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tinued to the end of his life. His first work, published in 1715, was entitled Supremacy of God the Father Vindicated. Besides this, he wrote a multitude of treatises on other religious subjects. Among these may be mentioned: A Discourse on Reason, as a sufficient Guide in matters of Religion; Ön Sincerity; On Future Judgment and Eternal Punishment; Inquiry about Inspiration of the New Testament; and Doctrine of Vicarious Suffering and Intercession Refuted. C. died in 1746.
CHUCK-WILL'S-WIDOW, Antrostomus Carolinensis, a bird of the goatsucker family (ca primulgidæ), a native of the southern parts of the Únited States. It has received its singular name from its pote, which resembles these words or syllables articulated with great distinctness, and is repeated like that of the cuckoo, or of its own congener, the whip-poor-will (q.v.).
CHUCUI'TO, or CHUQUITO, a t. of Bolivia, in the department of Puno, and 100 m. e.n.e. of Arequipa, on the w. shore of lake Titicaca, at the mouth of a stream flowing from the Andes. It was formerly of much greater size and importance than it is at present, having had, it is said, at the beginning of the 18th c., the incredible number of 300,000 inhabitants. Its present pop. is only about 5,000. In the province of the same name, of which it is the capital, there are mines of silver and gold, and interesting antiquarian remains.
CHU-LAN. See CALORANTHACEÆ.
CHUMBUL', a river rising in the Vindhyan mountains, which form the southern limit of the basin of the Ganges. Its source, at á height of 2,019 ft. above the sea, is in lat. 22° 26' n., and long. 75° 45' east. During a generally n.e. course of 570 m., it receives many tributaries on both sides, till, in lat. 26° 30' n., and long. 79° 19' e., it enters the Jumna from the right, with such a volume of water, that, when itself flooded, it has been known to raise the united stream 7 or 8 ft. in twelve hours. The C, is remarkable, here and there, for the wildness of its current and the picturesque character of its banks.
CHUNAM', the Indian name for a very fine kind of quicklime made from calcined shells or from very pure limestone, and used for chewing with betel (q.v.), and for plaster. Both recent and fossil shells are used for making chunam. Extensive beds of fossil shells employed for this purpose occur in the s. of India, particularly in low marshy situations near the sea-coast. The shells used are in the first place very carefully cleaned; they are then calcined in kilns, with wood charcoal. When chunam is to be used for plaster, it is mixed with fine river-sand, and thoroughly beaten up with water. A little jaggery (coarse sugar) is also added. When very beautiful work is desired, three coats of chunam are given to the wall, and the result is a plaster almost equal to marble in its polish and beauty. The third coat is applied in the form of a very fine paste, consisting of four parts of lime and one of fine white sand, beaten up with whites of eggs, sour-milk, and ghee (butter). After it has been rubbed on with a wooden rubber, the surface is washed with a cream of pure lime, and is rubbed with a polished piece of quartz or rock crystal. During this process, the wall is sprinkled with powder of pot-stone, and the rubbing is continued until the wall is quite dry, every trace of moisture being finally removed by a cloth. Chunam is an important article of trade in India.
CHUNARGURH', or CHUNAR, a fortified t. on the right bank of the Ganges, 16 m. to the s. w. of Benares, and in the division of that name. It is in the district of Mirzapore, and lieutenant-governorship of the north-west provinces. The population of the town in 1871 amounted to 10,154. The fortress, which occupies the summit of a sandstone rock, contains the commandant's house, the hospital, the prison, and an ancient palace, with a deeply excavated well of indifferent water. The river in front is navi. gable at all seasons for vessels of from 50 to 60 tons.
CHUND, or CHAND, a Hindu writer of the 12th c., court poet to the last of the Hindu sovereigns of Delhi. He wrote in verse an immense encyclopædic work, including a history, and especially an account of the exploits of the author and of his master.
