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was

And now,

of storm and tempest has she en down and eat their sandwiches, dured-alone, unshaken. Genera- and the young colts in the field tions of men, in long and vast pro come round and sniff and have to cession, have been born, and lived, be scared away. One or two may and perished, while she has stood pluck a tiny heart's-ease from a there, where first they set her, on bevy of them growing there, and the dreary muirland. Infinite toil then the carriage-load drives off. must it have cost to cut the enor. They have seen the sight, they mous monolith out of the quarry have lunched, and are content. and bring it down the mountain- Twenty or more years ago the side; infinite care and skilled art moss had not been ploughed up, in that rude age to work, in such nor the new road made, and the bold yet finished relief, the hard un- stone still knee - deep in compromising granite--it is coarse heather. Yet even now, alone red-toned granite of Bennachie- in a field hemmed in with comand make it tell the story that all mon life-stared at, desecratedthe coming races of the earth were the impression made by a first to understand and know. The sight of that great melancholy granite and its sculptured story stone is one not to be forgotten. were to last for ever.

A hundred wheels might rattle poor stone! all outworn and crum. past, noisy crowds might surbling, only when the sun shines round it, but the Maiden Stone full upon you an hour after noon of Bennachie would seem to stand day, late in summer, can your for ever as it now is standingcarved images be made out at all rooted in solitude, wrapt round with clearness, and then only by the with silence. transparent lilac shadows of them. Far, far have we wandered from The elephant is there, and the har- the sweet home-walks of Elrick ! poon or scales; there is a mirror and in memory alone their charm and a comb, and over them the may be retraced. Could I but ass-centaur is represented with ac answer when the spirit calls, how tion true to nature and full of would its flowery lanes and footspirit. What avails the labour paths bear again the print of eager and the skill, since now the whole feet ! how would the dreams once is empty of meaning? A large more thicken amongst the green notch in the upper part remains beech leaves and amid the darkness in proof of the legend which tells of the firs, or glow within the fire how the Fiend pursued the Maid of sunset clouds! how would the of Drumdurno farm as she fled to- ear hear with delight the low song wards Pittodrie woods, and clutched of the ousel,-half outsung by the ber shoulder, when on the instant bubbling burn around him,-or she was turned to stone. Men of hearken the harsh cry of some grey science travel long distances to see sea-gull overhead gravely winging the strange thing. Tourists hire to the sea ! Recalling in the fogs carriages and come out from Aber- of London lost joys of sun-bright deen and picnic under its shadow. summers, one forgets that winter The dike has to be scaled ; and reigns supreme, and that the Field while they walk round and scruti- of the Fairies lies flowerless and nise, and are none the wiser, the drear, hid beneath the soft white driver, a little way on, nods asleep winter snow-sheet. on his box. And then they sit

E. V. B

JOHN CABOT: AN ANNIVERSARY STORY.

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own.

WHEN the historian comes to That is a test which, perhaps, be-
write of England in the last ten fore our day was not available. It
years of this century, not the least would be
splendid of his themes will be the to public opinion has followed

wrong to

say

that hither sentiment of Empire which budded where the journalists have led; and flowered in them. The years but certainly there is a mass of of the decade that have still to run journalism to-day which throws its may hold in store for his pen most weight at the bidding of the public momentous events, — peoples and in a manner undreamed of twenty dynasties trembling in the balance years ago, and the shrewdest conof war, or, it may be, the re-parti- ductors of this popular journalism tion of continents accomplished: have been striking the Imperial but still we may be sure this Im- note very loudly of late. perialism will stand out among dences of the sentiment, indeed, them all, conspicuous in his eyes,

are everywhere, -in the talk of Even we who, living in the whirl the man in the street, in the bus, of them, are least able to distin- in the office, in the club, and most guish clearly the signs of the times, of us, no doubt, are conscious of it cannot doubt to what they point chiefly in some uplifting of spirit here. The offer of Australia to within ourselves. aid us with troops at a pinch, and There are many explanations the fiscal action of ever - loyal given for this renascence

