pose an overthrow of the government; or will they try to blow up the island on the same principle which once led, it is said, to a like attempt on St. Helena; and which caused Sampson to pull the tower over his own ears? And then, what are women doing here if there is wrong or danger? Ought they to be found standing there amidst armed men in the wild light and shadow of that cave? Are they waiting to witness scenes of jar and strife? Are they determined on adding to the danger of those who would shelter them even from their very fears? Are they using aright the influence of their grace and beauty by quickening into life the stormy passions of vexed men's minds, and ought they not rather make it the load-star to keep them in the ways of justice, and peace, and household love ?

But there is no time for any more hard questions. The old man rises, and with those tender dark eyes, looks quietly around, as ifto ascertain whether all whom he expected are present. He speaks, and even should you understand modern Portuguese, you will be at a loss to comprehend the patois he uses. You must wait yet a little longer for the solution of the mystery.

There is a slight movement amongst the people when the old man had ceased, followed by a moment's perfect stillness, and broken then, not by any harsh sound, but by the clear soft voice of a woman stealing along that dark vaulted roof, and then rising and leading the voices of all the rest, until there bursts on the

ear of the astonished and delighted British stranger,

"All hail the power of Jesus' name!" Oh, what a surprise; what a beautiful and joyful surprise for him; and what a surprise, too, I have, no doubt, for many who will read these pages, to learn that even here, amongst the natives of Madeira, the Lord hath not left himself without witnesses--that even here there is a little leaven, which shall remain till the whole be leavened.

Prayer followed, then a short earnest exhortation to steadfastness in keeping the faith; and lastly, a second hymn. This time it was a Portuguese composition, and in its wild, unexpected, and plaintive cadences, resembled the hymns which one hears from congregated thousands in the fields in the neighbourhood of Inverness, when the Highlanders come down to the "tables" once in every six months, and sing in their native tongue, during these open-air services, the very same hymns which, hundreds of years ago, might be heard in the dead of night stealing up heavenward from the glens and caves of the mountain fastnesses.

When the service was concluded the people departed, leaving an interval of a few seconds between the exit of each. A parting blessing from the aged elder followed them; and I have no doubt that those who had assembled in fear and trembling, separated in renewed hope and strength, and returned to their homes in the full possession of that peace which "passeth all understanding."


reads now almost as fresh as on the day it appeared. As acted by Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard, it must have been an admirable entertainment.

The gaiety of Ranger starts from the moment the curtain rises. His talk with the servants; his reply to his friend, when he had been up all night:—

BUT in the following month the famous comedy of "The Suspicious Husband" was brought out, and Ranger, one of his most successful and spirited characters was added to Garrick's repertoire. Actor and character were indeed worthy of each other, for nothing can exceed the buoyancy, the unflagging gaiety, the frolicsome abandon of this prince of good-natured rakes. Worked into a novel, it would have been a good and popular character. It is one of the few living comedies, is written "Bel.-Three hours! Why, do you with extraordinary animation, and usually study in such shoes and stockings?

Bellamy; there have I been at it these three "The law is a damnable dry study, Mr. hours; but the wenches will never let me


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His quotation from "my Lord Coke," in a case I read this morning," and his friend's expostulation, "My Lord Coke?" and his answer, "Yes, my Lord Coke;" and the whole kept up in the same tone of abandon, make it a most entertaining production. To the end of his life almost, it was one of Garrick's parts, and would seem to have suited him "to a hair." In the same free key as the "Wonder," and having its window and rope-ladders, and bedchambers, it was yet the work of a beneficed dignitary of the Church, Doctor Hoadly a matter that did not offend the delicacy of the king, who was so delighted with it, that he sent a hundred pounds to the author, and had the play dedicated to himself. Garrick himself wrote prologue and epilogue, the last of which, in the shape of a fable, ended with rather an awkward suggestiveness as to the author of the play-"But here no artifice can hide the ass.' And the jealous growling spirit of the manager, took a general expression, "the manager an owl," to himself.