CHUPRA, a t. in India, in the province of Behar, Bengal, on the n. bank of the Ganges, 35 m. n.w. of Patna. It extends nearly a mile along the river, and has several pagodas, mosques, and churches. There is trade in cotton, sugar, and saltpeter. Pop. about 30,000.
CHUQUISA'CA, or SU'CRE, the capital of Bolivia or Upper Peru, in lat. 19° 20's., and long. 65° 30' west. It is situated on a table-land about 9,000 ft. above the sea, and has a pleasant climate. The town is well built, has a cathedral of great magnificence, a university, a college of arts and sciences, and a mining-school. C. was founded in 1538 by Pedro Auzures, an oflicer of Pizarro's, on the site of an old Peruvian town called “Choque Chaka,” or “bridge of gold, “the treasures of the Incas having passed through it on their way to Cuzco.” At one time, C. bore the name of La-Plata, on account of the rich silver mines in its vicinity. Pop. 11,000. C. gives name to a territory containing 220,000 whites, besides many native Indians. It has five silver mines in operation, and in it are magnificent ruins of unknown origin. The second name is derived from the general who, in Dec., 1824, fought and won the last great battle for colonial independence at Ayacucho.
CHUR (Fr. Coire, anct. Curia Rhætorum), a t. of Switzerland, capital of the Grisons, in the valley of the Upper Rhine, in a fertile plain about 2000 ft. above the sea, and surrounded by high mountains, 60 m. s.e. of Zurich, on the Plessur, about a mile from its junction with the Rhine. It is of importance as standing on the great road to Italy by the Splügen and Bernardin passes, and thus possessing a considerable transit trade.' c. stands on uneven ground, has narrow streets, and is divided into a high and low town. The bishop's palace, and the quarter around it, inhabited by the Roman Catholics, occupy the summit of an eminence, and are separated from the rest by walls and battlements, closed by double gates. In the same quarter stand the old cathedral, a round, arched, or Byzantine edifice, founded in the 8th c.; the church of St. Lucius or the Dom, a curious example of early pointed Gothic, including fragments of earlier buildings. It contains singular old carving, paintings, and statues, and also, it is said, the bones of St. Lucius, who was a British king. Behind the episcopal palace is a kind of ravine lined with vineyards. In the lower town there are also some very ancient buildings. Romansch is still spoken in the vicinity; a newspaper in this dialect is published in the town; and a considerable collection of Romansch literature is to be found in the library of the cantonal schools. There are several new roads leading in different directions through the Grisons; and a railway connects the town with Zurich and other places. There are manufactures of zinc wares and cutting tools. Pop. '80, 8,889, of whom about 2000 are Catholics.
CHURCH, a word which signifies either a place of Christian worship or a collective body of Christian people. It is, in all probability, derived from the Greek adjective kyriakos (from kyrios, lord), the place of worship having been called the Lord's house, and the worshipers the Lord's people. The Scottish kirk, the German kirché, etc., are merely different forms of it.
