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erected at Makerstoun, the observations made there filling three large volumes, published in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, of which he was president, having been elected on the death of sir Walter Scott. He founded two gold medals for scientific merit-in the award of the royal society,and in the society of arts. He d. Jan. 27, 1860.

BRISBANE, WILLIAM H., M.D. See page 878.
BRISCOE: co. Tex. See page 878.
BRISSON, HENRI. See page 878.

BRISSOT, JEAN PIERRE, one of the first movers in the outbreak of the French revolution, and afterwards numbered among its victims, was b. at Chartres in 1754, and educated for the bar. After completing his studies åt Paris, he went into the office of a procurator, but quickly abandoned the legal profession for the more congenial one of authorship. From his earliest years he had devoted himself with passionate eagerness to literary studies, especially history, economy, and politics, and, among the other lingual accomplishments, acquired a thorough mastery of English. His first work, Théorie des Lois Criminelles (1780), gained the approbation of Voltaire and D'Alembert, and was followed by his Bibliothèque des Lois Criminelles, which established his reputation as a jurist. Having removed to London, he there started a learned journal, under the title Lyceum, for which, however, he found no adequate support. He therefore returned to Paris, and soon afterwards was imprisoned in the Bastile, on a charge of having written against the queen a brochure, which, in fact, was penned by the marquis de Pelleport. After four months in the Bastile, he was liberated through the intervention of Madame de Genlis and the duke of Orleans. B. continued to write tracts on finance, etc., but his love of freedom and vehement hatred of despotism again involved him in danger, and, to escape from a lettre-de-cachet, he was once more compelled to retire to England. He afterwards visited North America, as representative of the Société des Amis des Noirs. On his return to France, he zealously assisted in the outbreak of the revolution, and was in consequence elected by the citizens of Paris their representative in the constituent assembly, where he exercised a predominant influence over all the early movements of the revolution. He also established a journal, called Le Patriote Français, which became the recognized organ of the earliest republicans; and, through his superior knowledge of politics and the usages of constitutional countries, he gathered round him all the young men of talent and spirit who were opposed to the court-theory of absolute sovereignty. It thus happened that, without his being formally considered the head of a party, all the movements of the early revolutionists were profoundly influenced by him, and he incurred the bitter hatred of the court reactionists, who allixed the nickname of Brissotins to all the advocates of reform. Afterwards, the Brissotins formed the Girondist party, In the convention, B. was representative of the department Eure-et-Loir. Here his moderation made him suspected as a friend of royalty, as he opposed the “men of September" and the trial and condemnation of the king. When Louis XVI. heard his doom pronounced, he exclaimed: “I believed that Brissot would have saved me!" But B. was weak enough to imagine that the best way to save the king would be to vote first for his death, and then appeal to the nation. B. and his party, which was perhaps the purest in principle and the weakest in action, ultimately fell before the fierce accusations of the Mountain, or Jacobin party, which believed, or at least pretended to believe, that the virtuous B. had received money from the court to employ against the revolution. With 20 other Girondists, B. suffered death under the guillotine, Oct. 30, 1793.

BRISTED, CHARLES ASTOR, son of the Rev. John Bristed, grandson of John Jacob Astor, b. N. Y., 1820. He was educated at Yale and at Trinity college, Cambridge, Eng., graduating in 1845. For several years he was a contributor to periodical literature over the signature of “Carl Benson.” He was one of the first board of trustees of the Astor library. Among his collected works are: The Upper Ten Thousand of Nero

York; Sclections from Catullus; Five Years in an English University; The Interference Theory of the Gorernment; and Letter to llorace Mann, in which he replied to attacks upon John Jacob Astor and Stephen Girard. He d. 1874.

BRISTED, Jonx, 1778-1855; b. England; clergyman and author, who practiced law in New York, and married John Jacob Astor's daughter. In 1829, he became rector of an Episcopal church in Rhode Island. He published Eluard and Anna, a novel; The Resources of the United States; Thoughts on Anglican and American Churches, etc.

