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Charles I. King of Sicily. And at the same Every nation in Europe has produced good time it was customary among the Lom poetry before it could boast of being set bards to have epithalamjums sung at their to such music as constituted good melody. weddings. When the family of Gonzaga In an account of Petrarch's coronation reigned at Mantua, in the year 1940, the

we read of two choirs of music, one vocal different princes and nobles of Italy pre the other instrumental, employed in the sented the Gonzaghi with a variety of procession, which sang and played by turns gorgeous vestments, which were afterwards in swect harmony. This certainly implies distributed amongst the musicians and buf- a progress in figurative counterpoint, and foons. An old Italian poet informs us, in singing and playing in concert. Even in the following lines :-

1360, one of the Chronicles of Frankfort Tutte le robe sopra nominate

observes, that music had “ a figurative Furon in tutto trent' otta e trescento,

kind of composition unknown before." A buffune a sonatori donate!

Boccacio survived Petrarch but two “ And all those costly robes of state,

years. His Decamerone has always been “In all three hundred thirty-eight,

regarded as a faithful delineation of the « To fiddlers and buffoons were given !"

manners and customs of Italy in his time. The Italians were the inventors of the Though, like our historical romances, it is madrigal, the etymology of which term has composed of fable and real history, yet it been much disputed; but there is little is a very probable work of imagination. doubt of its having first been used in reli- Truth is never violated by too bigh a cogious poems, addressed to the Blessed Vir- louring, and the music of the Florentines is gin;-alla madre; whence came the word well treated of. We may gather from him madriale and madrigale, being afterwards that besides carols and ballads, the singing applied to short poems of love and gal- of which marked the steps of a dance, there lantry both by the Freuch and Italians, the were in his time songs without dances, and original import has been forgotten. The tunes without songs. most ancient melodies in Italy were all The two chief instruments mentioned in from a collection of spiritual songs.

the Decamerone, which were played on by It was not till near the time of Petrarch ladies and gentlemen, were the late and that poetry seemed to have recovered its viol; on which latter instrument ladies too ancient lustre. A peculiar kind of vocal were often wont to perforin. When commusic was prevalent in his time, but, un pany wanted to dance merely to music that fortunately, none of the original melodies was instrumental, a servant was called in to which his exquisite sonnets were set, to perforin on the bagpipe. have come down to the present period.

(To be continued.)



colouring which might shame the needle At the age of seventy-five this prodigy || or the pencil's skill. The moss, the films, of female genius invented an art which she the farina, every part the most ininute was brought to that perfection which, to use represented with the most astonishing prethe words of the late celebrated Miss Secision, delicacy, and fidelity. Mrs. Delaney ward, “ makes imitation hopeless." Ten had ever been a fine painter ; and versed immense folios were enriched by her hand in the arts of chemistry, she dyed all the with an hundred flowering plants, repre-papers herself from whence she formed this sentiog in cut paper, which was previously her mimic creation : ber writing paper her dyed in various colours, the finest flowers sole material, ber scissors her only instruof our own climate, and, indeed, of every ment. The paper, as we said before, was other, from the best specimens that the completely shaded by herself with every beld, the garden, the green-house, and various tint, and never received any addi. conservatory could furnish; these were all tional touches after the flower was once finished with that truth and brilliancy of cat out; neither did she make any drawing:




the pattern, or rather the original specimen, lay before her, and she cut from the This lady, who lived to a very great eye. The floating grace of the stalks was age, deserves a place here for her inestimawonderful, the flowers, leaves, and buds ble literary talents, and also for her having most elegantly and exquisitely disposed : | been for many years the intimate compathey possessed a fine relief produced by nion and cherished friend of the matchless light and shade, and their rich and na. Richardson, the author of Clarissa and tural appearance was far beyond what the Grandison; and whose friendship for this pencil could ever hope to produce. For amiable woman, of long standing, ceased every reason this extraordinary feinale de- | not till his death. Her poetry had all the serves to be placed amongst the illustrious; neatness, humour, and gaiety of Swift; and and we address this authentic anecdote in her wit and vivacity rendered her society a particular manner to our more mature and conversation a perpetual treat. The feinale readers. It is a fault too much || following anecdote serves to shew that this practised by both sexes to indulge in list- sprightliness attended her through the exJessness and a kind of “ hopeless langour," || treme of old age, almost to her dying hour. at the decline of life. Our energies and On her seventieth birth-day, being very talents were given us to persevere in their . ill with the erypsipilas, or as it is commonly exercise to the end. How many moments called, Saint Anthony's fire, she wrote a of ennui would be spared when the bright | most arch, beautiful little poem, reproachseason of youth is at an end, if women ing the Saint for his very bad taste in in. would render their age interesting and triguing with an old woman. Her death amiable by employing themselves in those | happened in 1793, when full of years and amusements with which elegant accom honour she quitted this world without plishments are so replete. What a lesson either mental or bodily pain. Her letters for exertion of our faculties is this splendid to her illustrious correspondents were, to invention at the advanced age of seventy- the very last, replete with spirit and elofive!