Under the terms apse and basilica (q.v.), we have already explained that the earliest ecclesiastical structures of the Christians were copied or adapted not from the heathen or Jewish temple, as might have been anticipated, but from that peculiar combination of a hall of justice and a market-place to which the name basilica was given by the ancients. The reason of this selection is probably to be found, not so much in the spirit of opposition which no doubt existed between Christians and heathens, as in the essentially different conceptions which they formed of the character and objects of public worship. The rites of heathendom were performed exclusively by the priest, the people remaining without the temple; and the temple itself, which was lighted only from the door, or by the few lamps which burned around the image of the god, was regarded not as a receptacle for worshipers, but as the abode of the deity: The dark, mysterious character which thus belonged to it, rendered it equally unsuitable for the performance of liturgical services in which the people were to participate, and for the delivery of those public addresses which from the beginning were employed as a means of Christian teaching and exhortation. To such purposes, the prætor's court-room, with its surroundings, were readily adapted, by the few simple alterations which we have described in the articles referred to. But the basilica, as thus altered, was a mere utilitarian structure. It served the purposes of Christian worship, but there was nothing in its form which responded to the feelings of Christian worshipers, or tended to awaken Christian sentiments. Now, the cross (q.v.) had been used by Christians from a very early period to indicate their allegiance to the author of their salvation and the object of their faith; and gradually it had become the distinctive emblem of Christian. ity. Nothing, then, could be more natural than that when it became desirable to give distinctively Christian characteristics to what hitherto had been a heathen structure, this should be effected by such a modification of its form as should convert it into a representation of this sacred emblem. Nor did this alteration lead to any very extensive change on the form of the C., as it had hitherto existed. The basilica, as we have already explained, not unfrequently had side entrances, either in place of, or in addi. tion to, that from the end. All thắt was requisite, then, to convert the simple parallelogram of which it consisted into a cross, was, that at each side of the building these entrances, in place of direct communications with the exterior, should be converted into passages, or arms running out at right angles, and more or less prolonged, according as The object was to attain the form of a Greek or of a Latin cross (see CROSS). If the c. was to be in the form of a Greek cross, the arms were made of the same length with the other two portions into which they divided the building: whereas if the cross was to be a Latin one, the portion of the building which ran towards the w. was made considerably longer than either of the others. In either case, the arms running at right angles to the C., and directly opposite to each other, cut it across, and thus obtained the name of transepts.
The external form of the C. being thus indicated, we now proceed to explain its internal arrangements, and to enumerate the various adjuncts which in cathedrals and others of the larger churches frequently sprang up around it.
Over the point at which the arms or transepts intersect the body of the cross, a central tower or spire is very fre ently erected. From this central tower, or, if the tower or towers are situated elsewhere, from this central point, the portion of the building which runs westward, to where the Galilee or entrance chapel, or, in other instances, the
great entrance-door is situated, is called the nave (from navis, a ship), whilst the portion which runs eastward to where the altar, or high-altar, if there be several, is placed, is called the choir. In the larger and more complete churches, the nave, and frequently also the choir, are divided longitudinally by two rows of pillars into three portions, the portion at each side being generally somewhat narrower and less lofty than that in the center. These side portions are called the aisles of the nave, or of the choir, as the case may be. In some churches, the aisles are continued along the transepts, thus running round the whole C.; in others, there are double aisles to the nave, or to both nave and choir, or even to nave, choir, and transept. Behind, or to the e. of the choir, is situated the Ladye's chapel, or chapel of the Virgin, with sometimes a number of altars; and it is not unusual for side chapels to be placed at different places along the aisles. These usually contain the tombs of the founder, and of other benefactors to, or dignitaries connected with, the church. The extent to which these adjuncts exist depends on the size and importance of the C., and they are scarcely ever alike in two churches, either in number, form, or position. Vestries for the use of the priests and choristers generally exist in connection with the choir. Along the sides of the choir are ranged richly ornamented seats or stalls, usually of carved oak, surmounted with tracery, arches, and pinnacles; and amongst these seats, in the case of a bishop's church, the highest and most conspicuous is the so-called cathedra, or seat for the bishop, from which the cathedral takes its name. The larger English cathedral and abbey-churches have usually a chapter-house attached to them, which is of various forms, most commonly octagonal, and is often one of the richest and most beautiful portions of the whole edifice. On the conti. nent, chapter-houses are not so common, the chapter (q.v.) being usually held in the cathedral itself, or in one of the chapels attached to it. Cloisters (q.v.) are also frequent, and not unusually the sides of those which are furthest removed from the C. or chapter. house, are inclosed by other buildings connected with the establishment, such as a library, and places of residence for some of the officials of the cathedral. It is here that, in Roman Catholic churches, the hall, dormitories, and kitchens for the monks are commonly placed. Beneath the C. there is frequently a crypt (q.v.). In some cathedral churches, the crypt is in reality a second underground C. of great size and beauty. The baptistery (q.v.) is another adjunct to the C., though frequently forming a building alto. gether detached. Most of the parts of the C. which we have mentioned may be traced; but it must not be supposed that their position is always that which is there represented. The position of the nave, choir, or chancel, aisles, and transepts are nearly invariable, but the other portions vary, and are scarcely alike in two churches.
