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vourite book, and she seemed to derive read you would never have got me great comfort from its perusal, especially there." Her case is an illustration of when she felt that her end was approach- the truth long familiar to Christians, ing. After a lingering illness of many that "faith comes by hearing” to some months she passed away, gently and minds better than by reading, and that peacefully, and has now, we trust, Swedenborg's Writings are not suited to "entered into the joy of her Lord.” every state even of the lovers of truth

and goodness. In our efforts to erect a At Nottingham, February 18th, 1879, aged

sixty-six, Mary, the beloved wife of fitting temple for the worship of the Mr. Horatio Black. She

was brought

up then Mrs. Philpot, was a kind and

Lord in Argyle Square, Mrs. Watson, in the faith of the New Church, and was liberal helper. She also contributed in a zealous and careful reader of the Writings, of which she had a very clear and equal proportions with myself the first

£100 towards the foundation of the extensive knowledge. For many years New Church College and the New Mr. and Mrs. Black were the enter- Church Bible Society. Our hope was tainers of New Church friends and min. that the College would be connected isters when the Society here was in with the church in Argyle Square, but adversis. The writer, who knew Mrs. the Society worshipping there having Black for above thirty years, always re- then a large building debt on its hands, garded her as a woman who had never

was afraid to incur the risk of being had a doubt, so ardent at all times was overburthened by the additional weight her faith, and so unwavering her con; of the College requirements. Our de. fidence and trust. She and her husband parted friend was not only zealous and carefully educated their large family in the heavenly doctrines, and the survivors the Church, but was also kind and

generous in public matters relating to are all warm supporters and consistent hospitable in her conduct towards her members of the Church. Confined to fellow-members. On her marriage with her room for above a year, she patiently Mr. Watson she found a companion bore her trials and sufferings, and cheer- whose heart, like her own, was set on fully looked forward to the great change praying for the peace of Jerusalem that awaited her. Full of faith, full of and seeking her prosperity. Hence trust, ever cheerful, hopeful, and resigned, she passed away quietly in her forth, like a true wife, Mrs. Watson

merged her benevolent impulses into a sleep—and awoke with the angels.

common channel with those of her hus. J. D. B.

band. Under his guidance their home Mrs. Watson, of 19 Highbury Crescent, became a centre of hospitality and use, London, passed away from us on the 25th which has added greatly to the strength. February 1879. She was a sincere and ening of mutual love amongst the liberal friend of the New Church at a brethren, and extended the influence of time when but few ladies belonging to the Church.

For several years past our communion had both the ability and Mrs. Watson has held a very precarious willingness to help us largely with their tenure of earthly life. Those who knew purses as well as with their presence. her only “in the sere and yellow leaf” Having been introduced to a knowledge of mundane existence could form no of the heavenly doctrines by myself adequate idea of her real character. before our church in Argyle Square was Those only who had the pleasure of built, she commenced her attendance on being acquainted with her in bygone New Church services at Burton Street, years can tell of her love of truth and Burton Crescent, under the ministry of goodness, and her genuine nobility of the Rev. T. C. Shaw. She enjoyed his mind and character. H.BATEMAN. teachings as well as those of his coadjutors in the ministerial work, and em- At Heywood, February 20th, Mrs. braced the principal doctrines before Elizabeth Muir, in the thirty-fourth year reading a page of Swedenborg's Writings. of her age. Mrs. Muir had been during Her quality of mind was indeed adverse her whole life connected with the Sunto his mode of instruction. After put- day school and church in this town. For ting the treatise on the Divine Providence some years past she has been largely into her hands, she returned it to me, occupied with the attention needed by a saying, “If you had not taken me to sick and bedridden mother and the church before giving me this book to cares of her children. After uprightly discharging the duties which fell to her secured for him the favourable recogni. lot in this life, she has somewhat sud- tion of his fellow-townsmen. He first denly passed away to the higher uses of became Councillor for the Castle Ward, the world to come.

and after resigning that office was Died at sea, January 3rd, on his appointed coroner for the borough on