BRISTLES, the strong hairs growing on the back of the hog and wild boar, and extensively used in the manufacture of brushes, and also by shoemakers and saddlers. They form an important article of British import, between 2 and 3 million pounds being annually imported, chiefly from Russia and Germany ; but they are also obtained from France and Belgium, and small quantities of inferior quality have recently been received from China. From Russia, the average annual value of B. imported into Britain is £300,000, Siberia alone supplying about £150,000. Russian B. vary in value from £6 to £60 per cwt. From Germany, about £100,000 worth per annum is received, varying from £6 per cwt. to £35 per cwt. From France and Belgium, about £20,000, varying in value from 28. to about 48. 6d. per pound. The quality of B. depends on the length, stiffness, color, and straightness—white being the most valuable. The best bristles are producedi by pigs that inhabit cold countries. The Russian hog is a long, spare animal, and the thiuner the hog, the longer and stiffer the bristles. When the Russian hog is sent to the south and fattened, the B. become soft, and of course depreciated in value. In the summer, the hogs are driven in herds through the forests, to feed on soft roots, etc., when they shed their B. by rubbing themselves against the trees. The B. are then collected, sewed up in horse or ox hides, and sent to fairs, whence they find their way, through agents, to all countries.

BRISTOL, a co. in s.e. Mass., bordering on Rhode Island and the ocean, 517 sq.m.; pop. '75, 131,087; in '80, 139,121. It is drained by Pawtucket and Taunton rivers, and bas nearly 20 m. of sea-coast. There is considerable agriculture, but the main business is manufacturing of cotton, wool, etc. There are four railroads intersecting the various parts of the county. Co. seat, Taunton,

BRISTOL, a co. in e. Rhode Island, bordering on Mass. ;25 sq. m.; pop. '80, 11,394 It has an uneven surface, with some fine scenery, and fertile soil. Two railroads traverse its territory. Co. seat, Bristol.

BRISTOL, a t. in Hartford co., Conn., 18 m. w.s.w. of Hartford, on the New York, and New England railroad ; has great clock factories, foundries, machine-shops, etc. Pop. '80, 5347. The town was originally a part of Farmington.

BRISTOL, a. t. in Bucks co., Penn., on the Delaware, about 20 m. above Philadelphia, opposite Burlington, N.J.; pop. '80, 5273. It is at the terminus of the Delaware branch of the Pennsylvania canal, and has railroad connection with New York and Philadelphia, and a line of steamboats connects with Philadelphia. It has manufactures of machinery, flour, felt, worsted, and furniture.

BRISTOL, a t, in Rhode Island, on the peninsula dividing Mt. Hope and Narraganset bays, 16 m. s.e. from Providence; pop. '70, 5302; in '80, 6028. The town is interesting as the site of the residence of king Philip, the great Narraganset chief, who was slain here in 1676. B. is a port of entry, has a large manufacturing interest, and is much frequented as a place of summer resort. In the revolutionary war it was bom. barded by the English, and the greater part of the village was burned.

BRISTOL, an important maritime city in the w. of England, long. 2° 35' 28" w., lat. 51° 27' 6'' n., upon the rivers Frome and Avon, and partly in the counties of Gloucester and Somerset, joined with the former for ecclesiastical and military purposes, but otherwise a city and co. in itself. It is 6 m. from the mouth of the Avon. The ancient portion of B. consists almost entirely of shops, warehouses, offices, manufactories, and other commercial buildings. The streets are, with few exceptions, narrow and irregular; but great improvements have been effected in them recently at a cost of half a million sterling, and there are many handsome shops, and other buildings of a superior character. Among the latter may be especially mentioned the banking-house of the West of England company, the assize court and guild hall, bank of England, general hospital, Colston hall, and Victoria rooms. A great central terminus has been erected for the various railways. The most remarkable modern structure, however, is the sus. pension bridge over the Avon, at Clifton, which is 702 ft. in span, and 245 ft. above highwater. Among the ancient buildings are the church of St. Mary Redcliffe, the cathedral, and Temple church, remarkable for its leaning tower. Some remains still exist of the ancient castle and walls, traces of British encampments at Clifton and Leigh, and considerable Druidic vestiges at Stanton Drew. The modern portions of B., including Clifton, Cotham, Redland, etc., consist of handsome residences, in squares, terraces, crescents, and detached villas, and some creditable specimens of architecture in churches, chapels, assembly and club rooms. The population of B. proper was, in 1871, 62,662 and of the suburban districts, 141,378_total, 204,040, steadily increasing ; 1881, included in the municipal boundary, 206,503. The floating harbor and quays extend for more than a mile through the city, and are formed by embanking and locking the old courses of the rivers, which now tiow through a new channel cut at a cost of about £600,000. There were entered inwards with cargoes during the year 1880, 9745 vessels, with a tonnage of 1,228,742, engaged in the foreign and coasting trade. The clearance outwards show 9408 vessels and 1,215,082 tons. The chief trade of B. is with Canada and the United States, West Indies and South America, Portugal, the Mediterranean, Russia, Mauritius, Turkey, France, and w. coast of Africa. The principal exports are iron, tinplate, copper and brass, coal, salt, and manufactured goods, to the annual value of about £400,000. The manufactures are chiefly cotton goods, glass, refined sugar, earthenware, lead, chemicals, leather, and floor-cloths. The ship-building yards have the reputation of turning out excellent sea-going vessels. The Great Western, the pioneer of steamcommunication across the Atlantic, the Great Britain, and the ill-fated Demerara, were built here. The railways terminating in Bristol are—the Great Western from the e.; the Midland from the n., with a branch to Bath; the Bristol and Exeter from the w.; the North Somerset from the s.; the Great Western line communicating with South Wales, and short branches to Avonmouth and Portishead. B. returns ('86) 4 members to the house of commons; the number of electors was, in 1880, 25,000. The municipal government is vested in a mayor, 16 aldermen, and 48 town-councilors, a lord-lieutenant, and lord high steward. The police arrangements are efficient, and the city has a large jail which is about to be reconstructed on a new site. The benevolent institutions of B. are numerous and well supported. The most important are the infirmary, the general hospital, the blind asylum, orphan asylum, asylum for deaf mutes, alms-houses, reformatories, etc., and the extraordinary Ashley Hill asylum, for 2050 orphans, built and main