. It is Canada, are purple incidents upon accounted a reaction from the the significance of which, indeed, Commercialism which marked the it would be possible to lay too middle of this much stress. More expressive are spirit of war marked the close of the motions towards Federation the previous. With more reason, among the colonies themselves, others see in it, not a reaction and the quickened interest of the from that Commercialism, but, its rulers at home in the Greater evolution, the natural instinct of Britain across the seas : an inter- commercial England, hard pressed est, it is true, that is no more by Continental and Transatlantic than becoming, yet, because of rivals, to turn in the direction previous indifference, not to be where her future superiority must overlooked as a sign. Most sig. lie. Others, again, are content to nificant of all, possibly, is the new trace it to more acute and imawakening of all England's sons to mediate causes : the blustering of see that the seas which separate a cock-a-hoop section in America, them do but bind them closer, and the notorious telegram of the that their concern must ever be for German Emperor-quick-matches, the ships that sail them~"swift at least, to fire the train. And we shuttles of our Empire's loom that may believe that the writings of weave us, main to main.” And Mr Rudyard Kipling are not the there are not wanting evidences expression merely of the Imperial of how close and intimate is this spirit, but partly its inspiration sentiment with the body of the also. All these immediate causes people. There is, for example, the and special manifestations the tendency of popular journalism. historian will marshal in the order

of their true importance, as we emotion, and its reason, though we cannot now; but behind them all cannot share it: and it is only in he must find, ultimate spring of asking ourselves why a man of any this new Imperialism, the old nation, any race, should so glory in

its greatness or even its goodness, singular and intense loyalty which when he has the greatness, the good. is born under the English flag. ness of all humanity to glory in, that

Its singularity and intenseness we are sensible of the limitations of were never discovered so clearly as this out-born Englishman. Possibly in an article in one of the Ameri- when we broke with England we can magazines recently by Mr W. broke more irreparably with tradition

than we imagined, and liberated ourD. Howells. Mr Howells was

selves to a patriotism not less large writing of 'The Seven Seas' by than humanity." Mr Kipling, whom he calls the "Laureate of the Larger England," Here a man of culture and imagand here is what he said :

ination, an American, too,-one

of ourselves we should have said "If Mr Rudyard Kipling should

a century ago, --is brought face remain the chief poet of his race in to face with this English loyalty, his time, his primacy would be the most interesting witness of the im- and it is easy to see that he is perial potentialities of that race in puzzled and distressed by it. If literature

. He was not born English, it were merely Jingoism, he could if that means born in England, but understand it: that is a product the keynote of his latest volume is a of all countries, not least of his patriotism intense beyond anything But Mr Howells is too keen expressed by other English poets. and too honest to miss that it is He is so intense in the English loyalty which always mystifies us

more than that. Coincident with poor Americans, that one ñas a little it at the present moment no doubt difficulty in taking him at his word

are certain incidents, certain disin it. But he is most serious, and in plays of national passion arising the presence of the fact one cannot out of these incidents---Jingoism, help wondering how far the ties of if any one likes; but large sections affection, the sentiment of a merely inherited allegiance, can stretch. If

of the public and the press have we had not snapped them so sum- already condemned these. On the marily a century ago, should we be other hand, this Imperialismglowing and thrilling at the name of

“this feeling of mystical unity," England, which now awakens only a Mr Howells aptly calls it is welcold disgust in us, or at the notion of comed with a wonderful unaniman anthropomorphic majesty, which ity; even the Little Englanders, only makes us smile? One cannot read

a Song of the English in Mr Kip Greater Englanders in spite of ling's new book without thinking we

their creed, pay it tribute. And might, though as it is we read it Mr Howells says that they in without a responsive heart-throb, or

