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the refutation of objections, and in particular of what may be called a preliminary objectiou—that a divine revelation can never be established by sufficient evidence at all. See REVELATION.
The evidence of miracles (q.v.) and the evidence of prophecy (9.v.), two of the principal branches of the external evidences of C., will be found noticed in separate articles. Another argument, which has been much elaborated-for example, in Paley's Evidences—is derived from the character and sufferings of the apostles and other first preachers of C.; their high moral worth, considered along with their great earnestness and devotedness; the absence of all possibility of seltish or base motives; and at the same time, their perfect opportunity of knowing the truth or the facts which they proclaimed. A subsidiary argument is found in the admission of the great facts regarding Jesus of Nazareth, by the early opponents of Christianity. A most important and valuable argument is found in the perfect coherence of all the parts of the Christian system, and in the agreement, as to the religion which they teach, of all the books of Scripture, notwithstanding the widely different dates of their composition, and their very different nature in other respects. See BIBLE. The relation of the Jewish ceremonies to the doctrires of C. supplies another argument of this kind, capable of being developed in a multitude of particulars. The minor coincidences between the different books of Scripture have been pointed out with happy effect in the Hora Paulinæ of Paley, and in other works. The character of our Savior supplies an argument of great power: the impossibility of the invention of such a character, and of the history in which it is exhibited, by any effort of human genius, is also urged as corroborative; and the inconsistency of the morality displayed, with the supposition of imposture, has been dwelt upon with the same view. The excellency, both of the doctrinal and moral part of the system of C., its elevating and purifying tendency, the agreement of its doctrine with the facts of man's sinfulness and misery, and the suitable provision which it makes for his most deeply felt wants, are principal branches of the internal evidence of its truth. The effects of C., where it has prevailed, supply a coufirmatory argument in its favor, which has formed the subject of works of great learning and interest. See EVIDENCES OF CHRISTIANITY.
CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE, SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING, one of the great religious associations connected with the church of England, and the oldest of them all. It was founded in 1698, although it did not receive its present name till 1701; and had for its object: "1. To promote and encourage the erecting of charity schools in all parts of England and Wales. 2. To disperse, both at home and abroad, Bibles and tracts of religion; and, in general, to advance the honor of God, and the good of mankind, by promoting Christian knowledge, both at home and in oiher parts of the world, by the best methods that should offer.". These objects it has never ceased to pursue, chiefly directing its efforts to the British dominions: partaking at once of the nature of an educational association, a missionary society, a Bible society, and a relig. ious tract society; and notwithstanding the operations of other great societies in these several departments of Christian benevolence, its revenue amounts to about £100,000 a year. The Protestant missionaries who labored in the s. of India in last century, were supported chiefly by this society, which has also contributed largely of its funds for the establishment of Christian schools in that country.
CHRISTIAN NAME. See NAME.
CHRISTIANSAND', the principal t. of the province or stift of that name in Norway, is situated at the mouth of the Torridalself, in the bay of Christiansand. Pop. "75, 12,137. C. is the residence of a bishop and high-bailiff or stift-amtmand, and pos sesses a branch of the Norwegian bank, a gymnasium, and several charitable foundations. The manufactures are leather, tobacco, cotton, etc. Ship-building forms also a considerable branch of its industry. The town, which was built in 1641 by Christian IV., has an excellent harbor, divided into two parts by the island of Oddern, upon which are situated the quarantine hospital and custom house. C. exports wood, lobeters, and salmon in large quantities. The town and harbor are protected by several fortifications. To the west of C. lies the harbor of Ny-Hollesund.
CHRISTIANSBURG, Va. See page 897.
CHRISTIANSFELD, a settlement of Moravian brothers, in the northern part of Schleswig, was founded in 1772. It consists of 64 houses and about 700 inhabitants. The houses, which are well built, and cheerful in appearance, are arranged in two parallel streets, with the church upon a green plot in the middle. The settlement is represented by the inspectors or chiefs appointed by the directors of the fraternity, and the representatives elected by the members of the sect. The manufactures are linen, soap, cotton, leather, etc.
