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ble as any other which the advocates or apologists for rum in medicine can furnish. And I affirm, in its refutation, that for the purpose of washing a new-born infant, cold water in summer, and tepid water and soap in winter, is the only proper material ; and that, to make it sleep, or for any other of the purposes for which gin and the like is given, the mother's milk, and this alone, should be introduced into the stomach; or, where this is unavoidably absent, sweetened milk and water. There are more children killed in infancy by gin and alcoholic medicines, than die from all our infantile diseases besides.

But I cannot pursue this subject farther, and will pass on to remark, that another mischievous medical use of alcohol is the practice of bribing children as they grow up to take medicine in sugar-dram. When they become sick, and medicine is required, they are often induced to take it by mixing it in toddy, and then drinking a glass of the same to wash it down. The evil is not merely the counteracting effect of the alcohol, but that the child is taught that it is not only right, but desirable; and an artificial appetite for it is thus created, which increases, until it often results in the destruction of health and life.

In many families, it is common to have a bitters, as it is called, made of garlic, or herbs of some kind, good for worms, colic, or some other of the nameless diseases of which children are often only supposed to suffer; and these bitters are frequently drank by all in the house, parents, children, and domestics. These bitters are, for the most part, prepared with alcohol for a menstruum, and have made more drunkards in this country than perhaps all other causes combined. Witness the famous bitters of Dr. Thomson, of Albany, who boasts of having sold thirty barrels in a single year. These are made of Malaga wine, and are drank and recommended for the sake of the alcohol that is in them, by the lovers of rum, as a medicine. See also Dr. Solomon's Balm of Gilead, by which he made a princely fortune, and Dr. Dyott's cordial, which has been little less successful. These, with all the tribe of stomachic bitters, cordials, elixirs, and medicamentums, are but devices founded

upon the medical use of ardent spirits, and for the most part possess no active properties other than the alcohol imparts. So manifest had the ruinous effects of all this class of medicines become, as early as the days of the venerable Rush, that he banished them from his materia medica, and taught his students in the university of Pennsylvania, from his professorial chair, that all such medicines were pernicious to the health, as well as destructive to the morals of the community. And when his patients would ask permission to take his prescriptions in gin, or spirituous liquors of any kind, he would reply,

No man shall look me in the face in the day of judgment, and say, Dr. Rush made me a drunkard.” And he would often add, " If God will forgive me for making drunkards in the early part of my practice, when I knew no better, I will never make another.” If his mantle had fallen upon his successors, happy would it have been for the nation and for the world.

But, alas ! in the face of the ten thousand facts which this subject has presented, no prescription has been and is more common with very many physicians than a mixture of tonic bitters, to be mingled with



gin, or some other form of intoxicating liquor. No marvel that dyspeptics should multiply on every hand, when such practice is pursued with almost every derangement of the digestive organs ; nor is it any wonder that drunkenness should become so wide-spread an evil, when a large proportion of our adult population are regularly dosed with alcoholic medicines.'

That the prospect of its banishment from the materia medica is not an entirely hopeless one, we gather from the following asseverations of Dr. Reese, which, if well founded, give us reason to expect that this last strong hold, where the monster intemperance has .fled for refuge,' may be, and speedily will be, demolished:

• The question, the momentous question, then, for this generation to solve is, whether ardent spirits possess this claim to immortality, or whether their medicinal virtues, if they have any, shall furnish a pretext for the perpetuation of their irreparable mischiefs to the bodies and the souls of men. I affirm the negative of this proposition, and with very many of my professional brethren, fearlessly proclaim, that the article may be safely and entirely exiled from the materia medica, without diminishing our resources in “ wrestling with death.” And whether we shall be successful in effecting this object, so soon as we deem it desirable or important, in this country, or not; there is every indication in the signs of the times that our transatlantic brethren are aiming at this result; for since the facts disclosed by the cholera in every part of the earth, over which its march has been witnessed, many of the ablest physicians of England, and some in India, have strenuously urged the necessity of utterly proscribing its manufacture and traffic by legislative authority, and prohibiting its use among the people by penal enactments. And the proposition of abolishing alcohol from medicine, and removing all its compounds from the dispensatories, has found many advocates in England as well as in this country; so that a “Temperance Pharmacopæia and Materia Medica,” may ere long be introduced into both countries simultaneously, and the way


preparing by recent events so rapidly, that it will excite neither indignation nor surprise.