America cannot understand it or any feeling but wonder for its beauty appreciate it. It seems so certain

to him that it must be a limitation “Its patriotism is not love of the in us, that this emotion, so intense

must swamp all other emotions Encompassed by the inviolate seas,'

and that this tradition as he call on the west coast of Europe, but of larger patriotism of humanit

it must blind us, not only to th empire feels its mystical unity in which he speaks of as the sing every latitude and longitude of the charge of America, but to reaso globe. It has its sublimity, that ableness even, and to a humoro

VOL. CLXI.-NO, DCCCCLXXX,

century, as the

and sincerity. little England,

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of their true importance, as we emotion, and its reason, though we cannot now; but behind them all cannot share it: and it is only in he must find, ultimate spring of asking ourselves why a man of any this new Imperialism, the old nation, any race, should so glory in singular and intense loyalty which when he has the greatness, the good

its greatness or even its goodness, is born under the English flag.

ness of all humanity to glory in, that Its singularity and intenseness we are sensible of the limitations of were never discovered so clearly as this out-born Englishman. Possibly in an article in one of the Ameri- when we broke with England we can magazines recently by Mr W. broke more irreparably with tradition D. Howells. Mr Howells was

than we imagined, and liberated our

selves to a patriotism not less large writing of “The Seven Seas' by than humanity." Mr Kipling, whom he calls the “Laureate of the Larger England,” Here a man of culture and imagand here is what he said :

ination, an American, too,-one

of ourselves we should have said “If Mr Rudyard Kipling should a century ago,—is brought face remain the chief poet of his race in to face with this English loyalty, his time, his primacy would be the most interesting witness of the im

and it is easy to see that he is perial potentialities of that race in puzzled and distressed by it. If literature. He was not born English, it were merely Jingoism, he could if that means born in England, but understand it: that is a product the keynote of his latest volume is a of all countries, not least of his patriotism intense beyond anything own. But Mr Howells is too keen expressed by other English poets. and too honest to miss that it is He is so intense in the English loyalty which always mystifies us more than that. Coincident with poor Americans, that one has a little it at the present moment no doubt difficulty in taking him at his word are certain incidents, certain disin it. But he is most serious, and in plays of national passion arising the presence of the fact one cannot out of these incidents—Jingoism, help wondering how far the ties of if any one likes ; but large sections affection, the sentiment of a merely of the public and the press have inherited allegiance, can stretch. If we had not snapped them so sum

already condemned these. On the marily a century ago, should we be other hand, this Imperialismglowing and thrilling at the name of “this feeling of mystical unity," England, which now awakens only a Mr Howells aptly calls it—is welcold disgust in us, or at the notion of comed with a wonderful unaniman anthropomorphic majesty, which ity; even the Little Englanders, only makes us smile? One cannot read ' A Song of the English’in Mr Kip- their creed, pay it tribute. And

Greater Englanders in spite of ling's new book without thinking we might, though as it is we read it Mr Howells says that they in without a responsive heart-throb, or America cannot understand it or any feeling but wonder for its beauty appreciate it. It seems so certain and sincerity.

to him that it must be a limitation “Its patriotism is not love of the in us, that this emotion, so intense, little England,

must swamp all other emotions, * Encompassed by the inviolate seas,'

and that this tradition as he calls

it must blind us, not only to the on the west coast of Europe, but of the great England whose far-strewn larger patriotism of humanity empire feels its mystical unity in which he speaks of as the single every latitude and longitude of the charge of America, but to reasonglobe. It has its sublimity, that ableness even, and to a humorous VOL. CLXI.- NO. DCCCCLXXX.