Mr. Vallack voyage to Melbourne, undertaken for the 10th December 1857. the improvement of his health, Picker. retained his post to the day of his ing Butterworth Edleston, Esq., eldest decease, although for more than two son of Richard Edleston, Esq., of High. years he had been obliged to avail him. field House, Heywood, aged thirty-three. self of the services of an assistant in

consequence of failing health. For Mr James Vallack, coroner for the many years Mr. Vallack had been one borough of Derby, and a solicitor in of the pillars of the Derby Society and, that town, departed this life on the 4th in proportion to his means, a generous March 1879. He was the son of Colonel contributor to its funds. His benevoVallack, a member of the Devonshire lence was, however, by no means confamily of that name, and was born near fined to his published donations. His Torquay on the 30th April 1799. Ourde. generous right hand gave without telling partedfriend was thus nearly eighty years his left. The widow and the fatherless of age ; and although, for several years found in him a kind and judicious past, greatly enfeebled in body, he re- helper. Mr. Vallack married twice, tained his mental faculties almost per- and his second wife was my second fectly to the very close of his earthly sister. We were fast friends for about

On Saturday the 1st of March half a century from the commencement he drove to his offices as usual, and of our acquaintance. My wife also loved before leaving in the afternoon conversed him as a brother, and my daughter with the landlord and landlady of the almost as a father. He was full of house in which they were situated in affection, and well deserved all our love his accustomed lively manner. Mr. in return. Mr. Vallack had long reaVallack was naturally full of humour, lized that his time on earth was shortly and told his witty stories so well as to be ended. Yet with the near profrequently to set the table in a roar. He spect of death before him there was still had, however, beneath his vivacious the old playful vivacity and the ready manner and amusing language strong wit of bygone years. He was young in good sense, a loving heart, and a gener feeling, because he renewed his strength ous hand. He was firm in his friend. like the eagles. He trusted in the Lord ships and stedfast in his convictions. that He would deliver him from his Having occupied a desk in the same various troubles, and he died in peace. office at Burton-upon-Trent as the late The final blow to his bodily life was Mr. James Knight, so long the legal struck on Sunday the 3rd of March, adviser of the Conference, Mr. Vallack and he passed away about forty-eight was introduced by him to a knowledge hours afterwards, on Tuesday afterof the heavenly doctrines of the New noon. Mr Vallack's favourite book Jerusalem somewhere about the year was Our Eternal Homes,” by "John 1823, probably in the twenty-fourth year Hyde,” as he usually called his forof his age. At first they did not appear mer pastor. His favourite little poem to enter very deeply into his mind. He was “One by one they fall around saw and acknowledged their truth, but us,” by the same author. Both John displayed little of the zeal of a convert. Hyde and James Vallack have now Once, however, in his understanding entered upon their eternal homes. One the doctrines never lost their hold upon by one they have fallen around us with him. As time went on he associated many another beloved friend. But himself more and more with New Church whilst we are feeling their loss, angels people, and interested himself more are, we trust, rejoicing over their gain.. and more about the propagation of the The Church on earth misses their bodily doctrines. He at length settled in presence, but the assembly of the FirstDerby to exercise his profession as a born in heaven sees in all the spirits of, solicitor, and he became a seatholder in the just made perfect fellow-citizens of the chapel. Mr. Vallack's strict hon. the heavenly Jerusalem, to be made our, courtesy, and integrity in the more and more happy for ever and ever. performance of his professional duties



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All religions have had their founders, all have their sacred books, and all have teachers to expound their doctrines and enforce their lessons. The religions not derived directly from the Bible are considered by those within the Church to be false religions. All Gentile religions have many errors as well as defects, but they should, in most instances, be regarded as spurious rather than false. Religion itself is Divine in its origin; and all forms of religion, ancient and modern, have been and are but the different embodiments of previously existing religious ideas, or systems of religious truth. What Bunsen says of the race may be said of their religion. The farther back our investigations go it becomes more evident that all existing races have sprung from one primeval pair, and that all existing dialects have sprung from one primeval language. All existing religions have sprung from one primeval revelation. The earliest revelation was not indeed

Divine truth was inscribed upon the mind, and was thus a subject of inward instinctive perception. It came, however, to be a subject of outwardly acquired knowledge. Enoch, the "seventh from Adam," collected the truths which had been subjects of perception among those of the primeval Church, and preserved them in a tangible form for the use of their posterity. The founders of religion were not, therefore, the creators of the religious idea, but only the formers,

a written one.



