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tival that day-radiant in purple Suddenly Kyria Maria appeared and silver and gold. I had found at the door to bid me good-bye. it warm in packing, and was We had hardly sense enough left standing without coat or waist- to feel confused at her sudden coat, a Maltese straw-hat on my pearance. She looked at us in head, looking somewhat like a some surprise, but smiled benevoBritish sailor in summer attire. lently, as if we were two children, She stepped forward and gave me and she forgave us as we would her hand. Her eyes glistened — not do it again. I did not underand the thought flashed through stand one-half of what she said to my mind that it was the last time me, for I was looking all the time I should ever see her. She may at Irene, who, with her handkerhave had the same thought. chief to her eyes, was standing at

“ You have come to bid me the window with her back to us. good-bye, Irene," I said. But she At length Jorgi dashed in with hardly let me finish the sentence. the news that the horses were She threw her arms round my ready, and were waiting below. neck, and kissed me—as a queen This aroused me. I took up my might have kissed a sailor. Then, coat and cloak, bade my four walls while her soft white hands clasped adieu, and descended the stairs in my neck, she said: “Must you silence. Aunt and niece followed then go? Stay with me, my life!” me, equally silent.

She would not have spoken in I mounted my horse. Kyria vain. It seemed to me as though Maria advanced towards me, gave soft fanning wings were stirring me her hand, wishing me noha up the passion which had longérn—many years; begged me to lain dormant in my heart, and greet my father and mother in were making it burn and glow; Germany for her, and hoped I and I began to feel as •if my heart should have a safe and pleasant were some inflammable material journey. which would soon burst into an Then Irene

somewhat uncontrollable flame. I stood calmer - stretched out her little speechless, a prey to contending hand to me. emotions. Presently I bent down « Ζωή μου, να με αγαπας (Love over the sweet girl, who as she me, my life),” she whispered, her perceived this raised herself, eyes suffused with tears, then clasped her arms more tightly went slowly back into the cottage, round my neck, and pressed her whilst I rode sadly away. mouth to mine so lovingly, so pas- My presentiment was right: I sionately, so intoxicatingly. never saw Irene again.


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The light way in which it is sufficient proof of this, if proof assumed in some quarters that the were needed; for although it days of ironclads are numbered, was probably inspired by econohas, I think, no sound theoretical my, it was perforce argued on basis, while there is no pretension tactical grounds, as he pressed the for supporting it by an appeal to Committee not to build these “costfacts, or to modern illustrations of ly vessels, the true value of which naval warfare.

it was not possible to determine, Obviously the answer to the and which might be blown up or question, “Are ironclads doomed?” sent to the bottom by a simple must depend upon the tactical torpedo 2–(No, no)— value of the ironclad as a weapon, The great question of man-ofand it is on its assumed failure war shipbuilding of the day reas a modern arm that it is con- solves itself, then, into one of tacdemned. The argument, shortly tics, and the naval officer should put, amounts to this: “A first- be the authoritative arbitrator as class ironclad is very costly, very to the special vessels required to complicated, and represents a very maintain our

maritime supremlarge proportion of the maritime acy; but though there have been power of the country, yet, what- some useful prize-essays, lectures, ever may be her speed, she is not and discussions at the United Serubiquitous, while the power of this vice Institution on naval tactics, Goliath is liable to be destroyed they are little studied by our naby one or two cheap Davids 1 firing val officers, and neither the early torpedoes.” The reply, therefore, training nor the curriculum of to the question at issue must be a the Naval College at Greenwich tactical one. If the ironclad is to offers encouragement to pursue a disappear, it is because it is being branch of science which is, curiousreplaced by a more powerful arm, ly enough, considered of somewhat as other weapons have been dis- theoretical value. placed in previous phases of his- The natural result follows. Our tory. Thus the galleys of the six- naval constructors are themselves teenth and seventeenth centuries called upon to supply many of the gave way to the sailing battle-ship, tactical considerations involved in which, in its turn, was replaced the design of a ship; and when she by the steam-liner, this last being is launched and approaching comsurpassed only a few years later pletion, they are often unfairly atby the ironclad, dependent for its tacked on account of her alleged motive power solely on steam.

deficiencies to meet certain requireThe recent motion of Mr Shaw ments, which perhaps only exist in Lefevre in the House of Commons an embryo stage in the brain of against continuing the construc- the complainant. In short, there tion of the Nile and Trafalgar, is a lack of that healthy public to which I shall again refer, is opinion which should exist and

! The Confederate torpedo-boats used during the late war in America were all called Davids.

