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in Ireland; Proceedings of the Govern-
ment; Difficulty in obtaining Information;
how Evidence arose; Stephens's Share in
the Plan; the Arrest and Escape of
Stephens; his personal history: Phoenix-
ism; the Burial of M'Manus in Dublin;
the Trials at the Special Commission and
their Results, 464-480.
Folk-Books of France, The: The Parables
of Father Boneventure; Cures by
Charms; Specimens of Bad Confessions;
Our Lady of Liesse; Legend of St.
Hubert; the Dance of Death; Complete
Letter-Writers; the Science of Slang;
Romances, Novels, and Stories, 243.
Garrick-Part II., 85. Part III., 274.
Part IV., 384.

Girl's Resolve, A: A Sonnet by Minna
Mabel Collins, 97.

Glastonbury Abbey, Past and Present:
Part I., The Rise of the Benedictines,
24; Part II., From Augustine to Dun-
stan, 151; Part III., From Dunstan to
the Norman Conquest, 403; The Saxons,
643.

Irish Folk-Books of the Last Century: The
Battle of Aughrim; The New History
of the Trojan Wars, and Troy's Destruc-
tion; The Irish Rogues and Rapparees,
532.

Imposture and Credulity, 218.

Laws of the Ancient Irish, 3.
Le Monde des Coquins-The World of
Rogues; Causes of Crime, assumed and
real; Economy of the Kingdom of Scoun-
drels; Statistics of Crime in France;
Phrenology in the Prison; Heideker,
the Man-Lion; Thieves' Argot; Odious
Comparisons; Dens of the Ancient
Thieves, 363-373.

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Moderate Party in Ireland, The, 116.
NUMBER FIVE, BROOKE-STREET: By the
Author of Bella Donna,"
66 Never For-
gotten." Chaps. III., IV., The Valley,
16; Chap. V., Lord John; Chap. VI.,
In the Library, "The Short Way;"
Chap. VII., Lord John and Mrs. Lepell;
Chap. VIII., The Drive, 174 184;
Chap. IX., Plans for the Night, 285;
Chap. X., The Charades, 396; Chap.
XI., The Charades, continued; Chap.
XII., An Arrival; Chap. XIII., The
New Guests; Chap. XIV., A Busy Day;
Chap. XV., An Explosion, 635.
NOT WISELY, BUT TOO WELL: A Tale.
Chaps. XX. to XXIII., 44 to 63; Chaps.
XXIV., XXV., 140; Chap. XXVI.,
260; Chap. XXVII., 373; Chap.,
XXVIII.,497; Chaps. XXIX. to XXXI.,

681.

Opening Session, The :-The Origin of the
Reform Bill; Estimate of Lord Russell's
Government; Position of National Church
in Ireland; "Top-heavy" from Excess
of Dignities; The Middle Party-235.
Out-door Spectacles of Old Paris, The ;
Doings of the Confraternities; The Rise
and Fall of the Confraternity of the
Passion; The Three Kings of the Old
Farceurs and their Successors; Charla-
tans and Operators; A Word about the
Dentists; Latter-day Parades; Per-
formers on the Rope; The Old Fairs-
123-139.

Paris, Streets of, and Their Traditions:-
Lament for the Levelled Houses of Paris;
Montmartre; The Conspiracy of the
Quai de Chaillot; The King of Rome's
Court Palace; La Palais de La Legion
D'Honneur; The Archæology of the
Paris Rat; Le Cafe de la Regence;
Legendary Paris; The Author of the
Paris Chronicles and Legends-483-497.
Percy Bysshe Shelley-his Life and Char-
acter, 292.
"Phoenixism" in Ireland in 1859, History
of, 464

POETRY:-Beatrice-a Verse Drama, 113;
Oak Leaves and Mould, II., 593; A
Charing-Cross Cigar, 463; The Frank-
enstein Picture, 234; A Girl's Resolve,
97; Sonnet, 642; The Cancioneros, Carols
from; by Denis Florence MacCarthy, 697.
Reform Bill of 1866, The Political
Essay; Apathy of the Country; Mr.
Gladstone's Position; the Palmerston-
ian Influence, 597.

-

Rinderpest in England, The; Ancient
Cattle Diseases; the Cattle Disease of
1744; Extraordinary Methods of Cure;
the Measures of the Government; Iden-
tity of the Form of Disease then wit-
nessed to that of the year 1866; the
Measures of the French and other
Governments, 350-360.

