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emoluments of office. Avarice and ambition are strong passions, and, separately, act with great force on the human mind; but, when both are united, and may be gratified in the same object, their violence is almost irresistible, and they hurry men headlong into factions and contentions, destructive of all good government. As long, therefore, as these great emoluments subsist, your Parliament will be a stormy sea, and your public councils confounded by private interests. But it requires much public spirit and virtue to abolish them; more perhaps than can now be found in a nation so long corrupted. I am, &c.



Passy, 17 March, 1783. Dear FRIEND I duly received your obliging letter of November 15th. You will have since learned how much I was then, and have been continually engaged in public affairs, and your goodness will excuse my not having answered it sooner. You announced your intended marriage with my much respected friend, Miss Anna Maria, which I assure you gave me great pleasure, as I cannot conceive a match more likely to be happy, from the amiable qualities each of you possesses so plentifully. You mention its taking place, as soon as a prudent attention to worldly interests would permit. I just now learn from Mr. Hodgson, that you are appointed to an honorable and profitable place in the Indies; so I expect now soon to hear of the wedding, and to receive the profile. With the good Bishop's permission, I will join my blessing with his; adding my wishes, that you may return from that corrupting

country, with a great deal of money honestly acquired, and with full as much virtue as you carry out with you.

The engraving of my medal, which you know was projected before the peace, is but just finished. None are yet struck in hard metal, but will be in a few days. In the mean time, having this good opportunity by Mr. Penn, I send you one of the épreuves. You will see that I have profited by some of your ideas, and adopted the mottos you were so kind as to furnish.

I am at present quite recovered from my late illness, and flatter myself that I may in the ensuing summer be able to undertake a trip to England, for the pleasure of seeing once more my dear friends there, among whom the Bishop and his family stand foremost in my estimation and affection. I thank you for your good wishes respecting me.

Mine for your welfare and prosperity are not less earnest and sincere; being with great truth, dear Sir, your affectionate friend, &c.


* In March, 1783, Sir William Jones was appointed a judge of the supreme court of judicature in Bengal, on which occasion the honor of knighthood was conferred upon him. He was married to Anna Maria Shipley the following month. See Lord Teignmouth's Life of Sir William Jones, 2d ed. p. 222.

† It appears, that at this time it was expected by some of Dr. Franklin's friends, that he would visit Vienna; but whether he ever formed any plan for this purpose is uncertain. The following is an extract from a letter written to him by Dr. Ingenhousz.

“I am daily asked, whether you will soon be here. Some time ago, M. Veinbrenner told me, that he had written a letter to you by order of the first minister of state, Prince Kaunitz, of which I send the enclosed copy. He had at that time written to the same purpose to Count Mercy (Austrian Ambassador at the court of Versailles), to whom the Emperor has now given official orders to invite you to his house, and to treat you on the footing of a minister of a sowereign power. M. Veinbrenner also informed me, that the imperial ambassador has orders to intimate to you, that the Emperor is ready to acknowledge the United States a sovereign and independent power, as


Passy, 23 March, 1783. DEAR SIR, I received the letter you did me the honor of writing to me, requesting a recommendation to America, of Mr Joshua Grigby. I have accordingly written one, and, having an opportunity the other day, I sent it under cover to Mr. Benjamin Vaughan. The general proclamations you wished, for suspending, or rather putting an end to, hostilities, are now published; so that your "heart is at rest,” and mine with it. You may depend on my joining my hearty endeavours with yours in “ cultivating conciliatory principles between our two countries”; and I may venture to assure you, that if your bill for a provisional establishment of the commerce had passed as at first proposed, a stipulation on our part in the definitive treaty, to allow reciprocal and equal advantages and privileges to your subjects, would have been readily agreed to. With great and sincere esteem, I am ever, &c.


soon as you, or any other person properly authorized, shall take any step towards that purpose. M. Veinbrenner, not having received an answer from you, was advised by Prince Kaunitz and another state secretary to speak to me about it, and request me to press for the favor of an answer, which I told him I would do as soon as I should write to you.” – Vienna, April 8th, 1783.


Requesting Permission to publish in Paris a Translation of the Constitutions of the United States.

Passy, 24 March, 1783. SIR, I am desirous of printing a translation of the Constitutions of the United States of America, published at Philadelphia, in 1781, by order of Congress. Several of these Constitutions have already appeared in the English and American newspapers; others have appeared elsewhere; but there has never yet been a complete translation of them. That, of which I have the honor to speak to your Excellency, being an octavo volume, contains the different Constitutions of the United States, their treaty with France, and no foreign matter. I have made arrangements for this purpose with M. Pierres, who is ready to commence the impression, and I hope that your Excellency will give your approbation.

M. Pierres will need a permit from the Keeper of the Seals for printing and selling this work, after having furnished me with the number of copies agreed upon. As I strongly desire, that this translation may appear at an early day, I shall feel under great obligations to your Excellency, if you will have the goodness to request the Keeper of the Seals to send the order without delay; and, should the formalities required for the purpose demand any considerable time, to request him to authorize by letter M. Pierres to proceed with the work. I have the honor to be, &c.


. This letter is translated from a French copy.


Philadelphia, 27 March, 1783. MY EVER DEAR FRIEND, To be noticed by the great is an honor, but to enjoy the friendship of the good is more than honor; it is happiness. I was much gratified by your kind letter by Captain Barney, and thank you for the Première Livraison of the Encyclopédie.

A vessel arrived here a few days ago express from Cadiz, with letters from the Marquis de Lafayette, announcing peace to all the world. This has diffused general joy through this suffering country. Yet there are some, who, though they cannot be sorry for it with a good grace, are nevertheless sorry. I mean those, who have large quantities of goods on hand at war prices. But, if it should never rain till it suited every individual's convenience, the whole world would blow away in dust. The terms for America are unexceptionable; the boundary lines of the United States liberal and permanent. I have heard no objections. Even long-sighted politicians, of the Grumbletonian fraternity, seem satisfied.

Blessings, like misfortunes, seldom come unaccompanied. I am told you intend to return and spend the remainder of your days at home. This will be a most agreeable gratification to your friends; to none more than to me.

America gave you breath ; you have repaid the obligation by being so principally instrumental in giving her peace, liberty, and independence. Individuals will readily acknowledge how much the public is indebted to you for your important services. How far the public will be found grateful, is a problem. The least, I think, that can be expected, is, that you

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