when he discovered in a boy of ten years ABBE LA CAILLE, THE ASTRONOMER. of age, a passion for contemplating the

The father of La Caille was a parish stars at night, he soon decided that the clerk in the country; and at the age of seal of nature had impressed itself on the ten years his father sent him every evening genius of that child; and relieving the pato ring the church bell; but the boy always rent of his (to him) useless son, and the son returned home at a very late hour. His from the unaspiring father, he assisted La father beat him, and still La Caille stayed Caille in his pursuit, and the event coman hour after he had rung the bell. The pletely justified the prediction. father finding something mysterious in this

CURIOUS PARTICULARS OF DR. JOHNson's proceeding, watched him one evening. He saw his son ascend the steeple, ring the bell as usual, and remain there afterwards Mrs. Johnson had a very red face and during an hour. When the child descendo | very indifferent features ; and her manders ed, he trembled exceedingly, and, falling in advanced life, for her children were all on his knees, confessed that the pleasure he grown up when Johnson first saw her, had took in watching the stars from the steeple | an unbecoming excess of girlish levity and was the real cause of detaining him from disgusting affectation. The rustic prettihome. As the father had no notion of ness, and artless manuery of her daughter astronomy, he flogged the boy very se- Lucy, had won Johnson's youthful lieart verely. The youth was found weeping when she was on a visit at the Reverend in the street by a man of science, who, John Hunter's, at Litchfield, in Johnson's





school days. Disgusted by his uusightly | what religion the Chinese profess?"- Mr. form, she had a personal aversion to him, || Griffith replied that it was somewhat difpor could the beautiful verses he addressed | ficult to say; but it seemed a sort of polyto her on receiving from her a sprig of theism. Not seeming to understand the myrtle, teach her to endure him: she, at meaning of this word, spoken in English, length, returned to her parents in Birming- Bertrand remarked—Pluralité de Dieux." ham, and was soon forgotten. Business Ah! pluralité de Dieux," said Bonaparte. taking Johnson to Birmingham, on the “ Do they believe in the immortality of the death of his own father, and calling upon soul?"_" I thiok,” replied Mr. Griffith, bis coy mistress there, he found her father “ they have some idea of a future state."dying. He passed all bis leisure hours at “ Well," said Napoleon, “ when you go Mr. Porter's, attending his sick-bed, and, | home, you must get a good living; I wish in a few months after his death, asked you may be made a prebendary, Sir."Mrs. Johnson's consent to marry the old He then went round to the whole circle, widow. After expressing her surprise and had something obliging to say to every at a request so extraordinary, “ No, Sam, one, and bowed very politely to each of my willing consent you will never have the party as they retired. He was, by no to so preposterous a union. You are not means, so corpulent as he has been repretwenty-five, and she is turned fifty. If she sented. bad any prudence this request had never been made to me. Where are your means of subsistence? Porter has died poor in

At the time when Lee was manager of consequence of his wife's expensive habits. the Edinburgh Theatre, he was determined You have great talents, but, as yet, have to improve upon stage thunder. For this turned them into no profitable channel.”- purpose he procured a quantity of nine“Mother, I have not deceived Mrs. Porter: pound shot, and putting them into a wheelI have told her the worst of me; that I am barrow he affixed thereto a nine-pound of mean extraction ; that I have no money; wheel; this done, ridges were placed at and that I have had an uncle hanged. She the back of the stage, and one of the carreplied, that she valued no one more or less penters was ordered to trundle this wheel. for his descent; that she had no more

barrow, so filled, backwards and forwards money than myself; and that though she over those ridges. The play was Lear, and had not had a relation hanged, she had in the two first efforts the thunder bad a fifty who deserved hanging."