Churches are of five classes-metropolitan, cathedral, collegiate, conventual, and parish churches—and of these the first are, generally speaking, the most, and the last the least elaborate. In ordinary language, any building set apart for religious ordinances is called a church, though when of a minor kind it is more usually designated a chapel. After a long period of neglect and poverty of taste, the building of churches in a superior style, emulative of the older styles of architecture, has greatly revived, not only as regards the church of England, but the church of Scotland and nearly all dissenting bodies.
As applied to a collective body of Christian people, the word C. is the translation and equivalent of the Greek word ecclesia (Lat. ecclesia, Fr. église), used in the New Testament. It is common among Protestants to distinguish between the visible and the invisible C. the invisible C. consisting of all those who are savingly or spiritually united to Christ, that is, of all true believers; the visible C. consisting of all who profess the religion of Jesus Christ. Roman Catholics do not in the same manner acknowledge the distinction between the visible and the invisible C., but regard a connection with the hierarchy, and consequent participation of ordinances, as establishing a connection with the true C. and with Christ. Protestants regard the C. as subsisting from age to age, in virtue of the authority of Christ, and through the faith of individual believers and their confession of him; Roman Catholics regard the apostolical succession of the hierarchy, and the regular administration of the sacraments, as essential to the continued existence of that Catholicor universal C. which Christ planted on the earth, and the existence of which he has promised to maintain throughout all ages. Protestants, in general, regard the C. of Rome and the Greek C. as forming part of the visible C. of Christ; but Roman Catholics are not accustomed to make a corresponding admission with respect to the Protestant churches. From the hierarchical principle of the C. of Rome and of the Greek C., results an employment of the term C. to designate the hierarchy alone, which is contrary to the principles of the reformation, although a tendency to it may be observed in some Protestant churches. It has been usual for Protestants to designate by the term C. the collective body of Christians in a particular country, distinguished by the name of that country; the greater number of Protestants (Episcopalians and Presbyterians) believing that such a portion of the universal C. may warrantably be associated under a common government; and in countries where religious liberty exists, diversities of opinion on points of doctrine and C. government have given rise to the existence of separate Christian associations, distinguished by names generally indicative of some of the peculiarities which characterize them; but these, however much they may differ on many points, do not in general hesitate to recognize each other as belonging to the universal visible C. of Christ, whilst they retain in common the same great first principles of the Christian faith, and particularly the belief in one God and in the three persons of the Godhead, the incarnation of the Son of God, the atonement by Jesus Christ, and the work of the Holy Spirit. The term C., however, is regarded by Independents (q.v.) or Congregationalists, as more strictly applicable to those who are united as worshipers in a particular place of worship, partaking of the Lord's supper together, and exercising discipline and C. government among themselves.
CHURCH, ALBERT E., LL.D., 1807–78; b. Conn. ; graduated at West Point in 1828. He became professor of mathematics in the U. S. military academy in 1838, and published Elements of Differential and Integral Calculus; Elements of Analytical Geometry; Elements of Analytical Trigonometry; and Elements of Descriptive Geometry, with its application to Spherical Projections, Shades and Shadows, Perspective and Geometric Projections.