Still, however, physicians may abolish it from their catalogues of remedial means, and dispense with those compounds of which alcohol is the menstruum, and the medical use of ardent spirits will not then be annihilated. For justice to our profession requires it to be under. stood, that but a very small part of the medicinal use of alcohol is taken by our advice, but very much indeed is taken directly in opposition to that advice. In this department, more than any other, it may be said, that every man is his own doctor, for those who would not take a dose of salts, or castor oil, without the best professional advice, will, nevertheless, not scruple to take brandy or gin as a medicine ; because, forsooth, it is so innocent that, with this kind of physic, they can prescribe for themselves ; and because, moreover, they need a repetition of the dose more frequently than it is convenient to see the doctor or economical to fee him.

And now, to the real friends of temperance scattered over the land,

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I would affectionately urge the importance of combining the influence of their example against the use of ardent spirits, not only " as a drink," but“ as a medicine,for in this way only can the doctrine of " total abstinence" be consistently maintained, and in this way only can we hope for success in banishing the accursed thing from the country and the world.

I have said little about wine or beer, except under the generic name alcohol, of which these are the species. The one is the lion, the other are the whelps ; and if the former is destroyed, and declared by public sentiment to be neither good for food nor physic, the latter, and all the modifications of distilled and fermented liquors, will soon share the same fate. Already a wine-drinking, beer-tippling advocate for temperance is becoming an offence in the public estimation, and the recent desperate effort made by professional men, as well as others, to elevate wine, and especially beer, as possessing medicinal qualities preventive of cholera and the like, are beneath contempt, and only serve to show the dying struggles of alcoholic medicines for a name and place among men.'

We have dwelt the longer on this important and deeply interesting subject, because we consider it so vitally connected with the welfarepresent and eternal welfare--of mankind. The hopes of posterity are for ever blighted, unless this most monstrous and devastating evil can be arrested in its onward course, and finally banished from all our borders. We therefore most heartily recommend the book before us to all our readers, while we conclude our extracts with the following closing remarks of the author :

• My object has been to show that the sale and use of ardent spirits, if a necessary evil, are not necessary for medical purposes. If the evil is necessary at all, then, it must be as a drink, and who is prepared at this late period to avow this opinion, even among those who license it, who make it, who sell it, or who drink it? The fact is, that rum, one of its forms, is necessary, unless it be to the work of filling alms houses, penitentiaries, state prisons, and grave yards! If necessary, it must be for that accursed revenue, the price of pauperism, crime, and blood! If necessary, I say again, it must be for filling the land with

, unutterable wretchedness, and peopling hell with myriads who might else escape the withering curse of Him who has said, “ No drunkard shall inherit the kingdom of God.”

Away, then, with this vile plea of necessity, as a pretext for making widows and orphans by thousands, and inflicting upon thirty thousand of "our fellow citizens annually the death of a fool and the burial of an

And let the public voice unite in declaring, by precept and example, that all intoxicating liquors are neither necessary nor useful,

as a drink or as a medicine," and are “ henceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out and trodden under foot of men.",

Having thus given our readers the views of a physician, who is, or at least ought to be, thoroughly acquainted with the human system, and with the remedies necessary to arrest the progress of disease, we will Vol. IV.-July, 1833.



