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into seven fields; this does not include house and barn lots. No one can possibly farm to profit and keep his land in good tilth, without a rotation of crops; and by rotation of crops is not meant what politicians mean by rotation of office, i e a rolling out of one office into another; but so adapting the various crops that the land shall either have rest, or so as to foster and restore the elements which the former crop had taken from the soil.
J. Robinson. The number of acres in my home farm is 130 acres. I have under cultivation, by plow, forty acres; in meadow, timothy and red clover, 25 acres; in timothy and blue grass pasture, 10 acres; in apple orchard, 40 acres; in peach or chard, 12 acres; in small fruits, vegetable garden, ornamental trees and house yard, 3 acres My farm is divided in fie ds, as follows: two under plow, one in meadow, two in pasture, one in orchard, and one house, garden and ornamental trees.
JR Tull-There are 320 acres in my farm; 135 in cultivation, the balance in timber or woods pa-ture. The farming land is fenced into six fields, the largest of which contains 35 acres. My crops have been mostly corn; some wheat, oats and buckwheat.
T Gregg-Number of acres, 10.
A. C. Hammond-Number of acres in farm, 150; 50 devoted to horticulture; 50 to grass; 30 to grain, and twenty to woodland.
H. Sodowsky.—I have two farms, containing together 960 acres, in eighteen divisions
W M. Allen-240 acres woodland; 50 acres prairie and timber lying together; 190 acres under cultivation. Land is divided into five fields, besides orchards, etc. Rotation, corn on wheat stubble, wheat on corn, oats stubble or clover.
8 P. Boardman. -My farm proper (not including my timber land, which is separated from it) consists of about 950 acres, of which 640 acres are in tame grass-pasture and meadow-and the remainder under cultivation. I am, however, sowing 160 acres of this latter amount to tame grass, at the time of this writing. My farm is divided into one field of 310, one of 160, one of 150, two of about 120 acres each, and four small fields of from 30 acres to 5 each, used for feed lots. I expect to divide into two fields of equal dimensions, my 310-acre field, which will make as many sub-divisions as I care about, in my present business.
My rotation of crops, in so far as I may be said to have one on a farm which has been "made" from the prairie in ten years, may be called this: to raise not to exceed five crops of grain-of which four shall be corn-on any piece of land, until it is laid down to grass; the grass to be mown a few years, pastured a few more, and then to be broken up for con.
G. W. Vaughan.-520 acres; 400 in cultivation; 40 in wild pasture, and 80 in wild grass. Part of my lands are divided into 40, 80 and 160 acre lots, and the rest in a large inclosure. This is a common practice among farmers here, yet its only recommendation is that it permits the farmer to make his inside fences of hedge I generally put my land in corn for a few years, then in oats and then in wheat, breaking up the stubble after each crop is taken off; then I put in corn again.
S. Betler-Farm of 80 acres; 40 acres in cultivation, and 40 acres in wild pasture. Each 40 is in one field. I have also 40 acres timber, distant one mile and a half.
W. F. Bliss.-320 acres in farm; 175 in cultivation; 40 in wild prairie pasture. To be divided into 8 forty-acre fields, with the following rotation of crops, only partially tried: 1st, wheat; 2d, corn; 3d, oats; 4th, meadow; 5th, meadow; 6th, meadow; 7th, pasture; 8th, pasture; 9th, wheat; 10th, corn; 11th, oats; 12th, meadow; etc.
D. Gove.-My farm contains 650 acres, 570 of which is in the prairie, and in cultivation; 80 acres in timber, which I am having fenced for pasture. The prairie part of the farm is divided into five fields, besides the orchard and timber belts, feed lots, etc. The buildings are very near the centre of the farm, and the arrangement of the fields are such that I can turn stock from the feed lots directly into any one of them, or from one field to another, with convenience. My practice has been not to grow more than two crops of wheat or corn, and only one of oats, without a change; but when in grass I let it lie longer; and especially if it is pastured, as it seems to improve every year as the turf becomes stronger.
J. G Swann-225 acres; in cultivation, 175; woodland pasture, 50 acres. Five fields. Corn, wheat and clover,
E. A. Reihl.-155 acres; about 40 in cultivation.
J. Balsiger.-My farm consists of 160 acres; half of which are under cultivation; the balance in timber land. The rotation, although not always regularly followed, is: corn, oats, wheat, and timothy or clover. I cultivate the first three crops till I think the land needs rest, and then put in the grass for several years. About onethird of my cultivated land is timothy or clover.
J. Y. Bothwell.-Farm of 400 acres; 375 of which is in cultivation; 200 acres timber. Farm divided into 8 fields. Most of the improvements made since 1851.
T. Engelmann. My farm embraces 380 acres; 300 acres of which are in cultivation; about 60 in woodland are used as a wild pasture. There is no permanent division of fields, and no rotation in crops. All suitable land is put in wheat, and many fields have yielded ten or more crops of wheat in succession, without any perceptible deterioration in fertility. Corn is raised only for home consumption.