Rise and Progress of Fenianism, 464.
The Frankenstein Picture. By Mortimer
Collins, 234.

Three Cynical Spectators: Part I.-Gul-
liver, Candide, Teufelsdröckh, 64. Part
II., 184.

Tinted Sketches in Madeira-the Flight to
the Mount; the Festival; the First
Evening of the Feast, and the Last; the
Cave, 75.

Transition Age from Cæsar to Christ,
Scenes in; Rome-a Plebeian Street;
Flidais and Siorna; Locusta's Present,
324; Sabina Poppæa's Dressing-room;
the Agapa; Rome, 543; continued, 665.

Oak Leaves and Mould: No. II. By Vines and Wines, 458
Thomas Irwin; 593.

Wild Geese on the Wing, The, 273.

DUBLIN: Printed by ALEXANDER THOM, 87 & 88, Abbey-street.

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COMPARATIVELY little can be learned of the ordinary life of a people from their legendary and poetic remains read even as a gloss upon their history. Taking Keating as our guide to the romantic annals of the Irish Gael, and the Ossianic and other legendary remains as to their manners, and customs, and character, we should be tempted to say that the ancient jurisprudence of Ireland must have consisted of very few and simple rules, and that these were executed by the armed retainers of the kings or chiefs. With these guides we should arrive at the following simple system of political and legal economy. The ArdRigh (High King) had Meath, or a portion taken from each of the four provinces, for his private property, and eked out his income by tributes received from the four provincial kings. He had but a small standing army, and if any of his four crowned vassals proved contumacious, he called on one or more of the others to help in bringing the stubborn chief to a sense of his duty. These campaigns were generally short. If the monarch was defeated, he generally lost life and crown together-and all was decided in one hand-to-hand fight. The supreme king at Tara might, through his brehons, settle disputes between his Meath farmers and graziers, and receive the tribute collected at the great fairs held in his own territory; but he never interfered in the private provincial concerns.

VOL, LXVII.-NO. CCCXCVII.

The King of Leinster kept matters quiet if he could among his own chieftains, and if one of them acted unjustly toward his bordering neighbour, and would not make condign satisfaction, his dun (palatial fortress) was beset by his insulted king, assisted by the wronged chief, and as many others as could be induced to afford a few days campaigning. The provincial king had his own district of arable and grazing land like the Ard-Righ, and his chiefs yearly contributed certain offerings in the guise of rich cloaks, offensive arms, coats of mail, and helmets-the only defensive arms in use, cattle, and male and female slaves.

He settled all civil matters between his farmers and graziers through the medium of a lawyer, who also acted as judge. Each chief superintended the internal concerns of his estate or chieftaincy in the same way. Such is the vague outline derivable from the sources we have described.

There is some general correctness in this sketch, but there must be taken along with it a complex network of laws by which social order was maintained as effectually as the incursive character of chiefs and kings would suffer. The king had his chief brehon (judge), assisted by poets (fileadhs) and lawyers (ollamhs), who settled all matters within the central province, and decided on the mutual obligations of the four provincial kings toward each

1*

other, as also on their respective obligations to the Ard-Righ. Every king had his chief brehon and assistants, similar to those of the Court at Tara, and these regulated the general affairs of the province, deciding matters of dispute between the chiefs, or between a chief and the farmers or graziers of a neighbouring chief. Every chief's rath had one lawyer at least to settle matters between the dependants or the duine uasals (gentlemen) of the family.

Any near relative of the chief was eligible for succession, on the death of the living ruler. If there was a son in the case, of full age and approved wisdom and valour, he was generally selected. The chief's brother would have the next claim, and after him the most capable relative in war and council. The election being made during the life of the chieftain, the change at his death was generally unattended with any disturbance. There was, indeed, some trouble in adjusting the property, and making a new division of the lands when a mere relative assumed the toparchy, but the brehon and his brothers were at hand, with a full command of precedents to make an equitable division.

Now, these brehons, from the highest at Tara to the simple adviser of a chief, devoted their whole lives to the study of the law. When the sons of Milidh gained possession of the country, Amergin, the poet and lawyer, issued the general body of these political and social regulations in verse; having, probably, himself received the principles of the code in the same shape. These verse summaries of the laws were received with the greatest respect; and succeeding lawyers made it their business to commit them to memory, or to such writing as they possessed. There was no such system extant as that of yearly meetings for the abrogation of obsolete laws or the enacting of new ones. Nearly the same principles of government and the same frame-work of society lasted for probably twelve hundred years. The kings and brehons met, indeed, once in three years, but not to tamper with the body of the common law, and the brehons continued to repeat the old formulas, and to cite

precedents; and as the regulations observed in the different provinces had a common origin, all were pervaded by one general spirit, slightly modified by local circumstances. Those of the body acting as judges received the eleventh part of the property in litigation, as fee.