CHURCH, BENJAMIN, 1639-1718; a New England soldier who served with distinction in king Philip's wars, and was commander in the fight in which Philip was killed. He commanded a number of expeditions against the Indians of New Hampshire and Maine. From his dictation and memoranda his son wrote a history of king Philip's
CHURCH, FREDERICK EDWIN, b. Conn., 1826; a pupil of Thomas Cole, and a painter of eminence. The works which gave him prominence are a “View of East Rock, near New Haven,” and “Scenes in the Catskill Mountains.” He visited South America in 1853 and 1857; and in Ecuador and New Granada made sketches for a number of paintings, some of which have attained great celebrity, such as the “Heart of the Andes,” “On the Cordilleras, and “Cotopaxi.” Another celebrated work is the
Horse-shoe Fall, Niagara.” He visited Jamaica, and afterwards Europe and the Holy Land. Some of his other works are “Damascus," “ Jerusalem,” “The Parthenon," and “Tropical Scenery.”
CHURCH, FREDERICK S. See page 897.
CHURCH, JOHN HUBBARD, D.D., 1772–1840; a graduate of Harvard in 1797, and for nearly 40 years pastor of a Congregational church in Pelham, N. H. He held various offices in Dartmouth college, Andover theological seminary, and Phillips academy, and was prominent in Bible, tract, and missionary societies.
CHURCH, sir RICHARD, 1780–1873; an Englishman, who held the principal command in the Greek war of independence. On the final establishment of the kingdom of Greece he was made a councilor of state, and afterwards a member of the senate; and was for many years at the head of the army and navy,
CHURCH, SANDFORD E., LL.D., 1815-80;. b. N. Y.; bred to the law, in which he speedily rose to a prominent position. In 1850, he was elected lieut.gov. of New York, and was re-elected in 1852; in 1857, he was elected controller, but twice after. wards defeated for the same office. In 1870, he was elected chief justice of the court of appeals, which position he held until his death.
CHURCH, STATES OF THE. See PAPAL STATES.
CHURCH CALENDAR, a table of the order and series of days, weeks, months, and holy days in the year. The name is derived from calendæ, or first days of the Roman month. The earliest now existing which contains the Christian festivals is that of Silvius, 448 A.D. A fragment of a Gothic calendar remains, which probably belongs to the 4th century. The name is applied also to the fasti or catalogues for particular churches, of the saints most honored by them, such as bishops, martyrs, etc. At the reformation the German Lutheran church retained the Roman calendar. In 1850, a calendar was published for the evangelical church of Germany. It has been continued annually, and contains much interesting information, in addition to the table of feasts, fasts, etc. The full calendar of the church of England contains 9 columns, giving the golden number, days of the month, the dominical or Sunday letter, the calends, nodes and ides, the daily Scripture lessons, and the holy days of the church, together with some of the Roman festivals which have been retained, not as having any religious value, but because the practice of the courts, the habits of tradesmen, and the times of popular amusements had become interwoven with them. The calendar of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States retains only the festivals which are referable to a Scriptural origin.
CHURCH CONGRESS, the name of free gatherings of ministers and laymen of the established church of England, annually convened for the discussion of ecclesiastical and religious questions. The first church congress was held in 1861 in Canterbury, and in the following years successively in Oxford, Manchester, Bristol, York, etc. The attendance is usually very large, and comprises many bishops and lower dignitaries. Full reports of the proceedings of each session are published. Such meetings, having the advantage of free interchange of views, but with no claim to ecclesiastical authority, have been found very profitable in this country; and though in the Protestant Episcopal church the sentiment in their favor has not been unanimous, they are winning for themselves an established position through either enthusiastic advocacy or silent consent.
CHURCH DIET, the free gathering of ministers and lay members of German Protestant churches. Such meetings arose in consequence of the revolutionary move. ments of 1848, which threatened to endanger the intluence of the evangelical church upon society. Members of the Lutheran, Reformed, the United Evangelical, with the high church “confessionals” participated in the earlier meetings; but after 1860 only the evangelical parties were represented. Annual reports are published.