CHRISTIANS OF ST. JOHN, or NAZAREANS, a sect in Persia, in the country around Bassorah. They seemingly deify John the Baptist and consider Jesus an impos. tor. They say that they dwelt on the Jordan in the time of Jesus, but were driven from Palestine by the Mohammedans. Their name “Christians" is wholly a misnomer. They consider the Jehovah of the Jews a spurious divinity, and Christ a false teacher; that the world was created by seven angels of darkness who inhabit the seven planets, and there is also a kingdom of light superintended by good angels. Behind these kingdoms is a region of splendor, and there is the supreme original being. Ferha, and the female principle, Ajar. There are conflicts between the worlds of darkness and of light, but light is to triumph. The Mosaic and Christian systems of religion came from the region of darkness; but that of John the Baptist from the region of light. Baptism is the means of introducing men to the kingdom of light. John was married, but his children sprang from the Jordan. These people practice polygamy, and forbid mourning for the dead. They have five sacred books, of which four are doctrinal, and one treats of astrology. It is supposed that, 200 years ago, they numbered about 100,000.
CHRISTIANS OF ST. THOMAS, the name of a branch of an old Persian church still existing on the Malabar coast, formed originally by excommunicated Nestorians. Their liturgy is in the Syriac language. They still celebrate the early agape or love feast, use bread, salt, and oil in the communion of the supper, and anoint infants in baptism. Their priests are allowed to marry. While the Portuguese held Malabar they were submissive to the Roman Catholic church, but as soon as the Dutch took control the Nestorian system was resumed.
CHRISTIANSTAD', the strongly fortified capital of a province of the same name in the s. of Sweden. It is situated on the Helge, about 9 m. from the Baltic, and 265 s.w. of Stockholm. C. is the residence of a governor, and the seat of a court of justice. It is a beautifully built town, and possesses an arsenal, a school, a magnificent church, and a senate-house. Pop. 9,203, employed chiefly in the manufacture of woolen goods, leather, gloves, etc. There is also some trade in wood, pitch, potash, etc. The town, which was founded by Christian IV., has suffered many sieges during the wars between Denmark and Sweden. The province of Christianstad has an area of 2,400 m.; pop. '80, 230,619.
CHRISTIANSTED, the chief t. of the Danish island of St. Croix, in the West Indies. It stands on the n.e. coast of the island, and has an excellent harbor, which is defended by a fort and a battery. Here resides the governor-general of the Danish West Indies The number of its inhabitants is 5,700. .
CHRISTIANSUND', a seaport on the w. coast of Norway, 85 m. w.s.w. of Trondh. jem, in 63° 3' n., and 7° 40' e., pop. 8,251. The town is built on three small islands by which its harbor is inclosed. The chief exports are fish and fish products.
CHRISTIAN UNION CHURCHES, an organization projected at Columbus, Ohio, in 1865, and supposed to have 30,000 to 40,000 members, principally in the western and south-western states. Their leading doctrines, as stated in their publications, are: the oneness of the church, with Christ the only head, and the Bible the only rule of faith and practice; the good works of a Christian life the only condition of fellowship; the suppression of controversy; local or congregational church government; no preaching of party politics. They adopt the motto," In things essential, unity; in non-essentials, liberty; in all things, charity.” Baptism is a condition of membership, but in communion they are practically unrestricted.
CHRISTINA, Queen of Spain. See MARIA CHRISTINA.