J. Barber. I have 100 acres, 60 of which are in fruit, the remainder in pasture, meadow, etc.
4. When was your farm first put in cultivation: kind of crops taken off: to what extent does the soil seem exhausted by cultivation: have you used manures, and if so with what results: your experience in deep plowing and its effect on soil and crops: best plows or other implements for breaking up ground?
E. Moss.-1852. Wheat, oats, corn, barley, etc. Soil is strong; have used manure to good effect; consider it valuable. Deep plowing is beneficial.
G. Chaffee.-About 1845.
M. A. McConnell.-Came on the farm in 1837. Have raised all kinds of crops. My farm is as good as when I came on it. I have always used manure and plaster with the best of results. Deep plowing is essential and cannot be dispensed with on a farm.
Asa Baley.-Farm has been under cultivation nine years. Wheat is the principal crop. I have been on the place five years, and have pursued the two years' rotation course, as I have done for thirty years. Under this treatment land wili increase in productiveness at the rate of 100 per cent. in fifteen years, if all is done in the best manner-the hay and straw all returned to the land in the form of manure. So far as my observation goes, land will be reduced 100 per cent. if seven crops of wheat are grown in succession. I consider it of great importance to the farm to keep so
much stock on the farm as will consume all the pasture, hay and straw that is grown on the farm.
H. Pierce.-In cultivation two years in potatoes, corn, beans and garden vegetables. Deep plowing is by all means the best. Fields partially subsoiled will show up to the last furrow. We use the Moline plow of Candie, Swan & Co., with subsoil attachment, when we go below 10 inches in depth. Use three cornered or butterfly harrow.
The scil does not appear
J. Tefft.-In 1842. Corn was the crop mostly raised. to be exhausted, as it is well manured every year. No experience in deep plowing. Manure pays well for labor.
S. Reynolds.-The farm was first put under cultivation in 1845. The principal crops taken off have been corn, wheat and oats. The first crops were much better than they have been of late years. Have tried deep plowing with poor success. Have used annually manure made from 200 sheep, 20 or 30 horned cattle, 10 or 12 horses, and about 25 hogs, with marked success.
J. Schoenleber.-Farm put in cultivation in 1856. Crops mostly corn, some wheat and oats, once rye and barley. Wheat and oats are not as profitable crops as corn; wheat yields best on new ground; corn does just as well grown on land used before for small grains. I only raise wheat and oats sufficient for home consumption. Corn does not do as well in a dry season. I use the manure produced in stable and yard; on rolling land the result is a double yield of corn. By top-dressing the grass I also procure a double yield. I prefer deep plowing, either in a wet or dry season.
C. E. Barney.-Have sometimes made the mistake of plowing too deep, turning up cold and unproductive dirt 12 to 14 inches deep; do not think any soil would be injured by disturbing the subsoil, if not turned up. In naming manure in order of excellence-sheep, hog, cattle, horse. My experience is that horses and colts make the least return, in value to the soil, for the amount of grass they consume. I consider manure most valuable when used as a top dressing; in September for big grass next year, and big corn the second year.
V. Aldrich.-Farm first put in cultivation in 1846, except 40 acres southwest quarter, which was in cultivation when I came here in 1844, and had been several years before. The first crops, for six or eight years, were corn; then wheat, oats, and rye: sometimes rye two or three years in succession, with good results. Rye seems to exhaust the soil least of any small grain. The soil is becoming gradually exhausted, so that now we do not get over three-fourths the amount of grain per acre we did at first.
I have always saved all my manure from yarding stock nights, constantly through the winter season, and feeding in the yard. In so doing, I make from 100 to 150 loads manure annually, which I generally cart out in the fall; October is the best month. The fall rains soak the strength out of it and carry it into the ground, making it more productive of good results than when applied in the spring, and more especially on meadow land. The hay crop can be nearly doubled by using about 20 loads to the acre. If applied too abundantly the grass will lodge or fall down before time to cut. The same effect is produced on small grain. But for corn no one need to fear; it will grow strong and produce in proportion to the quantity of manure. Even the best black prairie soil is wonderfully benefited by manuring for corn crop. I have never practiced deep plowing any more than can be done with a single furrow. I always plow my land as deep as a good team can do it, by taking
a narrower furrow than most persons use. This pulverizes the soil much finer, rendering it capable of better results for any crops. By plowing a little deeper year after year, I believe the soil will wear much longer, with equal productiveness.
The Moline plow has ranked best in this vicinity heretofore, but now others are considered equally good. Some plows will work well run 3 to 4 inches deep; when we come to put them down 6 to 9 inches they will not scour, and are worthless for that use. For plowing 6 or 9 inches deep the furrow should not be cut over 10 inches wide; then it will break fine by turning, and pulverize much better than with a wide furrow.
Have raised corn, wheat, rye
A. Rankin. My farm was first cultivated in 1858. and oats. Perceive no deterioration of ground upon which there has been a proper rotation of crops; but where there has not been rotation, or manure applied, the ground has been exhausted fifty per cent. I have applied barn-yard manure with good results both to stalk, ground and meadow. But I think the best way to improve the land is to manure the meadow by producing a heavy growth of roots, then plow it up. Deep plowing I find very beneficial by subsoiling in the spring, or trench plowing in the fall.
