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tion about the ranking of that thusiasm of Scottish chivalry, and earldom, it is of interest to quote the deep enmity of “Hotspur," Mr Fraser's remarks with regard who saw his domains ravaged and to the position held by the Earl of his fame eclipsed by the young Douglas :

Earl. An expedition into Eng

land on a grand scale having been "The Earldom of Mar, as possessed organised by the Scottish nobles by Thomas Earl of Mar, was in the in 1388, Douglas harried the countime of King Robert II, the premier earldom of Scotland. The dignity of and then returned to assail New

try up to the walls, Durham, Earl of Douglas was then the most modern dignity with the rank of castle. In a hand-to-hand encounEarl, and William Earl of Douglas ter before the walls, Douglas is was the first Earl of his family, have said to have worsted Hotspur, and ing been created on 26th January to have carried off his pennon. It 1357-58. When he received the con- was when the Scots had broken joined titles of Douglas and Mar on the death of Thomas Earl of Mar, he up the siege, and were encamped had only been sixteen years Earl of at Otterburn, on their way home, Douglas, yet on every occasion his that the famous encounter took title of Douglas is invariably placed place, which is celebrated in the before that of Mar. He styles him- ballad of “ Chevy Chase." In the self Earl of Douglas and Mar; his night-time Henry and Ralph Percy widow also after his death placed the broke upon the Scottish camp at title of Mar after that of Douglas, Otterburn styling herself Countess of Douglas Douglas had not time to have his

unexpectedly that and Mar, and the same course was followed in Crown charters by the armour fastened, and the “ Earl of King. The dignity of Earl of Doug. Moray fought all night without las could not have been placed before his helmet.” Douglas was soon in that of Earl of Mar if Earl William the thickest of the fight, armed had been entitled in right of his wife with a mace or battle-axe, “ lyke to be ranked as and to bear the style a hardy Hector," says Froissart, of the first Earl of the kingdom: i wyllynge alone to conquer the

. Both of the Earls of Douglas and Mar, William and James, father and felde, and to dyscomfyte his son, sealed the legal deeds granted by enemyes.” Unrecognised in the them with their armorial seals, having mêlée, he received three spearDouglas in the first and fourth quar- wounds at once, and a blow on the ters and Mar in the subsidiary second head from an axe as he was falland third, thus again plainly showing that the title of Mar, as possessed by when the English were

ing. His body was

recovered

driven William Earl of Douglas, was junior to his recently created dignity of back; and, says Mr Fraser, “the Douglas."

scene which followed is one of the

most affecting in the annals of William's successor was the hero chivalry:"of Otterburn, and as he died without legitimate issue, the Earldoms “When asked how he did, the of Mar and Douglas parted com- dying Earl replied, Right evil; yet, pany—the latöer going to Archi- thank God, but few of my ancestors

I am dying, bald, the grim Lord of Galloway. have died in their beds. Earl James was not more than for my heart grows faint, but I pray thirty when he fell, but he had which lyeth near me on the ground;

you to revenge me. Raise my banner crowded many exploits into a

show my state neither to friend nor short life ; and his successful raids foe, lest mine enemies rejoice, and my across the Border excited the en- friends be discomfited."

comes

neither pure nor patriotic. “Hetorians who have referred to this entered,” says Mr. Fraser, « into a subject." solemn agreement with the King of England to be his servant, and This view is strengthened by the to permit the English to pass fact that the Knight's death was through his lands at all times followed by a royal grant of Lidwithout hindrance, in return for desdale to William of Douglas. which he was set at liberty, with To view his character as a whole, a grant of the lands of Liddesdale the " Flower of Chivalry and Hermitage Castle, &c., to be out the least satisfactorily of all held of the English King." But the his generation of Black Douglases. Scotts were rapidly winning back

William soon after fought at the country, and the Knight's Poitiers on the French side, and treasonable plans were held in was knighted by the luckless King check. His death was a sad one, John. He was one of the three · as he was slain by his pupil and great lords selected as hostages for godson, William of Douglas, while King David II., and succeeded in hunting in Ettrick Forest. The having the restoration of his Engold legend assigns jealousy as the lish estates secured to him by the cause of quarrel, and an old ballad treaty between the two countries. supports the story:

At the death of David he stood

in a position to be a formidable “ The Countesse of Douglas out of her opponent to the succession of the boure she came,

Stewart. Wyntown indeed asAnd loudly there did call,

serts that William was preparing It is for the Lord of Liddesdale

to advance his claims, based on an That I let these tears down fall."