CHRISTI'NA, Queen of Sweden, only child of the great Gustavus Adolphus, was b. Dec., 1626, and succeeded her father in 1632, when only six years old. Distinguished equally by beauty and the possession of a lively imagination, a good memory, and uncommon in. telligence, she received the education rather of a man than of a woman; and to this may in part be attributed the many eccentricities of her life. During her minority, the king. dom was governed by the five highest officers of the state, the principal being chancellor Oxenstiern. In 1644, she assumed the reins of power, and, in 1650, was crowned with the title of king. She had previously declared her cousin, Charles Gustavus, her suc
For four years thereafter, she ruled the kingdom with vigor, and was remark. able for her patronage of learned and scientific men. In 1654, however, at the age of 28, weary of the personal restraint which royalty imposed on her, she abdicated in favor of her cousin, reserving to herself sufficient revenues, entire independence, and supreme authority over her suite and household. Leaving Sweden, she proceeded to Brussels, where she embraced the Roman Catholic religion. She afterwards went to Rome, which she entered on horseback, in the costume of an amazon, with great pomp. Confirmed by pope Alexander VII., she adopted the surname of Alessandra. In 1656, she visited Paris; and the following year, on a second residence there, she caused her grand equerry, Monaldeschi, who had enjoyed her entire confidence, to be executed in her own household for treason. In 1658, she returned to Rome, and, in 1660, the death of the king, her cousin, caused her to hasten to Sweden; but, failing in her attempt to be reinstated on the throne, she again left the country. In 1666, she aspired to the crown of Poland, but was unnoticed by the Poles. The remainder of her life was spent in Rome in artis. tic and scientific pursuits. Besides founding an academy, she collected valuable MSS., medals, and paintings, and died April 19, 1889. Much of her conduct favors the idea that at times she was scarcely sane.
CHRISTI'NOS, a political party in Spain during the regency of queen Christina, who were opposed to the Carlisis.
CHRIS'TISON, Sir RoBERT, D.C.L., an eminent physician, son of Alexander Chris tison, professor of humanity in the university of Edinburgh, was b. at Edinburgh, July
18, 1797; was educated at the high school of his native place, and, in 1811, became a student at the university there. After graduating in 1819, he proceeded to London and Paris; and, in the French capital, studied toxicology under the celebrated Orfila, a department of medical science in which in Britain his name has become eminent. Commencing the practice of medicine at Edinburgh, he was, in 1822, appointed professor of medical jurisprudence in the university of that city, and, in 1832, was promoted to the chair of materia medica. Besides contributing papers on various subjects to medical journals, C. is author of a Treatise on Poisons, published in 1829, recognized as a standard work on the subject; Biographical Sketch of Edward Turner, M.D., 1837, being an address delivered before the Harveian society of Edinburgh; a treatise On Granular Degeneration of the Kidneys, 1839; aud The Dispensatory, a Commentary on the Phar. macopæius of Great Britain, 1842. Twice president of the royal college of physicians, Edinburgh, and ordinary physician to the queen in Scotland, in 1871 e was created a baronet. In 1877, sir Robert retired from professorial and other public work.
CHRISTLIEB, THEODOR, D.D., b. 1833; a native of Wurtemberg; educaied at Tubingen, a teacher in France, a preacher in London, and an author of lectures on Modern Doubt and Christian Belief. He returned to Germany in 1865, and was made professor of theology at Bonn. In 1873, he was a delegate to the evangelical alliance, meeting that year in New York. At its sessions his addresses excited great interest.
CHRISTMAS, the day on which the nativity of the Savior is observed. The institution of this festival is attributed by the spurious Decretals to Telesphorus, who flourished in the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-61 A.D.), but the first certain traces of it are found about the time of the emperor Commodus (180–92 A.D.). In the reign of Diocletian (284-305 A.D.), while that ruler was keeping court at Nicomedia, he learned that a multitude of Christians were assembled in the city to celebrate the birthday of Jesus, and having ordered the church doors to be closed, he set fire to the building, and all the worshipers perished in the flames. It does not appear, however, that there was any uniformity in the period of observing the nativity among the early churches; some held the festival in the month of May or April, others in Jan. It is, nevertheless, almost certain that the 25th of Dec. cannot be the nativity of the Savior, for it is then the height of the rainy season in Judea, and shepherds could hardly be watching their flocks by night in the plains.