For rough and soddy ground I prefer the Moline plow-John Deere's; but for stubble growth, I prefer the Canton plow.
G. W. Minier.-My farm was put into cultivation, or began to be, sixteen years ago, in the summer of 1852. I have taken from it wheat, corn, hay, oats, potatoes, flax and barley. "Exhaust the soil in Illinois by cultivation !" That's a good one. You may spoil your lands, by a system of land piracy-everlastingly taking away and never restoring-or by a course of always cropping and never letting your land rest. But by true cultivation the land grows better. Annanias and Sapphira were killed for a less crime than some farmers commit every year with impunity. Of course I use manures; and here I would like to write an essay, but have not time. No lands will pay better results from manures than ours in Illinois. No one ever need be afraid of plowing too deeply. "Best plows!" Excuse me, please, from advertising any one's plow. But give me a good plowman, and him I can't just now describe. Permit me to say, however, that in our "learned Institutions!" (Lord have mercy!) after a toil of four years, we dub our young men A. B.; sometimes A. M.; on a little further, M. D. or D. D.; and when the head has become sufficiently bald, then comes L.L. D. And yet, it requires more skill and better training to plow an acre of land, tell its component parts, and the crops best adapted to it, than all the above flummery which we miscall learning.
J. Robinson. This farm was partly put in cultivation in 1842. The crops taken off have been corn, wheat, oats, rye, barley, fruit, and one or two acres of potatoes annually. The soil, where it has been continually in cultivation, appears to be about one-fourth exhausted; but where it has been in pasture or meadow lately, it is about as good as when new. Very little manure has been applied to the soil, but where it has, with good results. I have plowed to the depth of twelve inches to the advantage of both soil and crops. I have used the Michigan subsoil plow to break meadows and blue grass pasture; one man and four horses or mules breaking two acres or more per day. The Peoria plows and a clipper plow manufactured by T. & H. Smith, of Pekin, work very well in all our soils.
J. R. Tull.-I commenced my first improvement in 1837, and was some fifteen years in opening my farm to its present dimensions. My crops have been mostly
wheat and corn.
The soil, where the land is considerably rolling, is very much exhausted; and the best of it is more or less so. I have found that manure, properly applied, is a great benefit. I use all the manure of every description, that I am able to make on the land, and I find that it pays largely. I find that very deep plowing is injurious to my land. A common depth, say 6 to 8 inches, is deep enough. T. Gregg. My first clearing was done in the winter of 1858-59, and two acres planted, chiefly to apples and peaches, the following spring. Since then the whole ten acre block has been brought into cultivation, and chiefly planted to those and other fruits. My mode of planting was to clear the ground, as is usually done in the west, and after as good a plowing as I could give it for the roots and stumps, planted the trees without any deeper cultivation. This slovenly mode I have had great reason to regret, however, and were it to do over again, I would find economy in expending fifty dollars per acre in cultivating twenty inches deep, in preference. Garden vegetables, consisting chiefly of Irish and sweet potatoes, beans, peas, beets, cabbages and sugar cane, have been grown each year among the trees, with good results, Little manure has yet been applied, but can be used to great advantage.
A. C. Hammond. My farm was first put in cultivation about 1845. Hay has been the principal crop taken off The soil seems to be but little exhausted. I have used manure with the very best results. The effect of a few loads spread on a plowed field or meadow can be seen for several years. Have experimented both with the subsoil and trench plow; cannot discover any good resulting from subsoiling, but consider trench-plowing of great benefit. It can be accomplished to the depth of 12 inches, with two strong teams and common plows, one following directly after the other in the bottom of the furrow. It is hard work for both men and teams, and requires considerable patience. I find that the first crop is not usually as good as upou land prepared the ordinary way, but the second and third years the crops are greatly superior.
H. Sodowsky.—My farm was entered abont 1822. I came here in 1840. The crops raised have been corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, buckwheat, etc. When one field needs rest we sow it down in timothy and clover, and turn up some other pasture. We haul all the manure and rubbish from about the barns and cow houses onto the fields, and by so doing, not only keep up our lands, but improve them. My experience is in favor of deep plowing. It enlivens the soil, leaves it in a healthy condition, causing it to retain moisture in a dry season, and in a wet season letting the water below the surface,
W. M. Allen.-The first 40 in 1836. I bought in 1839. The balance by parcels until 1856. Crops have been corn, wheat, oats and Hungarian. Exhaustion not perceivable. Have used m nure for corn and grass with good results. Best plow, Munn & Ellsworth's, Bloomington. Deep plowing indispensable.
8. P. Boardman. My farm has been put in cultivation, in different amounts, in different years, from 1858 up to the last year. Corn has been the principal crop taken off, although some land has been put in wheat, oats, Hungarian, flax and potatoes, from year to year. The greater part of the 150-acre field was broke in June, sowed to wheat in September, and the following year, after harvest, the stubble turned under and sown to timothy by itself, with clover added the following spring The object in view in stocking new ground thus soon, being to get into tame pasture as soon as possible. This stocking does as well, apparently, as if the land had been cropped a few years previous to seeding with tame grass. Of the 640 acres in