2 • Times,' 11th June, 1886.



assert itself in what are somewhat On the first point, it is evident vaguely described as naval circles, that different nations must have and as a consequence, there is often different wants, and that no mere a rush to conclusions after a suc- comparison with other countries cessful experiment has frightened can

Switzerland has out of their propriety those who naturally no need of a navy. Aushad previously complacently ig- tria only requires one for certain nored growing developments of the special contingencies. Russia descience of naval warfare.

velops a navy in the Black Sea to That the tendency to which I attain objects which are transpahave just referred is to some ex- rently evident. Germany, unless tent a national characteristic will she aspires to be a colonial power, be generally admitted. It is not can dispense with a strong navy. always pleasant, though generally Italy, from her position in the instructive, when one's faults are Mediterranean, which has been repeated in an aggravated form in aptly described as a European lake, one's descendants, and our Ameri- might largely depend upon torpedocan cousins have certainly inherited vessels or non-seagoing ironclads. from us this disinclination to the France has a large seaboard and consistent study of the problems numerous colonies, but she is selfof naval tactical science; for in a supporting. England is an island, recent lecture, Commander Bain- with a colonial empire such as the bridge Hoff of the United States world has never seen previously, Navy commences his remarks by and an enormous trade; but above saying—" It has always struck me all, she depends upon her oversea as very odd that officers of our supply for the daily bread of her navy and members of our mercan- teeming millions. How, then, can tile communities have not thought the navy of England-on which, more, or at least have not ex- under the good providence of God, pressed themselves more

the wealth and greatness of the upon a science which even at the kingdom not only “mainly depresent time has a large mass of pend,” as the preambles to many literature of its own;" and he fur- Acts of Parliament state, but ther adds, “in no branch of the which is absolutely necessary to science which I have termed 'tac- her existence as a great nation—be tical' has more satisfaction been fitly compared to that of any other reached than in arriving at de- country? The standard of measurecisions in regard to what is needed ment is itself faulty and inappliin the way of vessels for defence.” cable to the question we wish to

I propose subsequently to give decide. We search in vain the histhe views of some of our naval tory of the past to find any apauthorities on the relative value of proach to the dependence of this ironclads and torpedo-vessels; but country on her naval power. Mr I am content now to point out Froude has, indeed, in his charming that we do not seem to have any book, shown us how Oceana was consistent naval policy founded the dream of a statesman in the clearly

time of the Commonwealth, and 1. On our national wants. how nearly it is realised now; yet

2. On the relative value of dif- we seem to fail to appreciate that ferent arms.

our enormous commerce requires

i Delivered at Cnited States Naval Institute, Washington, uth March, 1886.

some proportionate insurance, and five years ago, the year of the first that if we are to preserve our in- Exhibition; and he shows how heritance in peace we must be the the trade between the United “ strong man armed,” ready to Kingdom and India, which was defend ourselves against jealous or 17 millions in 1851, is now 86 unscrupulous assailants.

millions, while that between AusIn what I have here stated, I tralia and India has increased am merely laying stress upon the from £150,000 to over 3 millions fact that the proper standard for in the same period. He adds, that the consideration of the strength “ the sea-trade of India alone is of our navy is our own require about equal to that of Russia ;" ments as a nation, as was pointed and that “the aggregate sea-trade out clearly by Admiral Sir A. of the colonies and dependencies Hood in a speech at the Mansion at the present time, exceeds by House a few months ago, and I some 50 millions a-year that of wish to deprecate any comparison France and Russia' combined.” with foreign Powers as being con- These are stubborn facts, which clusive in its character. At the make many of the laboured desame time, it is obvious that our fences of the strength of our fleet armaments should bear some com- as superior to that of France alparison with those of possible most ridiculous; yet it was possible opponents; and it has been found for Mr Childers, in defence of his that the strongest argument which Budget in 1883, to point out that could be addressed to the House the spending services were costing of Commons or to the public, has rather less than they did twenty generally consisted in an appeal years previously—and he might to the necessity for not being out- have added that while the Army done by others. Hence not only Estimates had somewhat increased, a vicious system of measuring our the Navy Estimates had been cornavy by a two-foot rule, which is respondingly reduced. As there is inapplicable; but it has been has been some misapprehension as too much the custom to follow to the extraordinarily large Navy other countries in their designs, Estimates for the present year, or at most to outbid them by amounting to £12,993,000, it is larger and improved vessels of curious to find that they only exsimilar classes.