3 L

consideration of our own position ticular year, and by a happier still and tolerance of that of others. that in this year, four centuries But we know that it is not so. If we were asked to single out a

ago, the same sentiment, though living writer, the intensity of whose its own.

all unconsciously, first came into patriotism drives it into a channel ago, almost to a day, on the 22d

Four hundred years deeper and narrower, perhaps, than of June, when her Majesty will go most of us would care to see our own running in, it would be Mr long reign and the triumphs of it,

to St Paul's to give thanks for her Blackmore. Yet in his story of an expedition sailing from the port Dariel,' running through ‘Maga' of Bristol sighted the continent of now, Sûr Imar gibes the young North America, planted the flag Englishman pleasantly. "In go- of England on the new found ing round the globe so much,” he land, and thus set the first stake says, "you never care about any of the enlarged borders of the race that is beginning to get better. empire whose singular and perYour own, for instance, is nothing fervid loyalty will find expression to you. You can hope for the on that day.

That is a coincibest about them; and believe that dence which gives the Cabot annithe Lord, who governs the earth

versary a wonderful hold

upon

the for the benefit of the British race, imagination. But there is more. will make it all right for the worst For nearly four centuries the of you. Upon that point you have Cabot expedition was wrapped in no misgivings, any more than you mystery : even now few

rays

shine have about any others, when you upon that voyage across the “Sea feel yourself summoned to improve of Darkness.'

Within recent the world.” Of course the novelist years, however, our knowledge of here is putting the appropriate it has become immensely richer thoughts and gibes into the mind through the patient labour and and mouth of his character; but it research of Mr Henry Harrisse, is easy to see, too, that he has a

and many others, the results of kind of proud relish in being able which, with not a little original to acquiesce in the criticism of comment and suggestion, Mr an attitude which nevertheless he Weare has admirably summed up would maintain with an equally in the volume 1 which he has pubproud intensity. It is this that lished on the eve of the anniverMr Howells, and a great many sary.

And this is the chief of more than Mr Howells, do not them. Hitherto the hero of the understand : that the race to whom expedition has been Sebastian, the this intense emotion has been be

Now he is the hero no queathed is not blind to its limita- longer, and John Cabot, the tions, but, while conscious of them, father, is re-established in the not with tongue in cheek, but out honour awarded him by his conof an instinctive wisdom, treasures temporaries, and filched from him

a folly-one of the great by his son. follies from which all that is good The documents which establish and wise proceeds.

the resuscitated title of John It is by a happy chance that Cabot to the discovery of the this sentiment of Empire loyalty continent of North America are comes to full bloom in this par singularly meagre.

which the false title of Sebastian residents and paying their taxes,
Cabot has been based for three or The next notice we have of John
four centuries are scarcely less Cabot occurs twenty years later,
meagre, and in addition they are in a petition, filed by him and his
contradictory and of doubtful three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and
authority. We are not going to Sanctus, and presented to Henry
go through the evidence here, with VII. of England, praying for
à view to arguing the father's case "your gracious letters - patentes
against the son's. That is a maze under your grete seale in due forme
none but the experts can move in to be mayde according to the
freely. John Cabot's claim is set tenour hereafter ensuying.” This
beyond dispute now, and his fame petition is dated, as delivered to
established once for all. The the Chancellor at Westminster to
manner in which this has come be acted upon, March 5, 1496, and
about demands our attention only that is the date of the letterg-
because it enhances the pictur- patent which the king granted to
esqueness of John Cabot's story. the Cabots in answer to it. Now
His

voyage is engaging in itself, the "tenour hereafter ensuying," and the unravelling of the history there is reason to believe, was to of it has something of the fascina- seek out, discover, and find whattion of detective fiction.

soever isles, countries, regions, or The first of the known existing provinces of the heathen and documents throwing light upon infidels, whatsoever they be, and in John Cabot and his expedition is what part of the world soever they found among the State Archives be, which before this time have of Venice. It is an order to been unknown to all Christians." record, under date March 28, The letters-patent, while repeating 1476, the granting of the privilege this, expressly limit the right of of citizenship, within and without, “full and free authority, faculty in favour of John Caboto, in con and power of navigating to all sideration of a residence of fifteen parts, countries, and seas of the years. Further, in the Book of east, west, and north.” The style Privileges, in which are set forth of the petition and the omission of privileges of various kinds granted the seas of the south from the between 1435 and 1562, there is a letters-patent should be kept in list of these grants of citizenship, mind, for they have a bearing on a within and without, in which John later part of our story. On the Cabot's is the thirteenth. In the 10th of August in the

follow case of Cabot the date is not given, ing—that is, in 1497 ---there occurs and his nationality is not stated, an entry, among the Privy Purse as it is in most of the others ; but expenses of Henry VII., of a from the preamble to the list, and gratuity" to bym that founde the from what is known of the con