C. not only became the parent of many later festivals, such as those of the Virgin, but especially from the 5th to the 8th c., gathered round it, as it were, several other festivals, partly old and partly new, so that what may be termed a Christmas cycle sprang up, which surpassed all other groups of Christian holidays in the manifold richness of its festal usages, and furthered, more than any other, the completion of the orderly and systematic distribution of church festivals over the whole year. Not casually or arbitrarily was the festival of the nativity celebrated on the 25th of Dec. Among the causes that co-operated in fixing this period as the proper one, perhaps the most powerful was, that almost all the heathen nations regarded the winter-sulstice as a most important point of the year, as the beginning of the renewed life and activity of the powers of nature, and of the gods, who were originally merely the symbolical personifications of these. In more northerly countries, this fact must have made itself peculiarly palpable-hence the Celts and Germans, from the oldest times, celebrated the season with the greatest festivities. At the winter-solstice, the Germans held their great yule-feast (see YULE), in commemoration of the return of the fiery sun-wheel; and believed that, during the twelve nights reaching from the 25th Dec. to the 6th Jan., they could trace the personal movements and interferences on earth of their great deities, Odin, Berchta, etc. Many of the beliefs and usages of the old Germans, and also of the Romans, relating to this matter, passed over from heathenism to Christianity, and have partly survived to the present day. But the church also sought to combat and banish-and it was to a large extent successful—the deep-rooted heathen feeling, by adding-for the purification of the heathen customs and feasts wbich it retained-its grandly devised liturgy, besides dramatic representations of the birth of Christ and the first events of his life. Hence sprang the so-called "manger-songs," and a multitude of C. carols, as well as C. dramas, which, at certain times and places, degenerated into farces or fools' feasts (q.v.). Hence also originated, at a later period, the Christ-trees, or Christmastrees, adorned with lights and gifts, the custom of reciprocal presents, aud of special C. meats and dishes, such as C. rolls, cakes, currant-loaves, dumplings, etc. Thus, C. became a universal social festival for young and old, high and low, as no other Christian festival could have become.
In the Roman Catholic church, three masses are performed at C.-one at midnight, one at day break, and one in the morning. The day is also celebrated by the AngloCatholic church-special psalms are sung, a special preface is made in the communion service, and the Athanasian creed is said or sung. The Lutheran church, on the conti. nent, likewise observes C.; but the Presbyterian churches in Scotland, and the whole of the English dissenters, reject it, in its religious aspect, as a “human invention," and
savoring of papistical will-worship,” although, in England, dissenters as well as churchmen keep it as a social holiday, on which there is a complete cessation from all business. But within the last hundred years, the festivities once appropriate to C. have
much fallen off. These at one time lasted with more or less brilliancy till Candlemas, and with great spirit till twelfth-day; but now a meeting in the evening, composed, when possible, of the various branches and members of a family, is all that distinguishes the day above others.
CHRISTMAS-BOX, a small money-gift to persons in an inferior condition on the day after Christmas, which is hence popularly called boxing-day. The term, and also the custom, are essentially English, though the making of presents at this season and at the new year is of great antiquity. A number of interesting particulars concerning the Christmas-box will be found in Brand's Popular Antiquities. Here, we need refer only to the usage in its later aspect. Within the memory of middle-aged persons, the practice of giving Christmas-boxes, or petty presents, to apprentices, domestic servants, and tradesmen, had become a serious social nuisance, more particularly in London, where every old custom seems to linger, and is most difficult to be got rid of. Householders felt under an obligation to give money to the apprentices in the shops where they dealt, also to various inferior parish officers, including scavengers and lamplighters: while shopkeepers, on the other hand, were equally impelled to make presents to the male and female servants of their customers. Thus, as referred to in Christmas, a poem:
“Gladly, the boy, with Christmas-box in hand,
With joy." At length the Christmas-box system became such an intolerable grievance, that tradesmen stuck up notices in their windows that no Christmas-boxes would be given; and at the same time, the public authorities issued remonstrances to the same effect. At Christmas, 1836, the secretary of state for foreign affairs issued a circular to the different embassies, requesting a discontinuance of the customary gifts to the messengers of the foreign department, and other government servants. Since this period, the practice has greatly decreased, doubtless to the improvement of the self-respect of the parties interested
