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understand, he will continue to It naturally reappeared on the do irreparable mischief.

second reading of this year's bill, We observe, however, that on and was virtually embodied in Mr the first night of the debate the M'Kenna's amendment, on which Opposition felt itself compelled to the main battle was fought. This abandon this particular attack in was defeated after three nights' favour of another in which Mr debate by a majority of 205, when Morley took the lead. They now the bill was read a second time say that the Government never in without a division.

But the Optended at first to do anything for position were clearly reserving their the necessitous board schools, but strength for Committee, and when have been driven to promise it Mr Balfour rose to wind up the by the action of their opponents.

debate he found that he had very Why, on the very first night little to reply to.

little to reply to. As we have had when the subject was introduced occasion to point out before, the -i.e., February 1–Mr Balfour, in sessional debates are now so largely moving the financial resolution, anticipated by the platform oratory stated that the relief of neces- of the autumn that it was hardly sitous board schools was an object possible for any one speaking on to be dealt with at an early date, the principle of the bill to say any. and that if the Opposition allowed thing which has not been said althe present bill to pass without ready in October, November, or any unreasonable delay there would December. be no difficulty in introducing a What lies at the bottom of the further measure this session. If Opposition argument, stripped of such a measure is not introduced, all circumlocution, seems to be the it will be the fault of the Op assumption that what the rates position and not of the Govern are to the board schools the dement. They may make it impos- nominational purse ought to be to sible, and then taunt the Gov the voluntary schools. Even supernment with the consequences. posing that it ought, the fact reThat would be quite of a piece with mains that they are not equally their usual methods. But it is bottomless. Private subscriptions almost incredible that such tactics can never be an equivalent for the should impose on the public after rate to which there is practically no the experience of last session. limit; nor can any possible amount

There is also another kind of of private liberality ever make them misrepresentation to which the so in the vast majority of rural secularists are equally addicted. districts, if indeed in any. The There is a very small minority of argument, therefore, involves the board schools which are neces further assumption that voluntary sitous, and a very small minority schools are to remain permanently of voluntary schools which are inferior to board schools. But not. These two minorities are such was certainly not the intenstudiously selected for contrast, tion of the Act of 1870; nor is the great majority on either side it in accordance with the public being kept carefully in the back- opinion of the present day. It is ground. Then it is said, How in- believed by the majority of the famous to relieve the one and British nation to be a matter of neglect the other! This ingenuous public concern that schools in artifice has been highly successful, which real religious teaching is and Sir William Harcourt made given should be maintained at such great play with it last session. a level of efficiency as to prevent

them from being supplanted by

The survival of the voluntary others in which it is not given. schools depends on their ability If this standard cannot be sus to cope with a competition contained without a further State ducted on unfair conditions, and grant, over and above that which directed to an ulterior object wholly is assigned to the board schools, alien from the original purpose of such grant must be allotted, and if the Legislature. It is from this the present grant now proposed is attempt, in which lies the root of not enough, it must be increased. the so-called disturbance of the This is what the country says. settlement of 1870, but which is This is the voice of that religious in reality a return to it, that the sentiment which has been so gen- voluntary schools desire to be reerally evoked throughout the king lieved, and the board school Radidom by the education controversy, cals refuse to relieve them. It and it is one of which the Gov. matters comparatively little what ernment should rather do every are the respective incomes of the thing to stimulate the growth rival schools. What does matter is, than in any way dishearten or re that both should be equally adequate pulse. They have now the oppor- to the demands made upon them. tunity. Let them only place them It is less the augmentation of their selves at the head of the religious own resources which is essential to movement, and they will never the security of the voluntary schools have reason to repent it.