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submit a few additional remarks as theologians. When urging upon mankind the necessity of entire abstinence from the use of alcoholic liquor, wine and beer as well as ardent spirits, we have been frequently met with an objection derived from the direction of the Apostle Paul to his son Timothy: •Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach's sake and thine often infirmities.' But this text, so far from weakening the force of the arguments in favor of total abstinence, not only from what are generally denominated ardent spirits, but also from wine as a common drink, that it greatly strengthens them; for it would appear that so uncommon was the practice of drinking wine, that the conscientious Timothy dare not allow himself in its use without an express authority from his father in the Gospel. Had it been a common practice for Christians to indulge themselves in the use of wine, is it to be supposed that Timothy would have needed this apostolic license to induce him to use it? The expression, · Drink no longer water,' most manifestly implies that water only-for the use of tea and coffee we may presume was then unknown-had been the common beverage of the evangelist, and of course of the Christian Church generally. Besides, it should be remembered that the use of wine was allowed only medicinally on account of the weakness of his stomach, and of his often infirmities.' What has this to do with its daily and habitual use by persons in health ?

It is furthermore plead that the use of wine was allowed to the Israelites by an express grant from their God; and that therefore its use now is justifiable. But we think that, granting the truth of the first member of the argument,—which indeed we must grant,—the other by no means follows. It is generally allowed, we believe, by those who have studied this subject, that whatever fruits are indigenous to a country contribute to the health of its inhabitants; and that those which are imported are less or more deleterious to health. Allowing the truth of this position, it will not follow that because wine was allowed to the Israelites, therefore its use may be justified among us.

If we examine the Mosaic law in respect to animals that might and might not be eaten, we shall find that those only were prohibited which had a deleterious influence upon the health of the people, when used as an article of food. Thus swine's flesh was forbidden to them, because the eating of it had a tendency to induce that loathsome disease, the leprosy, which was so prevalent in that country And it is highly probable that the juice of the grape was allowed, because, being indigenous to the country, the grape vine growing spontaneously, it promoted, when used moderately, the health of the inhabitants. Why should not those who plead for its use because they were allowed to drink it, discard the use of swine's flesh, because that was forbidden to the Israelites ?. To be consistent throughout, they should lay aside the use of oysters, clams, &c, as well as pork, out of regard to the Divine command.

But how prone are mankind to pervert the use of God's creatures ! How soon did those people so abuse the use of this beverage that the most awful woes were pronounced upon them! .Wo to the drunkards of Ephraim! •Wo to them that rise up early, and drink until wine inflame them.' And may we not presume that this intemperate use of wine, which had become so prevalent among the Jews, was one reason why the early Christians used it not at all, as has appeared evident from the case of Timothy ?

Those, therefore, among us, who so loudly declaim against the use of rum, and brandy, and gin, and whatever other name may be given to ardent spirits, and yet plead for the use of wine, ale, strong beer, &c, are only substituting one evil stimulant for another, and can never justify themselves either on Scriptural principles, or on the principles of economy or utility. The whole posse of them must be discarded, or we shall never effect a thorough reformation. If the doctrine laid down in the book before us be true, and we firmly believe it is, thenthe whole catalogue of alcoholic liquors, whether in the form of cider, cider brandy, wine or French brandy, whiskey or Holland gin, beer or ale, may be safely dispensed with ; and hence the time is coming when he alone shall be considered a truly temperate man who shall proclaim a war of extermination against the whole army of liquors which induce intoxication.

Under these views we cannot but wish success to every effort that is made to drive these enemies of God and man from all the land. Let not the sacred Scriptures be perverted, nor reason dethroned, to uphold and defend a practice which annually carries thousands to a premature grave, and fills the countries where it prevails with desolation and wo- - which • turns a fruitful field into a wilderness'-by exerting a blighting influence upon the intellectual, moral, and physical powers of man-that banishes peace from the domestic circle, makes children orphans, and turns the fairest portion of God's creation into brokenhearted and sorrowful widows.


REVIEW OF THE MISSIONARY FIELD. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Missionary Society of the Methodist

Episcopal Church We have now entered upon the fifteenth year of this Society's labors, and may say in truth, Hitherto the Lord hath helped. We have now before us its first Annual Report, which shows how small and feeble' were the beginnings of this noble enterprise. We indeed well remem

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