Superficial or prejudiced readers of ancient Irish history judge from the many battles that were fought, and the general rule of so many succeeding to the kings whom their own hands had slain, that there was no such thing as a settled state of peaceful society. However, by dividing the number of years over which these violences are spread, by the number of battles recorded in them, they will find many years' quiet for every few days' trouble. The greater number of the conflicts were between one or other of the provincial kings and the Ard-Righ for the sovereignty of the island, and the warfare was ended by one decisive battle. All the forces that could be collected by the two adverse kings stood then and there in face of each other, and whichever saw the day decided-by going against him, rather than live captive or vassal to his opponent, rushed into the thick of his foemen, and sold his life as dearly as he could. No more blood was shed; the victor resumed or assumed the sceptre at Tara, and peace prevailed till some other aspirant took it into his head to strike a bold stroke for supreme mastery.

Meanwhile there was no change in the policy or jurisprudence of the country. The brehons preserved the body of the laws as they had received them, at first in a poetic shape, and later, in a mixed vehicle of prose and poetry, even as the Ossianic legends of latter times, which, passing through the minds of degenerate story-tellers, lost their poetic form, with the exceptions of some quatrains here and there, which, from some peculiar excellence, fastened themselves strongly on the memory.

The body of ancient laws, slightly modified and abridged in the fifth century of our era, and remaining in full force in parts of Ireland till the close of the sixteenth century, was constructed with the utmost care, and adapted to the needs of a people highly civilized, and apparently satisfied with their rulers and with the

regulations of their social state. Under the graziers. and farmers we find the class of free labourers, and also of those of conquered lands, who in that case became serfs. The laws took cognizance of the relations of all these ranks-chiefs, gentlemen of the chiefs' families, renters of lands, peasants, and serfs-and made such distinctions in the circumstances of every injury or offence, that an indifferent examiner of the code would say it was better adapted to the requirements of a highly civilized people, thickly scattered over the country, rather captious, and vigilant against trespass or imposition, than of a warlike people, all of whom that did not profess arms tilled the ground, fed herds and flocks, worked in metals, and wove fabrics.

Great care was taken to preserve the distinction of the different grades. The laws even condescended to set out what should compose the furniture of a chieftainess's work-box in the way of silk threads, bodkins, needles, &c., and to prescribe the fewer and less costly articles permitted to the farmer's or grazier's wife. Above all it was careful to mark every individual's "honour price," that is, the value of his ransom if taken prisoner, or of the "eric," or compensation, which his slayer should pay his family-unless his death occurred in open warfare. The laws were even so bold as to indicate the crimes or defects which would incapacitate a king from reigning, or (when Christianity was established) what should degrade a bishop.

publication, Irish and English, of the first volume of the complete issue of the Ancient Gaelic Code.*

the world at that time.

The cause

"The Senchus was composed in the time of Laeghaire (pr. Laeré) son of Niall, King of Erin; and Theodosius was monarch of of the Senchus having been composed was this. Patrick came to Ireland to baptize, and to disseminate religion among the Gaeidhil, i.e., in the ninth year of Theodosius, and in the fourth year of the reign of Laeghaire, son of Niall, King of Erin.

"Laeghaire ordered his people to kill a man of Patrick's people, and agreed to give his own award to the person who should kill the man, that he might discover whether he (Patrick) would grant forgiveLaeghaire, then in captivity in the hands of ness for it. And Nuada Derg, brother of Laeghaire, said that if he were released, and

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got other rewards he would kill one of
Patrick's people.
He was released
from captivity, and he took his lance at
once and went towards the clerics, and
hurled the lance at them, and slew Odhran,
Patrick's charioteer.