New Isle.” In a letter written on ditions of naturalisation in Venice the 23d of the same month by at this period, it is clear that the Lorenzo Pasqualigo, a Venetian ir recipients of the grants were not London, to his two brothers in natives of the city, or even of the Venice, it is stated that Joh Duchy, but were aliens, and pos- Cabot, "the Venetian, our Contr sibly inhabitants of the conquered man,” had returned from h territories, who had resided in voyage of three months, in whic Venice for fifteen years, fulfilling he had discovered “the territo during that time all the duties of of the Grand Khan," and h

year

son.

it as

on

Those

1 Cabot's Discovery of North America. By G. E. Weare.

which the false title of Sebastian residents and paying their taxes. Cabot has been based for three or The next notice we have of John four centuries are scarcely less Cabot occurs twenty years later, meagre, and in addition they are in a petition, filed by him and his contradictory and of doubtful three sons, Lewis, Sebastian, and authority. We are not going to Sanctus, and presented to Henry go through the evidence here, with VII. of England, praying for a view to arguing the father's case “your gracious letters - patentes against the son's. That is a maze under your grete seale in due forme none but the experts can move in to be mayde according to the freely. John Cabot's claim is set tenour hereafter ensuying.” This beyond dispute now, and his fame petition is dated, as delivered to established once for all, The the Chancellor at Westminster to manner in which this has come be acted upon, March 5, 1496, and about demands our attention only that is the date of the lettersbecause it enhances the pictur- patent which the king granted to esqueness of John Cabot's story. the Cabots in answer to it. Now His voyage is engaging in itself, the "tenour hereafter ensuying," and the unravelling of the history there is reason to believe, was to of it has something of the fascina- seek out, discover, and find whattion of detective fiction.

soever isles, countries, regions, or The first of the known existing provinces of the heathen and documents throwing light upon infidels, whatsoever they be, and in John Cabot and his expedition is what part of the world soever they found among the State Archives be, which before this time have of Venice. It is an order to been unknown to all Christians." record, under date March 28, The letters-patent, while repeating 1476, the granting of the privilege this, expressly limit the right of of citizenship, within and without, “full and free authority, faculty in favour of John Caboto, in con and power of navigating to all sideration of a residence of fifteen parts, countries, and seas of the years. Further, in the Book of east, west, and north.” The style Privileges, in which are set forth of the petition and the omission of privileges of various kinds granted the seas of the south from the between 1435 and 1562, there is a letters-patent should be kept in list of these grants of citizenship, mind, for they have a bearing on a within and without, in which John later part of our story. On the Cabot's is the thirteenth. In the 10th of August in the year followcase of Cabot the date is not given, ing--that is, in 1497~-there occurs and his nationality is not stated, an entry, among the Privy Purse as it is in most of the others; but expenses of Henry VII., of a from the preamble to the list, and gratuity “to hym that founde the from what is known of the con

New Isle." In a letter written on ditions of naturalisation in Venice the 23d of the same month by at this period, it is clear that the Lorenzo Pasqualigo, a Venetian in recipients of the grants were not London, to his two brothers in natives of the city, or even of the Venice, it is stated that John Duchy, but were aliens, and pos- Cabot, " the Venetian, our Contrysibly inhabitants of the conquered man,'

had

returned from his territories, who had resided in voyage of three months, in which Venice for fifteen years, fulfilling he had discovered “the territory during that time all the duties of of the Grand Khan,” and had

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