good effect: at length, as the King was braving “ the pelting of the pitiless storm," the thunderer's foot slipped, and down he

came, wheel-barrow and all: the stage Wax Mr. Cooke, who was in the suite being on a declivity, the balls made their of Lord Amherst on his return from China, way towards the orchestra, and meeting was introduced to Napoleon, we asked Mr. | but a feeble resistance from the scene, laid Cooke if he was descended from the cele- || it flat. This storm was more difficult for brated navigator ?_“ You had a Cook,” | Lear to encounter than that tempest of added he,“ who was, indeed, a great man." which he had so loudly complained, the When Dr. Lynn was presented, he asked balls taking every direction. The fiddlers him at what university he had studied ? were alarmed, and hurried out of the orand on being told at Edinburgh, he repeat- || chestra, while, to crown the scene of coned, “Ah! Edinboorg.” He then, after fusion, the sprawling thunderer was disinnumerable questions, asked bim if he || covered lying prostrate, to the great amusebled and gave as much mercury as our St. ment of the audience. Helena Doctors ?

Mr. Griffith, the chaplain to the embassy, was next introduced, whom Bonaparte termed l'aumonier, pronouncing at the same

CAROLINE DE LICHTFIELD." time in English, clair.gee-man.

:-“ Well, A rich widower, of fifty-three, on the Sir," he continued, “ have you found out confines of Germany, respectable in rank







and character, whose children were mar companion for life, whose talents and senried and settled at a distance from him, sibility had produced that work, would read the novel of Caroline de Lichtfield, prove a surer source of happiness to his and felt its influence. Personally unknown remaining years than youth, which, with to the author, he inquired into ber situa-her, was past, than beauty, which she had tion, and found her of acknowledged merit never possessed; and he accordingly mar. and spotless reputation. He had the good ried her. sense to believe that the acquisition of a





them to disappear for ever beneath the MY DEAR Child,- The earth, the sur rounding air, and the unfathomable ocean, The flesh of the hippopotamus is in are all replete with the wonders of creation : // great estimation at the Cape of Good there are animals also partaking of two Hope, and the natives of that place regard natures, inhabiting by turns the land and it as an exquisite dainty: his fat is eagerly the water, and these are, by naturalists, svught after, and is made use of in the termed amphibious. Among these I shall place of butter. commence with those that are, from their The skin of the river horse is used by size and nature, amongst the most stupen- some of the natives of Asia and Africa for dous belonging to this class; and as 1|| shields and bucklers; being so impenecommenced my history of land quadrupeds trable that neither ball nor arrow can with the horse, so, amongst the amphibious, | pierce it. I shall first introduce to your potice


This enormous and voracious animal is THE HIPPOPOTAMUS, OR RIVER HORSE.

found on the shores of the Nile, and other Tuis creature has a great resemblance to great floods in Egypt, in Africa, and in the the horse ; and is found chiefly among the Indies. Its power is equally felt by land floods of Asia and the rivers on the coast and by sea. Urged on by the most impeof Africa : he keeps under water almost rious wants, resulting from its extraordi. the whole of the day, and feeds on fish. At nary size, which is seldom less than twenty night he quits his watery abode, and wan- | feet in length, he devours not only the ders through those fields which are in the larger fishes of the sea, and the cattle on bighest state of cultivation, where he makes the earth, but he is at perpetual war with dreadful havock amongst the rice, the mil- | men, women, and children. Sometimes let, and every kind of vegetable. Timid this animal has been kuown to leap into a to a degree when he is on land, as soon as boat, and carry off one of the passengers he finds himself pursued, notwithstanding without his companions being able to afbis enormous bulk, he does not offer to ford the unhappy wretch the smallest sucdefend himself, but plunges into the bosom cour or consolation. of the waters. There, conscious of that In the mean time there are countries amazing strength with which nature has where this formidable creature is treated endowed him, he is always ready to sustain || with a degree of adoration. On the slave that combat which seems to ensure to bimcoast in Africa, the King of Saba regards victory. If he chance to be wounded, be it as no small proof of his luxury and state, is only the more irritated; he sets up his to have two ponds filled with crocodiles, ears, his eyes become threatening and in- | to whom it is expected divine honours will Alamed, he plunges with fury against the be ascribed; and in the ages of ignorance vessels of his pursuers, sets bis teeth in and superstition the terror that these ani. them, tears out the different pieces of wood | mals inspired caused the people to erect that hold them together, and often causes altars to their worship. The inhabitants