"The Lord ordered Patrick to obtain

judgment for his servant who had been choice of the Brehons of Erin (for judge, to killed, and told him that he should get his wit). And the choice he made was to go according to the judgment of the royal poet of the island of Erin, viz., Dubhthach Mac Ua Lugair, who was a vessel full of the grace of the Holy Ghost.. And this thing was grievous to Dubhthach, and he said, "It is severe in thee, O cleric, to say this to me. It is irksome to me to be in this cause be

tween God and man.

eric fine is to be paid, and that it is to be If I say that avenged, it will not be good, for what thou hast brought with thee into Erin is the judgment of the Gospel, i.e., perfect for giveness of every evil by each neighbour to the other. What was in Erin before thee was the judgment of the law, i.e., retaliation: a foot for a foot, an eye for an eye, and life for life.' 'Well then,' said Patrick, what God will give for utterance, say it.'

The modification in the statutes effected at the advent of Christianity was thus brought about, and is here given from the introduction to the great body of the laws which then christianized, as it were, continued in full force in all parts of the country not under the control of Danes or Patrick praying for Dubhthach, Normans for twelve hundred years. and blessing his mouth, he uttered a This we are enabled to do by the long poetical discourse in which

Ancient Laws of Ireland-Senchur Mon. Introduction to SENCHUS MOR and Athgabail or Law of Distress, as contained in the Harleian manuscripts. Published under the direction of the Commissioners for publishing the Antient Laws and Institutes of Ireland. Dublin: Alexander Thom; Hodges and Smith. London: Longman and Co.

Laeré was not well affected to the new religion, and as he supposed that the saint would naturally seek justice on the murderer, he hoped thus to affix a brand of severity to his character, and render his preaching of no effect.

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"He who lets a criminal escape is himself a culprit."

He decreed that Nuadh should be put to death, prophecying at the same time that he would die in a spirit of true repentance, and should obtain salvation. A conference was then held, and Laeghaire said

"It is necessary for you, O men of Erin, that every other law should be settled as well as this. It is better to do so,' said Patrick. It was then that all the professors of the sciences in Erin were assembled, and each of them exhibited his art before Patrick in the presence of every chief in

Erin.

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"What did not clash with the Word of God in the Written Law, and in the New Testament, and with the consciences of the believers, was confirmed in the laws of the Brehons by Patrick, and by the ecclesiastics, and by the chieftains of Erin. And this is the Senchus Mor.

"Nine persons were appointed to arrange this book, viz., Patrick, and Benin, and Cairnech, three bishops; Laeghaire, and Corc, and Daire, three kings; Rossa, i.e., MacTrechim, and Dubhthach, i.e., a doctor of the Berla Feine,* and Fergus, ie., a poet.

"Norr (Nofis) therefore is the name of this book which they arranged, i.e., 'the knowledge of nine persons,' and we have the proof of this above.

"This is the Cain Patraic, and no hu

man Brehon of the Gaël is able to abro

gate any thing that is found in the Senchus

Mor."

It will be recollected that the above quotations are from the introduction

to the body of laws. This introduction is not so old (though very ancient) as the compilation itself, but is more interesting to the general reader, as it is intelligible, which is more than can be said of some portions of the "Law of Distress" for debt or damage, the chief subject of the volume.

The author of this part of the work, tells us that before the coming of Patrick, only three classes of persons were allowed to speak in public in Erin, viz., a chronicler to relate events and tell stories, a poet to eulogize and satirize, and a Brehon to pass sentence from the precedents and commentaries. From the time of Amergin mentioned above, the poets were the deciders of cases till a certain contention arose at Emania, between Feirchertne and Neidhe for the sage's Neidhe's father, whose office had begown of come vacant by his death. So transcendental was the language used on that occasion by the poetic arbiters that the chieftains were not certain what award they had made.

"These men,' said the chieftains, 'have their judgments and their knowledge to themselves. We do not in the first place understand what they say.' 'It is evidently the case,' said Conchobar (King Connor). All shall partake in it from this day forth, but the part of it which is fit for these poets shall not be taken from them; each shall have his share of it.'"

Besides reducing the poets' privileges within proper limits, King Connor's parliament (say in the first years of the Christian era) settled on the just number of breathings (about eighteen to the minute) that should be allowed to each pleader at a time. The ancients were not without some mother wit of their own.

As there was no absolute necessity for paid advocates, and as there seems hon's decision, bribery to the judge to have been no appeal from the Bremight have been more than a suspicion in some cases. However, those Brehons, not naturally upright, were kept in wholesome awe of doing injustice by a few traditional examples

The most ancient form of Irish.

t Patrick's Law.

The fortress of the King of Ulster. Some traces of it are still visible. Armagh was built in its neighbourhood.

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