatic Service. - Diplomatic correspondence with foreign governments is carried on by the State Department through diplomatic representatives. We send these representatives to the governments of practically all independent states, and most of these governments have diplomatic representatives at Washington. We send ambassadors to the important countries, ministers-plenipotentiary to most countries, ministers-resident to several, and commissioners for special purposes. In the absence of the permanent diplomatic representative the first secretary or some other person takes charge temporarily and is known as the chargé d'affaires ad interim.
Ambassadors, appointed by the President with the consent of the Senate, are sent to Great Britain, Belgium, France, Spain, Italy, Japan, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Mexico, Germany, Turkey, and to Russia when its government is recognized. The term of office is not prescribed by law, hence there are numerous changes whenever a new party comes into
1 The official title of the minister-plenipotentiary is “ envoy extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary.”
2 One would hardly expect to find an ambassador in Turkey, but at Constantinople a minister may wait hours or even until the next day for an important affair, while ambassadors from much less important countries are given an audience at once. Only ambassadors are allowed access to the Sultan to discuss official matters. Thus Congress, in 1906, felt obliged to send an ambassador to Turkey.