tained without any provision for meeting expenses, except the unsolicited contributions that happen to be sent to it. Among charitable institutions must also be reckoned the well-endowed Colston, city, and Red Maids schools, and other free schools. For the better classes, the educational establishments are Clifton college and the grammar school, and many proprietary and private schools; there are also a medical school, fine arts academy, and trade school. Of places of worship in B., 57 belong to the church of England, 29 to Wesleyan communities, 24 to Independents, and about 36 to other sects. The first records of the history of B. speak of it under the ancient British name of Caeroder; it then became a stronghold of the Romans; on their departure, was again occupied by the Britons, until, in 584, the Saxons drove them out, and giving it the name of Brightstowe or Bricstowe, made it a thriving place of trade-aboriginal slaves being a principal item in the commerce. It was sacked by the Danes. Henry III. gave it the rights of a corporate town; Edward III., those of a city and county in itself. Iu 1247, the parishes of Redcliffe, Temple, and St. Thomas were added to Bristol. During the civil wars, it was alternately taken by royalists and parliamentarians, and by the latter the castle and fortifications were razed. It afterwards became the principal port for trade with the West Indies, and carried on a flourishing business in negro slaves. In 1793, the “bridge riots' occurred. In 1804 the docks were begun, and in 1809 they were opened to shipping. In 1831, the “reform bill riots" resulted in the destruction of the bishop's Palace, custom-house, excise-office, jail, toll-houses, a number of private residences, and several lives. The bill itself, by the addition of Clifton, etc., gave the city its present municipal boundaries. Among the names of note identified with the history of B, are those of the Fitzhardinge family; William of Worcester; Canynge, the great merchant and restorer of Redcliffe church; Colston and Whitson, the merchants and philanthropists; Sebastian Cabot, the navigator, said to have anticipated the discovery of America by Columbus; the poets Southey and Chatterton; Lawrence and Baily, artists; Sydney Smith, canon of Bristol cathedral; Robert Hall, Coleridge, and Hannah More; the Misses Porter; Dr. Prichard, Dr. Carpenter, and Miss Mary Carpenter,

BRISTOL BAY, an arm of the Pacific ocean, in Russian America, lying immediately to the n, of the peninsula of Alaska. B. B. receives the waters of two considerable lakes, which, communicating with each other, offer an opening into the interior.

BRISTOL BRICK, or BATI Brick, formerly made only in Bristol, Eng., but now made in New Hampshire and other parts of the United States. It is composed of finegrit sand, and used mainly for cleaning and polishing steel surfaces.