than the diminution of the presThe board schools have nothing sure put upon them by the board whatever to complain of in the schools and the ever-increasing Government proposals. They have requisitions of the Education Degot all they want. They have an partment. The other side are unlimited fund to draw upon with- doing everything in their power to out troubling the Exchequer; and conceal the real issue from the they have no earthly right to in- public by scattering broadcast terpose between the Government those well-worn commonplaces and the voluntary schools and de- which have done good service in clare that the latter, which are in their day, but are now only empty urgent need of pecuniary assist- anachronisms. They, however, ance, shall receive none unless are the true offenders against others which are in no want of it these time-honoured watch words, receive it also. Yet this is what who are using false weights, and is called equality. If of two given under cover of resisting the form individuals one possesses £5 and of inequality are seeking to perthe other £6, we do not make petuate the substance. their riches equal by giving each The ultimate goal at which they of them £1 more. It would obvi- aim is, however, only too plain. If ously be no advantage to the volun- they can prevent the voluntary tary schools to be treated in an schools from being placed on a analogous fashion. Their absolute more efficient footing, they hope to strength might be increased, but drive them back upon rate aid and their relative weakness would re- popular control, from which it will main. Both board schools and

be an easy step to convert them voluntary schools might be raised into board schools.

Their success, to a higher level, but the distance however, would only be a Pyrrhic between them would be just the victory, and that for two reasons. same.

In the first place, it is calculated

that to substitute board schools for of it. It would be in vain for voluntary schools would cost the them then to try to regain subpublic nearly five millions, instead scribers who had naturally retired of two and a half, annually. In when rate aid was adopted. the second place, universal board There is yet another point to be schools would mean the negation considered ere we can admit that of religious teaching as understood any parallel at all exists between by the people at large. And such voluntary schools and board a system the people of this country schools, whether necessitous or would never consent to support. not. When it was supposed With the disappearance of the vol. twenty - seven

years ago that untary schools would commence voluntary schools would be able the agitation against board schools, to hold their own, primary educawhich in a very short time would tion was something very different follow their victims to the grave. from what it has become since. What would come after it is impos- What the voluntary schools undersible to say. The country, as Mr took to do was to give elementary Balfour said, might possibly toler- education as it was then underate, though he did not think it stood, without any further State would, either the Scotch or the Irish aid. As this elementary education system ; but in default of these bas gradually expanded, the board there was no other plan possible schools have met the growing cost than to keep up voluntary schools by an increasing rate. The one and board schools together, and no has risen in proportion to the other way of doing it than the one other. They have been authorised laid down in the bill.

to pay their additional expenses The friends of voluntary schools out of public money. Thus if who are in favour of rate aid seem they were to receive an never to have considered how it is additional grant because one was to be levied. It must be given by given to the voluntary schools, some local body-either the school they would be paid twice over for board, as originally proposed in Mr the same thing, a result which Forster's bill, or by the town or seems likewise to have escaped the parish council, or by some kindred notice of a good many writers on authority. Is the local body to education. be compelled to give this aid, or Now that the bill is in Oomis it to be at its own discretion? mittee, no time must be lost. If the former, that would be Mr Balfour cannot be too strongly taxation without representation; urged to use all the means at his if the latter, then the rate might disposal for ensuring its being be granted at one time and refused placed on the Statute-book by the at another. It must be either date originally suggested. We compulsory or capricious,-the one hope that it is not yet too late leading directly to popular control, to fulfil those expectations for the other placing the schools in a which the Government themselves position in which they would never are responsible. In an article know their own incomes from year published in 'Maga' last July, to year, and after incurring liabili- under the title of "The Closure ties in reliance on the rate, might and Common-Sense,” we pointed suddenly find themselves deprived out that no false delicacy need

now

1 See speech of Sir Michael Hicks-Beach at Bristol, October 29, 1896. VOL. CLXI.-NO. DCCCCLXXVII.

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them from being supplanted by The survival of the voluntary others in which it is not given. schools depends on their ability If this standard cannot be sus to cope with a competition contained without a further State ducted on unfair conditions, and grant, over and above that which directed to an ulterior object wholly is assigned to the board schools, alien from the original purpose of such grant must be allotted, and if the Legislature. It is from this the present grant now proposed is attempt, in which lies the root of not enough, it must be increased. the so-called disturbance of the This is what the country says. settlement of 1870, but which is This is the voice of that religious in reality a return to it, that the sentiment which has been so gen- voluntary schools desire to be reerally evoked throughout the king lieved, and the board school Radidom by the education controversy,

cals refuse to relieve them. It and it is one of which the Gov. matters comparatively little what ernment should rather do every are the respective incomes of the thing to stimulate the growth rival schools. What does matter is, than in any way dishearten or re that both should be equally adequate pulse. They have now the oppor- to the demands made upon them. tunity. Let them only place them. It is less the augmentation of their selves at the head of the religious own resources which is essential to movement, and they will never the security of the voluntary schools have reason to repent it.