CHRISTMAS CAROLS. The word carol (Ital. carola, and Fr, carole, a round danceprobably from Lat. corolla; Welsh, coroli, to reel, to dance; the name is thence applied to the music or song accompanying such a dance: carillon is probably allied) signifies a song of joy. The practice of singing carols, or, at all events, sacred music, in celebration of the nativity of Christ as early as the ad c., is considered as proved by the circumstance that a large sarcophagus belonging to that period has sculptured upon it a representation of a Christian family joining in choral praise for this purpose. A century or two after this, however, the C. C. seem to have sadly degenerated, and become, in fact, so indecent, that the clergy found it necessary to forbid them. Under the AngloSaxon kings, merriment and piety were pleasantly combined in English life, a peculiarity that affected the C. C. of that period not a little; but by the 13th c. the jocosity had unhappily lapsed into what would now be considered profanity. The oldest printed collection of English C. C. bears the date of 1521. The majority of these, though written by men of learning-priests and teachers-exhibit a lamentable ignorance of the character of the two most prominent persons in the carols— Mary, and Jesus. In 1525 was kept the “ still Christmas," on account of the illness of king Henry; but with this exception, the sacred season appears to have been regularly celebrated with joyous music and songs during the Tudor period. In 1562, C. C. of a more solemn nature were introduced. By the Puritan parliament, Christmas was abolished altogether, and holly and ivy were made seditious badges; and in 1630 the Psalms, arranged as carols, were advertised. After the restoration, the C. C. again exhibited a hearty, cheerful, and even a jovial character. Those with which the dawn of Christmas is now announced in England are generally religious, though not universally so. In France, the carols at this season used to be much less sacred than gny. Often, indeed, they were grossly Bacchanalian.
See an interesting paper in the Athenaeum for Dec. 20, 1856; also Sandys's Christmas Carols, 8vo, 1833; Sylvester's Christmas Carols and Ballads.
CHRISTMAS ROSE. See HELLEBORE.
CHRISTOLOGY is the doctrine of the person of Christ. The word itself is to be found, once or so, in the divines of the 17th c. (see Dean Trench on the Study of Words), but the department of scientific theology which it now represents is almost entirely the growth of modern, and particularly of German inquiry. As yet, it can hardly be said that the word C. is accredited in Great Britain, but the same differences of opinion which led to its adoption in Germany, are beginning to manifest themselves here also. There are only three methods of apprehending the doctrine of the person of Christ. First, there is the rationalistic method. This consists in representing the development of the Messianic idea in Jewish history as purely natural, and conditioned by purely human and historical influences-in short, as a subjective or self-originated notion, to which there was no correspondent divine reality. Second, there is, what, for want of a better word, we may call the spiritualistic method (that of theologians like Neander, Rothe, etc.). This consists in representing the development of the Messianic idea in Jewish
history as both natural and supernatural; that is to say, it asserts the existence of a divine objective reality (“the eternal Son of God”) as the basis of the subjective idea in the minds of the Jews, and regards the growth of that idea, and the influence of historical circumstances, as the result of a supernatural providence, which culminated in the revelation “of the mystery of godliness, God manifest in the flesh.” Third, there is the dogmatic method, which is the
one accepted by the common order of theologians. This consists in representing the doctrine of the person of Christ as symbolically known to the spiritually-minded among God's people from the earliest ages. Abraham saw his (Christ's) day afar off.” This is interpreted to signify that, by the grace of prophetic illumination, the righteous men of old were enabled to foresee in a mysterious and inexplicable manner the atonement of Christ, as it happened in history. Admitting with the spiritualistic theologians, that the Messianic idea among the Jews underwent, in some sense, a historical development, the dogmatic Christologists differ, in general, from the former by attributing to the higher minds such a knowledge of the work of Christ, as logically involves a knowledge of his person and character. The entire absence, how: ever,, of any personal traits of Christ in the Old Testament, such as might be expected of those who had seen him even with the eye of faith, has induced many orthodox theologians to shrink from making any statement in regard to what may have been the doctrine of the person of Christ among the ancient Jews.