BRISTOL CHANNEL, an inlet of the Atlantic ocean, in the s.w. of England, between South Wales on the n., and Devon and Somerset shires on the s.; or it may be regarded as an extension of the estuary of the river Severn. It is about 80 m. long and 5 to 48 m. broad, the greatest breadth being between St. Gowan's head and Hartland point, its most western and external points, this line passing through Lundy isle. It is the largest inlet or estuary in Britain, having a very irregular coast-line of 220 m., and receiving a drainage of 11,000 sq. miles. The chief rivers which flow into it are the Towy, Taff, Usk, Wye, Severn, Avon, Axe, Parrot, Taw, and Torridge. The tides in it rise to an extraordinary height-at Bristol, 35 ft.; at King's road, 40; and at Chepstow, sometimes 70. The rapid flow of the tides meeting the currents of the rivers produces, in the narrow parts of the channel, and in the mouths of one or two of the rivers which enter it, the phenomenon of the bore, the tide advancing like a wall of water sometimes 6 to 9 ft. high. The chief bays and harbors are, on the n., Caermarthen and Swansea bays, Cardiff roads, the mouths of the Usk and Wye, and the Severn estuary; and on the s., Bideford or Barnstaple, Morte, Ilfracombe, Combe Martin, Minehead, Porlock, and Bridgwater.

BRISTOL, JOHN BUNYAN. See page 878.

BRISTOW, BENJAMIN H., b. Ky., 1833; practiced law until the commencement of the civil war, when he volunteered and served in the union army, rising to col. On the organization of the department of justice by the federal government he was appointed solicitor-general, in 1873 attorney-general, and 1874-6 secretary of treasury.

BRISTOW STATION, a village in Virginia, 4 m. s.W.. of Manassas Junction, where two engagements took place during the rebellion-one Aug. 27, 1862, closed by darkness, and indecisive; and one Oct. 14, 1863, when the Confederates, who made the attack, were repulsed.

BRIT, Clupea minima (Peck), a species of herring, very small, found in great abundance at certain seasons off the New England coast, where it serves as food for bluetish. It is seldom more than 3 in. long, and is of no importance for the table.

BRITAIN, GREAT.. See GREAT BRITAIN.
BRITAIN, New. See New BRITAIN.

BRITANNIA (perhaps from Celtic brith or brit, painted, the ancient Britons being in the habit of painting their bodies blue with woad), the ancient name of the island of Great Britain (see BRITANNICÆ INSULÆ). The Romans under Julius Cæsar (who wished to chastise the Britons for aiding the Veneti, a tribe in Gaul, against the Roman power) invaded Britain in 55 and 54 B.c, but they did not, for a hundred years afterwards, proceed with vigor to subdue the country. After a desperate resistance by the native

Britannia.