ceed those of 1860-61, a year of Captain Colomb, R.M.A., in his peace qualified by a "little war" admirable lecture on Naval and in China, by about £150,000, so Military Federation at the United that our Navy Estimates have not Service Institution in May last increased with our increasing comyear, gives some valuable statistics merce. I give the figures for the in comparing the present commerce years referred to by Mr Childers, of the empire with that of thirty- and for 1860-61 :Estimates.



£ 10,762,300 £15,600,000 £26,362,000 1863-64,


26,400,000 1860-61,

12,836,000 94,842,000 27,678,000 The lines in Don Juan irresist- Forgetting Nelson, Duncan, Howe, ibly occur here to me

and Jervis.” “ But now the Prince is all for the land This is not true of the Prince," service,

but it is true of the public, who


naturally show greater apprecia- this country we have been content tion of the weapons which have to live from hand to mouth, savbeen most frequently in use re- ing one year to show an economicently; thus, while the feet filled cal budget, and spending liberally the eye in the eighteenth century, at another when a scare of war when our naval supremacy was has caused public opinion to point yet undecided, the army nowoc- to our deficiencies. I hold that cupies the first position in public the French programme of reconestimation.

struction of their navy in 1872, The estimates above referred to amended from time to time as are to some extent a proof of this; circumstances required, has been and it is worth remarking that so of the greatest advantage to our astute and experienced an official neighbours; and that it would be as Mr. Shaw Lefevre, who has been a good thing could a similar course Secretary of the Admiralty, has be adopted in this country, to which proposed a reduction of the Navy both political parties would be Estimates, while he will not lift a bound to adhere. profane hand against those of the Practically, however, is it true sister service.

that, much to the advantage of the It is to a want of standard as country, something like a systemto what our naval power should atic policy has been followed by be, to a lack of appreciation of recent First Lords of the Admiour natural necessities in this re- rality; and I cannot but admire the spect, to a rooted prejudice against boldness of the late Chancellor of plans or systems which may inter- the Exchequer, who was determined fere with future liberty of action, to stick to the old plan of making and to a desire to subordinate all reductions, solely because the estiour requirements to political views mates seemed to him to be high, of economy which may satisfy the without having regard to House of Commons, that the halt- which have been brought promiing and spasmodic nature of our nently to our notice, such as the naval policy has generally been defenceless position of many of due. Of this our statesmen our coaling stations, or that mere at last becoming aware. Mr Chil- reductions manufactured for budders's reductions of 1868-1869 get service were the worst econowere promptly followed by the my. I cannot help referring here vote of credit of 1870, while there to the insular nature of our stateswas a similar vote in 1878, which men's views of national armaments, added four ironclads to the navy; as amusingly exemplified by Lord and lastly, in 1885, we had the Randolph Churchill's allusion to £3,500,000 which was spent reck- the increase of our expenditure lessly, and to a great extent use- since 1874, whilst camly ignoring lessly, to stop leaks in our naval that of other Powers, as was plainarmour. How much of this would ly shown by Lord George Hamilhave been avoided by some pro- ton, who told the House of Comgramme of naval construction, mons

the 1st of February however faulty ? Yet, from the that the naval expenditure of reasons given above, though the foreign countries had increased in French, the Germans, the Italians, the last ten years follows: and the Russians have consistent. France 39 per cent, Germany 43, ently aimed at carrying out certain Russia 45 and Italy 133, while schemes of naval shipbuilding, in Austria's alone remained about




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