than the diminution of the presThe board schools have nothing sure put upon them by the board whatever to complain of in the schools and the ever-increasing Government proposals. They have requisitions of the Education Degot all they want. They have an partment. The other side are unlimited fund to draw upon with- doing everything in their power to out troubling the Exchequer; and conceal the real issue from the they have no earthly right to in- public by scattering broadcast terpose between the Government those well - worn commonplaces and the voluntary schools and de- which have done good service in clare that the latter, which are in their day, but are now only empty urgent need of pecuniary assist anachronisms. They, however, ance, shall receive none unless are the true offenders against others which are in no want of it these time-honoured watch words, receive it also. Yet this is what who are using false weights, and is called equality. If of two given under cover of resisting the form individuals one possesses £5 and of inequality are seeking to perthe other £6, we do not make petuate the substance. their riches equal by giving each The ultimate goal at which they of them £1 more. It would obvi- aim is, however, only too plain. If ously be no advantage to the volun. they can prevent the voluntary tary schools to be treated in an schools from being placed on a analogous fashion. Their absolute more efficient footing, they hope to strength might be increased, but drive them back upon rate aid and their relative weakness would re- popular control, from which it will main. Both board schools and be an easy step to convert them voluntary schools might be raised into board schools. Toeir success, to a higher level, but the distance however, would only be a Pyrrhic between them would be iust the victory, and that for two reasons. same.

In the first place, it is calculated

that to substitute board schools for of it. It would be in vain for voluntary schools would cost the them then to try to regain subpublic nearly five millions, instead scribers who had naturally retired of two and a half, annually. In when rate aid was adopted. the second place, universal board There is yet another point to be schools would mean the negation considered ere we can admit that of religious teaching as understood any parallel at all exists between by the people at large. And such voluntary

and board a system the people of this country schools, whether necessitous or would never consent to support. not. When it was supposed With the disappearance of the vol- twenty-seven

years ago that untary schools would commence voluntary schools would be able the agitation against board schools, to hold their own, primary educawhich in a very short time would tion was something very different follow their victims to the grave.

from what it has become since. What would come after it is impos- What the voluntary schools undersible to say. The country, as Mr took to do was to give elementary Balfour said, might possibly toler- education as it was then underate, though he did not think it stood, without any further State would, either the Scotch or the Irish aid. As this elementary education system; but in default of these bas gradually expanded, the board there was no other plan possible schools have met the growing cost than to keep up voluntary schools by an increasing rate. The one and board schools together, and no has risen in proportion to the other way of doing it than the one other. They have been authorised laid down in the bill.

to pay their additional expenses The friends of voluntary schools out of public money.

Thus if who are in favour of rate aid seem they were now to receive an never to have considered how it is additional grant because one was to be levied. It must be given by given to the voluntary schools, some local body-either the school they would be paid twice over for board, as originally proposed in Mr the same thing, a result which Forster's bill, or by the town or seems likewise to have escaped the parish council, or by some kindred notice of a good many writers on authority. Is the local body to education. be compelled to give this aid, or Now that the bill is in Comis it to be at its own discretion? mittee, no time must be lost. If the former, that would be Mr Balfour cannot be too strongly taxation without representation; urged to use all the means at his if the latter, then the rate might disposal for ensuring its being be granted at one time and refused placed on the Statute-book by the at another. It must be either date originally suggested. We compulsory or capricious,—the one hope that it is not yet too late leading directly to popular control, to fulfil those expectations for the other placing the schools in a which the Government themselves position in which they would never are responsible. In an article know their own incomes from year published in 'Maga' last July, to year, and after incurring liabili- under the title of “The Closure ties in reliance on the rate, might and Common-Sense,” we pointed suddenly find themselves deprived out that no false delicacy need

1 See speech of Sir Michael Hicks-Beach at Bristol, October 29, 1896. VOL. CLXI.-NO, DCCCCLXXVII.

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