This excellent piece, besides other examination, drew forth an excellent bit of dramatic criticism from Foote, then playing at Drury-lane, and preparing his "Diversions of the Morning," in which he pronounced it to be the best comedy since Vanburgh's "Provoked Husband." It also brought out a bit of criticism in the odd shape of a farce by Macklin, which lived but one night. In short, the play excited a storm of criticism at the Grecian and other coffee-houses, and was a sensation of the day.

Yet with the prosperity of his season, the manager's behaviour and temper was a little strange. He had a spite to Garrick, and seemed to grudge the success that brought to himself such profit. When the houses were overflowing, he was seen peeping through the curtain at the audience, muttering "Ah, you are there, are

you? Much good may it do you!" One of his pastimes even was to go down upon his knees, and give a burlesque of the curse in Lear, "in Garrick's manner," to the obsequious applause of some dependants. It is said even that he might have readily secured Garrick for many seasons, but that he preferred his dislike to his interest, and let him go without a word.* In May the season closed, with, it is said, receipts to £8,000.†

The title to the Drury Lane patent thus offered to Garrick, can be traced in a few words. Without going back to what might be called the "Black Letter" times of the stage, we may start from the time when it was shared between Colley Cibber, Wilks, and Dogget; a period stretching from about the beginning of William the Third's reign, until George the Second's. Soon Booth the actor took Dogget's place the patent had been just renewed for twenty-one years. Soon came the amateur young manager who purchased the whole of Cibber's share, and half of Booth's for £5,500, an enormous price considering the decay of the property. Later on Giffard purchased Booth's remaining half, and thus at Highmore's break-up in 1733, the proprietors of the patent were Highmore, representing one-half, and the Widow Wilks and Giffard. Fletcher then appeared and purchased the whole for little more than the unlucky Highmore had given for half. ruled a very languishing and distracted kingdom until the year 1743, when his health being impaired by gout, he thought of retiring to France, not however before he had hopelessly involved his property. The patent had been mortgaged for three thousand pounds to Sir Thomas de Lorme and a Mr. Masters; and an unsuspicious Mr. More had been persuaded to advance money for the redemption of the patent, being told that seven thousand pounds would set it free, and took as his security the theatre properties and wardrobe, with title to enjoy all the receipts. But he was presently surprised by seeing in the papers a public notice


The direct contradictions of biographers are curious. Murphy says that Rich desired to re-engage Garrick for another.

+ Davies.

that the patent was to be put up to sale under a decree in Chancery, and he was in this embarrassing position that he might be the owner of a theatre without a patent.

After some negotiations two bankers in the Strand, Green and Amber, into whose house many of the county receivers were in the habit of depositing the land tax, proposed as a scheme to Lacy, whose steadiness and business habits had attracted attention, a sort of partnership on this basis. They were to pay Fleetwood an annuity of six hundred a year; the patent was to be set free, and paid off; More was to let his mortgage lie out at interest, and Lacy's third in the purchase was also to stand over, and be gradually discharged by his share in the profits. To this arrangement everybody agreed.

A couple of years later came a money crisis; the Bank of England rocked and tottered; and the house of Green and Amber, called on suddenly by the Exchequer to pay in some large balance, nearly £20,000, had to stop payment; the theatre had been going from bad to worse; the audiences were growing thin, and the actors receiving no pay, assumed Mrs. Cibber's description of "Lacy's ragged regiment." Still he had struggled and with difficulties closing about him, with his mortgagée actually about to sell the green-room properties, and break up the whole concern, extricated the theatre with surprising skill and readiness. Riddle, a receiver for the county of Bedford, was father-inlaw to Green, and was being made accountable by the Government for the sum lodged with the bankers, which amounted to nearly £20,000. To him Fleetwood proposed that his interest in getting a new patent-the old one, which had but a couple of years to run, being only worth a trifle; and thus enormously increased the value of the security. Riddle at once agreed to so advantageous a proposal; and Lacy having taken steps to apply to the Duke of Grafton, at once thought of Garrick as the best partner he could have in such a speculation. As he was to be for many years the useful friend and assistant of the great actor in managing this great institution, a few words about his history and character would not be out of place, especially as Mrs.

Cibber had just been found in a rather disagreeeble light.