British princes, especially Caractacus and Boadicea, the s. half of Britain was conquered by Vespasian, and made a Roman province in the reign of Claudius, about 50 A.D. Agricola, sent by Nero in 79 A.D., consolidated these conquests, and extended the influence of Rome to the firths of Forth and Clyde, between which, in 84 A.D., he erected a chain of forts to repel the inroads of the northern Caledonians, in the line of the stone wall of Antoninus, afterwards erected, in 140 A.D., by Lollius Urbicus. Agricola was the first Roman to sail round the island, and the first Roman general to come in contact with the Caledonians, whom, under their leader Galgacus, he overthrew, in 84 A.D., at a hill called the Mons Grampius, the situation of which has not been satisfactorily determined. The Romans made many ineffectual attempts to subdue the Caledonian barbarians, and penetrated, for this purpose, through the n.e. part of Scotland as far as the Moray firth, as is attested by the remains of Roman camps and stations still existing along their line of march, and the relics of Roman art found in connection with them. Not only did the Caledonians on their own soil resist the Roman sway, but by constant inroads into the Roman territory s. of the wall of Antoninus, they so harassed the Romans themselves, that the latter were forced to abandon their conquests for 80 m. s. of that wall, and to secure permanently their remaining conquests in South Britain by a line of defensive works between the mouth of the Tyne and the Solway firth, called the wall of Hadrian (q.v.), begun by Agricola, in 80 A.D., strengthened by Hadrian in 121, and rebuilt and completed by Severus in 210 A.D. After this last date the Romans did not attempt to regain their lost provinces. Subject to these incursions of the Caledonians, the opposition of the native British princes, and the invasion of tribes from the opposite shores of the continent, the Romans held sway in Britain down to about 420 A.D., soon after which time the Saxons invaded s. Britain, and ultimately subdued it. Britain, s. of the Solway firth and the mouth of the Tyne, in the reign of Claudius, formed one Roman province under a consular legatus and a procurator. Ptolemy mentions 17 native tribes as inhabiting this tract. Toward the close of the 4th c. A.D., Roman Britain constituted a diocese in the prefecture of Gaul, and was divided into five provinces, of which the boundaries, though uncertain, are supposed to have been as follows: B. Prima, England s. of the Thames and the Bristol channel; B. Secunda, Wales; Flavia Cæsariensis, the country between the Thames, Severn, Mersey, and Humber; Maxima Cæsariensis, the rest of England to the Scottish border; and Valentiasoon abandoned by the Romans—or Scotland s. of the wall of Antoninus. At this time, also, the inhabitants of Roman Britain included Phenician, Roman, and Germanic elements, which had become incorporated with the native Britons, who were of Celtic or Gaelic descent. The Romans governed Britain by a vicarius or vicegerent resident at Eboracum (York), under whom were consulars, presidents, and other subordinate officers. To insure the obedience of the natives, at least three Roman legions-chiefly coinposed of Gauls, Germans, Iberians, and but few pure Romans-were stationed in Britain; viz., at Eboracum, Deva (Chester), and Isca Damnoniorum (Exeter). Under the Romans, many towns (coloniæ and municipia)-56 are enumerated by Ptolemyarose in Britain, and diffused Roman law and civilization over the country. The towns of Eboracum (York) and Verulamium (near St. Albans) had the privileges of Roman citizenship. The Romans made many roads or streets (strata), of which there are still numerous remains, across the country, all centering in London. They also developed it into a corn-growing country. Druidism was the religion of the Britons at their conquest by the Romans, but the latter introduced Christianity and Roman literature into the country. There are many remains still extant of the presence of the Romans in Britain, such as camps, roads, ruins of houses, baths, flues, altars, mosaic pavements, painted walls, metallic implements and ornaments, weapons, tools, utensils, pottery, coins, sculptures, bronzes, inscriptions, etc. These remains show that the Romans wished to render their British conquests permanent, and that they had greatly improved the arts of the ancient Britons, as is evident on comparing the remains with the far ruder native antiquities of the British pre-Roman er prehistoric era, such as tumuli, barrows, earthworks, so-called Druidical monoliths and circles, cromlechs, cairns, pottery, weapons, tools, utensils, ornaments, etc. Many of the Roman remains in Britain also show that the Romans had introduced into the country the refinements and luxuries of Rome itself.

Under the term BRITANNIA, Great Britain has been personified in the fine arts as a female seated on a globe or on an insulated rock, and leaning with one arm on a shield, the other hand grasping a spear or a trident The first example of this personifi. cation is on a Roman coin of Antoninus Pius (died 161 A.D.). The figure reappears first on the copper coinage of England in the reign of Charles II. (1665); the celebrated beauty, Miss Stewart, afterwards duchess of Richmond, is said to have served as model to the engraver, Philip Roetier. The Britannia that appears on the reverse of British copper coins since 1825 was the design of Mr. W. Wyon. See COINAGE.

BRITANNIA METAL, is an alloy very largely employed in the construction of the cheaper kinds of tea and coffee pots, tea-spoons, etc. The proportions of the metals used in its manufacture are various, but the average composition in 100 parts is: tin, 854; antimony, 104; zinc, 3; and copper, 1. B. M. is harder than pewter (q.v.), hence vessels or spoons made of it are not so liable to lose their shape, or to be indented with a slight blow. A variety of B. M., called queen's metal, is also extensively used for similar purposes, and it ranks intermediate in hardness between pewter and ordinary B. M. Queen's metal is composed of-tin, 9; antimony, 1; bismuth, 1; and lead, 1.