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sometimes the reformers, of the religious systems in which it is embodied.

Swedenborg's place among religious teachers is like that of the instruments whom the Lord has at various times raised up and employed for the purpose of effecting changes in the religious condition of the Church and of mankind, which the ordinary teachers of religion were unable, and perhaps unwilling, to accomplish. Such an instrument was Moses, when the Israelitish Church was to be established; and such an instrument was John the Baptist, when the Christian Church was to be commenced.

John came to



of the Lord at His First Advent; Swedenborg came to prepare the way of the Lord at His Second Advent. John represented the Word, especially as to its literal sense; Swedenborg may be said to have represented the Word especially as to its spiritual sense. Both in His First and in His Second Advent the Lord came as The Word. At His First Advent He came in the flesh; at His Second Advent He came in the spirit.

Swedenborg's place among the teachers of his times may also be said to be like that of the apostles among the teachers of their times, especially after the day of Pentecost. When the Lord had ascended on high, He, according to His promise that He would not leave His sorrowing children orphans, but would come to them as the Comforter, poured out His Spirit upon them, and thus made His spiritual descent through them into the world. This spiritual descent of the Lord through the apostles was the real commencement, or rather the establishment, of the Christian Church. It was the fulfilment of the Lord's promise respecting the Holy Spirit: “He dwelleth with you, and shall be in you.” He Himself was that Spirit. He had, before His crucifixion, been with His disciples; now He was to be in them. Swedenborg therefore claims no more for himself than the Scriptures themselves assign to the apostles.

Henceforth the apostles diffused the Gospel by their preaching and writings. Their epistles may justly be regarded as an exposition of the Gospel, suited to the states not only of those who lived in their time, but of all who were to form the first Christian dispensation. Swedenborg's writings may be assumed to be to the Church of the Second Advent what the apostolic epistles were to the Church of the First Advent.

If we can suppose the Christian Church never to have fallen away from its primitive purity, it still would have been succeeded by another and more perfect dispensation. This the Divine law of progress requires and prophecy leads us to expect. The difference between the first Church and the second would in that case have been simply the difference between the letter and the spirit of the Word; and the herald of the Second Advent would have been among religious teachers as the teacher of the spiritual sense of the Word among the teachers of its literal sense. Great as would have been the difference between his teaching and theirs, there would have been no real antagonism. There might not have been at first sight a perfect agree ment; for although there is an exact correspondence between the literal and the spiritual senses of the Word, yet as the letter consists for the most part of appearances of truth, those who were in the literal sense only must have been, to some extent, in fallacies. Fallacies are, however, very different from errors. Fallacies only become errors when they cease to be believed in simplicity, and come to be confirmed as real truths by reasonings. When the appearances of truth come to be confirmed as real truths, they become errors. So long as men believed in simplicity that the sun rose and that the earth stood still, they only believed what they saw; but when they began to confirm this appearance by reasonings they fell into error. So it has been in the Church with those who confirmed the appearances of truth in the letter, and required them to be received as matters of faith. And to these appearances the men of the Church have, in the course of centuries, added errors of their own, as the result of false Scripture interpretation. The messenger and instrument of the Lord's Second Advent had, therefore, not only to teach the truths of the New Church, but to correct the errors of the Old. In order, therefore, to see the nature and extent of his work, and to understand the place which he occupies among religious teachers, we shall consider his labours, as the Apostle of the New Church, under the two distinct heads of Construction and Development.

I. It may seem inconsistent to speak of construction respecting that which is represented as coming down in a state of completeness from above. The descent of the New Jerusalem, or the doctrine of the New Church, from God out of heaven certainly teaches its Divine origin and heavenly nature, but it does not teach its descent at once as a completed structure into the human mind. Even the first mind into which the Heavenly Doctrine descended did not receive it as a finished system. The Doctrine entered his mind as the light of truth, and first existed there as a spiritual idea, which he had to embody in a doctrinal form. He was like Moses, who saw the pattern of the tabernacle in the mount, and after his descent had to construct it out of the materials


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