CHRISTOPHE, HENRI, king of Hayti, b. Oct. 6, 1767, was at one period a slave and tavern-cook in Cape Town, St. Domingo, and afterwards overseer of a plantation. In 1790, he joined the black insurgents against the French, and, from his gigantic stature, energy, and courage, soon became a leader among them. By Toussaint Louverture, he was appointed brig.gen., and employed to suppress an insurrection headed by Moyse or Moses, his nephew. Ć. captured the latter, and on his execution, succeeded him as governor of the northern province of French St. Domingo. In 1802, he gallantly defended Cape Town when gen. Leclerc arrived there with a French army destined for the reduction of the blacks, and effected his retreat with 3,000 men, after having burned the greater part of the town. The perfidious seizure of Toussaint he amply revenged, and during the short-lived government of Dessalines, who was slain by a military con spiracy in Oct., 1806, C. was gen.-in-chief of the Haytian army. In Feb., 1807, he was appointed president of Hayti for life. A republic being, about the same time, organized at Port au-Prince, with Petion at its head, civil war commenced between them. On Mar. 28, 1811, C. was proclaimed king of Hayti
, by the name of Henri I., and solemnly crowned, June 2, 1812. In 1814, he and Petion suspended hostilities, and by his power and skill, C. was enabled to counteract the attempts made by France to regain its authority in the island. His avarice and cruelty led to an insurrection, which was aided by gen. Boyer, who had succeeded Petion in 1818; and the rebellion having spread to Cape Town, C.'s deposition was proclaimed, at the head of the troops, by the duke of Marmalade, one of the first dignitaries in the kingdom. Deserted by his body-guard and all his nobles, he shot himself, Oct. 8, 1820. He left a code of laws, which he called the “Code Henri,” in imitation of the Code Napoleon.
CHRISTOPHER, HERB. See ACTÆA.
CHRISTOPHER, Saint, a saint of the Roman Catholic and Greek churches. He is supposed to have suffered martyrdom about the middle of the 3d century. According to vulgar legend, C., whose name was originally Adokimos (the unrighteous), was a native of Palestine, Syria, or Lycia, and a person of prodigious bulk and strength. His height was 12 feet. So proud was he of his gigantic frame, that he would serve only the mightiest princes. Having attached himself to one, who went for the greatest of his day, C. stayed with him for a short time, but soon discovered that his master was terribly afraid of the devil, in consequence of which, C., with fearless consistency, passed into the service of the latter. One day, however, when the devil and he chanced to be walking through a wood, they came across an image of Christ. His new master exhibited such perturbation and alarm at the sight, that C. entirely lost confidence in him, and resolved to find out the Savior, and follow him. For a long while he searched in vain, but finally he fell in with a hermit, who showed him Christ, and baptized him. C. despised the customary penances, and in consequence, it was imposed on him to carry Christian pilgrims on his shoulders over a stream which had no bridge. One day, a little child came to the stream; C. took it on his shoulders, but soon began to sink under the weight of his burden. The child was Christ himself, and to prove it, he commanded c. to stick his staff into the ground. He did so, and next morning it had blossomed into a palm-tree bearing fruit. This miracle converted thousands to Christianity. C.'s success excited the enmity of Dagnus, the prefect of that region, who put him in prison, scourged him with red-hot rods, put a burning helmet on his head, and clapped him on a burning stool. C. still remained uninjured. Multitudes of poisoned arrows were now discharged against him, but they rebounded from his charmed body, and one even wounded the prefect himself in the eye. C. pitied his tormentor, and freely offered his head to the executioner, that the prefect might be healed by the blood which should flow from it. This was done, and, as a matter of course, Dagnus and his family became Christians. The Greek church celebrates his festival on the 9th of May: the Roman Catholics, on the 25th of July.