BRITANNIA METAL. The present composition of britannia metal at Birmingham is usually 90 tin + 8 antimony + 2 copper, without any zinc or bismuth; although some manufacturers deviate a little from this formula, by adding one or both of the metals last named. The manufacture was begun at Sheffield by Hancock and Jessop, in 1770; it reached Birmingham towards the close of the century, and made gradual prog. ress. At first, the articles were made by stamping with dies, and soldering up into form; this being a slow operation, rendered the articles expensive. Afterwards, the curious process of metal spinning was introduced; and this, with the subsidiary operation of swagging, rendered a great reduction in price possible. In the spinning process, a thin sheet or piece of britannia metal is placed upon a wooden model shaped like the article to be made; the model is made to rotate in a lathe; and burnishers and other tools are employed to press the yielding metal into all the curvatures of the model. Ductility is an essential quality to the attainment of this end with the metal; how complete it is, may be seen in such articles as britannia metal teapots and dish-covers, the principal forms of which are not given by hammering, stamping, or casting, but by spinning. Besides spinning and swagging, the processes include stamping, soldering, casting, and polishing. When electro-plating was introduced, an increased use of britannia metal arose, as it forms a good ground or basis for the deposited silver. Britannia metal spoons and ladles, made by casting, stamping, and burnishing, have been nearly driven out of the market by German silver; but the former metal is more largely used than ever for hot-water jugs, soup tureens, gravy-dishes, vegetable and side dishes, dram bottles, drinking-cups, sandwich cases, wine-coolers, soap-boxes, liquorframes, cruets, waiters, trays, etc.; and as a basis for electro-plate. Birmingham is the chief seat of the manufacture.

BRITANNIA TUBULAR BRIDGE, a railway bridge over the Menai strait, remarkable alike for its gigantic dimensions, and as being the first construction of the kind ever undertaken. With a view to facilitate communication with Ireland via Holyhead, the directors of the Chester and Holyhead railway in 1845 sought the aid of Mr. Robert Stephenson, the great engineer, to bridge the sirait with such a structure as should admit of the safe passage of heavily laden trains without in any way interfering with the navigation of the channel. About a mile above the suspension-bridge, and nearer Carnarvon, a rock in the middle of the strait rose 10 ft. above the water at low tide; and on this site, provided by nature, it was resolved to erect a bridge in the form of a rectangular tube, composed of wrought-iron plates riveted together in a manner to combine the greatest strength with the greatest lightness. See STRENTH OF MATERIALS and TUBULAR BRIDGES. In the spring of 1846, the undertaking was commenced; by the 22d of June, 1849, the Britannia tower on the rock in the center of the strait was com. pleted (height, 191 ft. 6 in. above high-water mark). Other two towers, some 18 ft. lower, were erected on each side of the Britannia tower; thns dividing the space into four spans, of which the two center ones are 460 ft. each, the other two being comparatively narrow. The short tubes between the abutments and the short towers were constructed, by means of strong scaffolding and stages, in the places they were to occupy when finished; the long central tubes were built at the water-edge, from whence they were floated off on pontoons to the base of the towers, which had grooves or recesses made to receive them, and then elevated gradually (supports being built under their ends as they ascended) by powerful hydraulic presses to the requisite height, 102 ft. above highwater mark. On the 13th of Oct., 1849, the first long tube, 472 ft. in length (12 ft. being allowed for the rest at both ends), and about 1800 tons in weight, was safely fixed at its proper height above the sea. The other center tube was got up by Dec.; and on the 5th of Mar., 1850, a train swept through, and the bridge was open for traffic. In Aug. the parallel line of tubes was completed, and the up and down trains could now pass over the Menai with as little delay and danger as over any other part of the line. The total length of the bridge is 1811 ft., of the tubes, 1513 feet. The extrerie height of the tube at the Britannia tower is 30 ft., diminishing to 22 ft. 9 in. at the abutments, “the difference being made to give a true parabolic curve to the top while the bottom is straight.” Inside, the width is 13 ft. 8 in. throughout, and the height 26 ft. at the middle, and 18 ft. 9 in. at the ends. To provide for the expansion and contraction of the metal, the bed-plates in the shore towers and in the abutments, on which the tubes rest, are made to move freely on cast-iron rollers and balls. This precaution, for securing free movement to the tubes, was not unnecessary, as it has been found that between the expansion of summer and contraction of winter there is a difference of fully 12 inches. The total weight of iron used was nearly 12,000 tons, of which the tubes contain 9360 tons of malleable iron, 1015 tons of cast iron, and 175 of permanent railway. In their fabrication 186,000 different pieces of iron, fastened together by more than 2,000,000 rivets, were used; and in the towers, abutments, etc., there is 1,492, 151 cubic feet of masonry. The total cost was about £602,000. The whole structure was completed in 1850. See TUBULAR BRIDGE. See illus., BRIDGES, P. 52, fig. 8.

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