He tried a great

"A man of the name of Lacy," and "this man," as Sir John Hawkins contemptuously called him, was in trade in Norwich, about the year 1722. He belonged to the Irish family of the name; and having met with some misfurtunes in business, he went up to London and joined Rich's corps. He seems to have been a person of steady purpose and good business habits, had a clear head without genius, and, above all, a buoyancy of disposition and purpose not to be checked by reverses. Above all he had character; and the players, in some of their squabbles, had accepted his word as ample security that they were to be paid their claims. He had a rough boisterous manner which commended him to a particular class, and was, perhaps, an earnest of his honesty. many schemes. He joined with Feilding in the unfortunate adventure at the Haymarket, and played the tragedy poet in the drama "Pasquin," which brought about the fatal Licensing Act. This, no doubt, led to his appearance as a lecturer at York Buildings, a natural protest against the persecution which had so injured him; for many of the actors were now wandering about destitute and unable to get their bread. This he called "Peter's visitation." was maliciously said, that his object was to compete with the popularity of Orator Henly's show, but the explanation was, no doubt, what has been given. His strictures, however, as they gave great offence to Sir John Hawkins, from their dealing freely with "the great_officers of state and the clergy," we may assume to have been harmless enough and founded in reason. This entertainment, however, seemed to have come under the power of the Act, and was stopped, which the pompous Tory knight vindictively describes as "he was seized, dealt with as a vagrant, and silenced."


He it was who had started the idea of Ranelagh, that building which, according to Johnson, gave such an


expansion to the human mind." In this enterprise he was badly treated by his partner, but managed to withdraw from it successfully, having sold it at a profit of £4,000, to a

Mr. Burnaby. Finally he was an assistant to Rich, at Covent Garden, when an opening came for the negotiation for Drury-lane.

Lacy was about this time living in Quin-street, Lincoln's Inn Fields, looking about for some new scheme, was "supposed to understand stage management," says Sir John, contemptuously, "and had some friends." An important one was the Duke of Grafton, the Chamberlain, whom he had met out on hunting parties, and used such opportunities as the field opened to him, having always refreshment ready, to ingratiate himself. It was supposed, too, that the Tory sympathies of the Duke leant towards the Irish Lacys. But Garrick, who was beginning to know dukes and lords in plenty, no doubt helped him; and as it is said that Lady Burlington had used her interest with the Devonshires, it is not unlikely that Garrick had already commenced the intimacy that was to end in his marriage. The new patent was readily obtained; and, indeed, it was likely that the authorities would be glad to have one theatre at least which was likely to be well conducted, by steady, respectable, clever men, instead of as hitherto, by adventurers and spendthrifts.

Garrick had three friends, men of business and of substance, who assisted him through the negotiationDraper, the partner of Tonson; Clutterbuck, a mercer; and Doctor Sharpe, who afterwards wrote some Italian travels coloured by the grossest prejudices. On the 9th of April, 1747, an agreement was signed between the two future patentees, on the following terms :

The total present liabilities of the theatre, including the mortgage to Green and Amber, the mortgage to Mr. Meure, arrears due to actors and tradesmen, were set down at twelve thousand pounds. There was besides an annuity of £300 to Cawthorpe, and another of £500 to Fleetwood. Of this twelve thousand Garrick, helped by his friends,* found

eight. Each party was to draw weekly or otherwise, £500 a year as manager, and Garrick was to receive besides £500 a year salary for his acting, but was restrained from playing at any other house except on the terms of dividing profits with his fellow manager. By thus putting more money into the adventure and receiving more out of it, the greater weight and interest came to him. On the whole it was a fortunate investment for his money. Rarely, indeed, have the functions of a popular and "drawing" actor, and that of a skilful manager been so fortunately united.


With the new season, and the new management there was to set in a hopeful era for the drama. At Drury Lane was to come the reign of judg ment, sense, fine acting, lavish yet judicious outlay, excellent yet not sensational" attraction, and skilful management; and on these characteristics was to follow prosperity. And not only financial prosperity; but almost at once came a sudden elevation of the social status with which the drama was to be recognised. It rose into respect and consideration. The other theatres shared in the general "rehabilitation;" and he would have been a bold magistrate who would have now dealt with a manager of Drury Lane or Covent Garden a common rogue or vagabond.”