CHURCH DISCIPLINE, Disciplina ecclesiastica, includes all the means employed by the Christian church, besides the ministration of word and sacraments, to secure on the part of its office-bearers and members a faithful adherence to their profession and a corresponding blamelessness of life. It rests upon the authority of Christ, and at the same time necessarily arises, in some form of it, out of the very constitution of the church as & society. Among the early Christians, it soon assumed forms of great severity towards offenders, especially towards the lapsed (q.v.). At a later period, the disci. pline of the church was chiefly exercised with respect to persons accused of heresy and schism. The penances of the church of Rome have long formed an important part of its discipline, and therewith its indulgences (q.v.) are closely connected, as well as its doctrine and rule of auricular confession (see CONFESSION). In the Protestant churches, public confession of sins by which public scandal has been given, and submission to public rebuke, are sometimes required. Practices more analogous to those of the primitive church were established in many churches after the reformation, but in gen. eral have fallen greatly, or entirely, into disuse. The power of exclusion from the Lord's Supper, and from the rights and privileges of church membership, is, however, generally retained and exercised, until, by profession of repentance, and by reformation of life, the cause of such exclusion is removed; and ministers or other office-bearers are, upon offense given in their doctrine or conduct, suspended from their functions, or altogether deposed from their office. The exercise of C. D. belongs more or less exclusively to a hierarchy, or to the office-bearers assembled in church-courts, or to the members of each congregation, according as the church is Episcopalian, Presbyterian, or independent in its church government. There is an increasing tendency among Christians in general to scrutinize closely the claim of right to exercise C. D., and the limits within which it may be exercised.
CHURCH GOVERNMENT. The Christian church, like every other society, must have a certain constitution and rules according to which its affairs are administered. It is disputed, however, among Christians, how far this constitution has been defined, or these rules prescribed by divine authority, and how far they have been left to the discretion of men. The form of C. G. depends primarily on the idea entertained of the constitution of the church. Congregationalists, or independents (9.v.), accordingly place all C. G. in the hands of the members of the congregation and the office-bearers whom they have elected. This theory of C. G. is maintained by many Baptists and others, who, for various reasons, assume different denominations.-Episcopalians and Presbyterians agree that many congregations are to be united under a common government; but this, according to Presbyterians, is properly carried on by ministers and elders of these congregations meeting for this purpose on a footing of equality; whilst, according to Episcopalians, it is more or less absolutely in the hands of bishops, who are superior to the mere pastors of congregations. See EPISCOPACY and PRESBYTERIANISM.
CHURCH HISTORY or ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY. The history of the Christian religion and church forms one of the most important parts of the general history of mankind, and is intimately connected not only with the political history of the world, but with the history of philosophy, of literature, and of civilization. The sources and authorities are extremely various, and their due appreciation often requires as much judgment as their exploration requires toil. Church history is either general-embracing a view of the affairs of the church in the whole world from the beginning to the present dayor particular, relating to some particular country, or time, or portion of the church. By some authors, it has been treated chiefly with regard to the outward affairs of the church; and by others, with reference to doctrine, morals, and the evidences of spiritual life; whilst others still have devoted their attention chiefly to the forms of worship, the con. stitution of the church, and other things generally comprehended under the name of ecclesiastical antiquities. All these, of course, have important relations to each other. The earliest writers of church history were in general mere chroniclers, following the order of time; in the great work of the Magdeburg centuriators, a method was adopted, of which there had been previous examples, and which afterwards became frequent, of treating each century separately, the centuries being subdivided according to convenience of subjects; but arrangements less mechanical and arbitrary have been adopted by the most eminent modern authors. With much diversity on minor points, there is a gen. eral agreement in dividing the whole history of the church into three great periods: the first, from our Savior to the time of Constantine; the second, from that time to the reformation; and the third, from the reformation to the present day.
The earliest facts of C. H. are to be learned only from the New Testament, after which, however, the epistles and other writings of the apostolic and other primitive fathers afford sources of information, unfortunately very scanty; Hegesippus, who