alleged descent from the Comyns

and Baliols; but Mr Fraser points But there no Countess of

out so many inconsistencies in the Douglas at that time, and if there chronicler's narrative, that we have is anything in the ballad it must

no hesitation in dismissing the point to a rivalry for Margaret of

statement. If the Douglases did Mar, whom Douglas married a few years after. Fordoun assigns the land, it was after this period, at a

ever aim at royal power in Scotcause of the Knight's death as

time when their rivalry with the revenge for the murders of Sir Crown became more keenly accentAlexander Ramsay and Sir David ed. The Stewart and Douglas had Berkley, and mutual enmities

been in the closest alliance, and stirred up by ambition. The last the latter's accession to the throne suggestion is probably the real was speedily followed by a conmotive, and Mr Fraser thus am

tract of marriage between the heir plifies Fordoun's statement :

of Douglas and the Princess Isa

bel. He continued to be the bul“The probability is, that the true wark of the country against the cause of the deed was that both men English, and his last service was laid claim to the same lands, and that to again clear Liddesdale from Douglas, meeting his rival hunting their occupation. By his marriage and trespassing on his territory, chal with Margaret of Mar he succeeded lenged him, and the Knight was

to that earldom on the death of killed in the encounter. That both Douglas and his kinsman laid claim her brother Thomas, the last male to the same territory has never hitherto of the line of ancient Earls. In been clearly understood by the his- connection with the vexed ques

was

1)

tion about the ranking of that thusiasm of Scottish chivalry, and earldom, it is of interest to quote the deep enmity of “Hotspur, Mr Fraser's remarks with regard who saw his domains ravaged and to the position held by the Earl of his fame eclipsed by the young Douglas :

Earl. An expedition into Eng

land on a grand scale having been " The Earldom of Mar, as possessed organised by the Scottish nobles by Thomas Earl of Mar, was in the in 1388, Douglas harried the countime of King Robert II, the premier earldom of Scotland. The dignity of and then returned to assail New

try up to the walls, Durham, Earl of Douglas was then the most modern dignity with the rank of castle. In a hand-to-hand encounEarl, and William Earl of Douglas ter before the walls, Douglas is was the first Earl of his family, have said to have worsted Hotspur, and ing been created on 26th January to have carried off his pennon. It 1357-58. When he received the con- was when the Scots had broken joined titles of Douglas and Mar on the death of Thomas Earl of Mar, he up the siege, and were encamped had only been sixteen years Earl of at Otterburn, on their way home, Douglas, yet on every occasion his that the famous encounter took title of Douglas is invariably placed place, which is celebrated in the before that of Mar. He styles him- ballad of “ Chevy Chase.” In the self Earl of Douglas and Mar; his night-time Henry and Ralph Percy widow also after his death placed the broke upon the Scottish camp at title of Mar after that of Douglas, Otterburn styling herself Countess of Douglas Douglas had not time to have his

So unexpectedly that and Mar, and the same course was followed in Crown charters by the armour fastened, and the “ Earl of King. The dignity of Earl of Doug. Moray fought all night without las could not have been placed before his helmet.” Douglas was soon in that of Earl of Mar if Earl William the thickest of the fight, armed had been entitled in right of his wife with a mace or battle-axe, “ lyke to be ranked as and to bear the style a hardy Hector,” says Froissart, of the first Earl of the kingdom. Both of the Earls of Douglas and

wyllynge alone to conquer the Mar, William and James, father and

felde, and to dyscomfyte his son, sealed the legal deeds granted by enemyes.” Unrecognised in the them with their armorial seals, having mêlée, he received three spearDouglas in the first and fourth quar- wounds at once, and a blow on the ters and Mar in the subsidiary second head from an axe as he was falland third, thus again plainly showing ing. that the title of Mar, as possessed by when the English were

His body was

recovered

driven William Earl of Douglas, was junior to his recently created' dignity of back; and, says Mr Fraser, “the Douglas."

scene which followed is one of the

most affecting in the annals of William's successor was the hero chivalry:”of Otterburn, and as he died without legitimate issue, the Earldoms " When asked how he did, the of Mar and Douglas parted com- dying Earl replied, Right evil; yet, pany—the latter going to Archi- thank God, but few of my ancestors bald, the grim Lord of Galloway. have died in their beds.

I am dying, Earl James was not

for my heart grows faint, but I pray

more than thirty when he fell, but he had which lyeth near me on the ground;

you to revenge me. Raise my banner crowded many exploits into a

show my state neither to friend nor short life; and his successful raids foe, lest mine enemies rejoice, and my across the Border excited the en- friends be discomfited.”

a

neither pure nor patriotic. “He torians who have referred to this entered,” says Mr. Fraser, “ into a subject.” solemn agreement with the King of England to be his servant, and This view is strengthened by the to permit the English to pass fact that the Knight's death was through his lands at all times followed by a royal grant of Lidwithout hindrance, in return for desdale to William of Douglas. which he was set at liberty, with To view his character as a whole, a grant of the lands of Liddesdale the “ Flower of Chivalry comes and Hermitage Castle, &c., to be out the least satisfactorily of all held of the English King." But the his generation of Black Douglases. Scotts were rapidly winning back William soon after fought at the country, and the Knight's Poitiers on the French side, and treasonable plans were held in was knighted by the luckless King check. His death was a sad one, John. He was one of the three as he was slain by his pupil and great lords selected as hostages for godson, William of Douglas, while King David II., and succeeded in hunting in Ettrick Forest. The having the restoration of his Engold legend assigns jealousy as the lish estates secured to him by the cause of quarrel, and an old ballad treaty between the two countries. supports the story:

At the death of David he stood

in a position to be a formidable “ The Countesse of Douglas out of her opponent to the succession of the boure she came,

Stewart. Wyntown indeed asAnd loudly there did call,

serts that William was preparing It is for the Lord of Liddesdale

to advance his claims, based on an That I let these tears down fall.”

alleged descent from the Comyns

and Baliols; but Mr Fraser points But there was no Countess of Douglas at that time, and if there chronicler's narrative, that we have

out so many inconsistencies in the is anything in the ballad it must

no hesitation in dismissing the point to a rivalry for Margaret of

statement. If the Douglases did Mar, whom Douglas married a few

ever aim at royal power in Scotyears after. Fordoun assigns the land, it was after this period, at a cause of the Knight's death as time when their rivalry with the revenge for the murders of Sir Crown became more keenly accentAlexander Ramsay and Sir David ed. The Stewart and Douglas had Berkley, and mutual enmities

been in the closest alliance, and stirred up by ambition. The last the latter's accession to the throne suggestion is probably the real

was speedily followed by a conmotive, and Mr Fraser thus am

tract of marriage between the heir plifies Fordoun's statement :

of Douglas and the Princess Isa

bel. He continued to be the bul“ The probability is, that the true wark of the country against the cause of the deed was that both men English, and his last service was laid claim to the same lands, and that to again clear Liddesdale from Douglas, meeting his rival hunting their occupation. By his marriage and trespassing on his territory, chal with Margaret of Mar he succeeded lenged him, and the Knight was killed in the encounter. That both to that earldom on the death of Douglas and his kinsman laid claim her brother Thomas, the last male to the same territory has never hitherto of the line of ancient Earls. In been clearly understood by the his- connection with the vexed question about the ranking of that thusiasm of Scottish chivalry, and earldom, it is of interest to quote the deep enmity of “Hotspur," Mr Fraser's remarks with regard who saw his domains ravaged and to the position held by the Earl of his fame eclipsed by the young Douglas :

Earl. An expedition into Eng

land on a grand scale having been “ The Earldom of Mar, as possessed organised by the Scottish nobles by Thomas Earl of Mar, was in the in 1388, Douglas harried the countime of King Robert II, the premier earldom of Scotland. The dignity of and then returned to assail New

try up to the walls, Durham, Earl of Douglas was then the most modern dignity with the rank of castle. In a hand-to-hand encounEarl, and William Earl of Douglas ter before the walls, Douglas is was the first Earl of his family, hav- said to have worsted Hotspur, and ing been created on 26th January to have carried off his pennon. It 1357-58. When he received the con- was when the Scots had broken joined titles of Douglas and Mar on the death of Thomas Earl of Mar, he up the siege, and were encamped had only been sixteen years Earl of at Otterburn, on their way home, Douglas, yet on every occasion his that the famous encounter took title of Douglas is invariably placed place, which is celebrated in the before that of Mar. He styles him- ballad of “ Chevy Chase.” In the self Earl of Douglas and Mar; his night-time Henry and Ralph Percy widow also after his death placed the broke upon the Scottish camp at title of Mar after that of Douglas, Otterburn styling herself Countess of Douglas Douglas had not time to have his

so unexpectedly that and Mar, and the same course was followed in Crown charters by the armour fastened, and the “ Earl of King. The dignity of Earl of Doug Moray fought all night without las could not have been placed before his helmet." Douglas was soon in that of Earl of Mar if Earl William the thickest of the fight, armed had been entitled in right of his wife with a mace or battle-axe, “lyke to be ranked as and to bear the style a hardy Hector,” says Froissart, of the first Earl of the kingdom. Both of the Earls of Douglas and

wyllynge alone to conquer the Mar, William and James, father and felde, and to dyscomfyte his son, sealed the legal deeds granted by enemyes." Unrecognised in the them with their armorial seals, having mêlée, he received three spearDouglas in the first and fourth quar, wounds at once, and a blow on the ters and Mar in the subsidiary second head from an axe as he was fall. and third, thus again plainly showing that the title of Mar, as possessed by when the English were

ing. His body was

recovered

driven William Earl of Douglas, was junior to his recently created dignity of back; and, says Mr Fraser, " the Douglas.

scene which followed is one of the

most affecting in the annals of William's successor was the hero chivalry:”. of Otterburn, and as he died without legitimate issue, the Earldoms “When asked how he did, the of Mar and Douglas parted com- dying Earl replied, Right evil; yet, pany—the latter going to Archi- thank God, but few of my ancestors bald, the grim Lord of Galloway. have died in their beds. I am dying, Earl James was not

for my heart grows faint, but I pray

more than thirty when he fell, but he had which lyeth near me on the ground;

you to revenge me. Raise my banner crowded many exploits into a show my state neither to friend nor short life; and his successful raids foe, lest mine enemies rejoice, and my across the Border excited the en- friends be discomfited."

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