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On these principles the new managers went vigorously and at once to work. They were determined to get together the best company in England;" and by the middle of July were busy remodelling the house. They shared the labour between them-Garrick undertaking the intellectual duties, engagement of actors, selection of plays, &c.; Lacy looking after the theatre, scenes, wardrobe, and expenses. And through all their long connexion they seem each to have kept within the domain they had marked out, and to have discharged their separate parts with an exceptional harmony.

The interior of the theatre, as laid

"I have a great stake, Mr. Pritchard, and must endeavour to secure my property and my friends' to the best of my judgment."-Letter to Pritchard, "Garrick Correspondence," vol. i, 54.

This is on Davies' authority, for the agreement makes no mention of the contribution of each party.

out by Wren, had one remarkable feature. The stage projected forward by many feet, in a sort of oval, into the body of the house, and followed the semicircular shape of the benches of the pit. The actors made the entrance through doors which were down near to the audience. Thus there was one more side-scene necessary. The player was thus in the middle of the house, every whisper and play of expression was perceptible, every rich or fine coloured habit had a more lively lustre, and the stage had a greater depth. Cibber looked fondly back to this arrangement, and reasonably, for it would be in favour with the old school of declamatory actors, who would wish their measured utterance and mouthings to be heard and seen to the best advantage. But it obviously interfered with stage illusion and abridged the space for the audience. Very soon, a little after the commencement of the century, alterations were made, the stage was shortened and thrown back, and for the first doors, where the actors entered, stage boxes were substituted. By this alteration the house was made to hold "ten pounds" more than it did before.

By July the managers were "in the midst of bricks and mortar," and Lacy was busy making new approaches to the house, altering it internally, painting and decorating, By fresh arrangements they contrived to increase the paying accommodation by forty pounds a night. Thus the very first step of Garrick in his adventure was marked by that sound thought and profit which attended all his actions. He himself had gone down to his family at Lichfield, had found damp sheets at Coventry, and had to be bled. He was fast enlisting recruits; and it is characteristic that at the earliest moment he found on his hands, he used it to the service of all his friends. Barry, growing in prosperity, already pronounced supenor to Garrick in many favourite parts, he retained at his house.

Mrs. Cibber, his friend and correspondent, was of course engaged. Indeed it was whispered that the manager's favour was to place her in every leading part. This rumour even reached Bristol and brought up a petulant remonstrance from the Pritchards, husband and wife, and thus early gave Garrick his first managerial experience of the morbid sensitiveness of actors. A protest he answered in the good generous and reasoning way which afterwards became almost habitual with him in dealing with such wounded sensibilities. He showed him temperately that it was the proprietors' interest that Mrs. Pritchard should have her proper place at the theatre, and not be sacrified to the empire of "any haughty woman." An expression that seems to hint that there was a coldness between the former friends. Perhaps Mrs. Cibber was offended that her advances and advice as to the patent were passed over. And having reassured these jealous souls, he gave them the best proof of his regard by making their son treasurer to the theatre.

He also engaged Macklin and his wife. A man who, under a fancied sense of gross injury, had attacked Garrick with both tongue and pen.

It is amusing to read Macklin's biographer on this act of Garrick's, which, even if it were an act of atonement, had a certain graciousness. "Although Mr. Macklin," he says, "had just cause to remember the cruel treatment he had formerly experienced at the hands of Mr. Garrick, yet the nobleness and generosity of his mind prompted him now to dismiss it totally from his recollection." This is exquisite. Kitty Clive, Peg" Woffington, Delane, Havard, Sparks, Yates, and Woodward, who was to join after a Dublin engagement was concluded, all made up a company that was not merely strong, but brilliant. Quin alone, still morose and aggrieved, refused an engagement and retired to Bath.+


* Her Majesty's Theatre is constructed on this principle.

Later when he wished to join Rich's company, his curt application is well known:— "Dear sir, I am at Bath. Yours, JAMES QUIN." And the answer as curt:-" Stay there and be dd. Yours, JOHN Rich."

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