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of the city of Arsinoë, near the lake Mæris, when, in reality, it is very large, more so, paid divine honours always to the croco in proportion, than that of an ox; but, dile; and the following is a brief account from its strong connexion with the sides of their ceremonies : they first bound the of the lower jaw, it seems, as it were, tied crocodile by confining his four feet, and down, so as to be incapable of being then adorned his ears with magnificent stretched forwards, as in other animals. jewels; they then fed him with meat that had been previously consecrated. When the sacred crocodiles died, their asbes were This creature so nearly resembles the collected together, and put iuto an urn, crocodile, that many naturalists seem to which urn was deposited in the sepulchres consider them as one and the same species. of their Kings. And the city of Arsinoë || The leading difference is, that the snout is obtained the honourable title of The City considerably flatter and wider, as well as of the Crocodiles.

more rounded at the extremity. The armour which envelopes the body The largest alligators inhabit the torrid of the crocodile is, to use the words of Dr. zone, though many are found in North Shaw, “the most elaborate piece of na Carolina; aud in Jamaica they have been ture's mechanism;" it is capable of repel

seen above thirty feet in length. They are ling a musket bal). The colour of this ani- || formidable in their appearance, and fierce mal iş of a blackish kind of brown above, and mischievous in their natures. They and a yellowish white beneath; the upper | subsist chiefly on fish; and a kind Provipart of the legs and sides is varied with dence, ever awake for the preservation of deep yellow, tinged in some parts with its creatures, has so constructed this anigreen. The eyes have a transparent mem

mal that it can neither swim nor run any brane, as in birds, which is moveable. The way than strait forward; so that he is mouth is of a prodigious width, and each i utterly unable to catch his prey by pursuit jaw is furnished with very sharp-pointed if obliged to turn round; but nature has teeth ; the number in each jaw is about | gifted bim with a power of deceiving and thirty or more. The legs are short, strong, catching his victims by a peculiar sagacity, and muscular. The fore-legs are five-toed and also in the colour of his body, which and unwebbed; the bind feet have only resembles an old trunk of a tree; and by four toes, which are upited by a strong floating on the surface, and concealing his web. The tail is remarkably long.

head and legs, fish, fowl, turtle, and other When the crocodile is young, it is by no

animals are often swallowed by this vorameans an animal to be dreaded; it is then

cious creature., too weak to injure other animals, but contents itself with fish and other trifling prey.

When I have the pleasure of seeing you In Africa, when it arrives at its full at Beech Farm, I will take you to see the growth and strength, it becomes the most museum that Lady S has collected of formidable inhabitant of the rivers ; lying | natural curiosities for the private amuse

in wait on its bauks, where it attacks dogs | mout of herself and friends; a young alliga. 1 and other laud animals, swallowing them tor stuffed, and in fine preservation, has

instantly, and then plunging into the food. || lately been presented to her by her brother. - The egg of the common crocodile is very He has had much raillery on the occasion little larger than that of a goose : these from your father and uncle; but though it eggs are oumbered among the delicacies of was certainly too large for the little elegant an African table.

articles Lady S.

had collected together, A vulgar error has long prevailed that the bis gest of which is a beautiful gazelle ) the crocodile only moves his upper jaw; | from the Easteru shores, she feels much

but the scientific authors of uatural history | obliged to ber brother, and happy in any bare discovered that the articulations o way to add to her charming collection of each jaw are the same as in other quad- || creation's wouderous works.-Adieu. Your rupeds. Another error has been main affectionate mother, tained, that the crocodile has no tongue,

ANNA. No. 112.-Vol. XVIII.


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