ePub 版

on his own system, and intended to assist in carrying the plan into effect; but died in 1618, when the whole work was left to Briggs. In the same year he published his Chilias Prima Logarithmorum, containing the first thousand natural numbers calculated to eight decimal places, and in 1624 published his Arithmetica Logarithmica, the fruit of many years of unwearied application, and giving the logarithms of natural numbers from 1 to 20,000, and from 90,000 to 101,000, with 15 places. His system of logarithms is that now commonly adopted. Leaving others to carry out his calculations, for which he had provided every facility, he next employed himself on a table of logarithms of sines and tangents, carried to the hundredth part of a degree, and to 15 places, which, with a table of natural sines, tangents, and secants, was posthumously published at Gouda, in Holland, 1633, under the title of Trigonometria Britannica.

BRIGHAM, AMARIAH, 1798-1849; b. Mass.; a physician who devoted great atten. tion to the cause and cure of insanity. He was superintendent of the retreat for the insane in Hartford, Conn., and of the New York state asylum. While at the latter institution he gave lectures and established the Journal of Insanity. Among his works are Mental Cultivation and Ercitement; The Influence of Religion upon the Tealth and Physical Welfare of Mankind; and The Anatomy, Physiology, and Pathology of the Brain.

BRIGHT, JESSE D., b. New York, 1812. Early in life be settled in Indiana as a lawyer, and became state senator and lieutenant-governor. In 1845, he was elected to the United States senate, where he served 17 years. In 1862, he was expelied from the senate for having written to Jefferson Davis as “ President of the Confederate States,” recommending to him a man who desired to furnish arms for the confederates. He d. 1875.

BRIGHT, JOAN, a popular politician, first brought into notice by the anti-corn-law agitation, son of Jacob Bright, a Quaker cotton spinner and manufacturer at Rochdale, Lancashire, was b. at Greenbank, near that town, Nov. 16, 1811. In 1835, he made a foreign tour, which included a journey to Palestine, and, on his return, delivered before a literary institution at Rochdale, of which he was one of the founders, lectures on the subject of his travels, and on topics connected with commerce and political economy. When the anti-corn-law league was formed in 1839, he was one of its leading members, and, with Mr. Cobden, engaged in an extensive free-trade agitation throughout the kingdom. In the spring of 1843, he offered himself as a candidate for the representation of Durham, and, though at first unsuccessful, he became, in July of the same year, M.P. for that city. At all times an animated and effective speaker, B. was incessant, both at public meetings and in parliament, in his opposition to the corn laws, until they were finally repealed. In 1845, he obtained the appointment of a select committee of the house of commons on the game laws, and also one on the subject of cotton cultivation in India. An abridgment of the evidence taken before the former, published in one volume, contained from his pen an Address to the Tenant Farmers of Great Britain, strongly condemning the existing game laws. At the general election of 1847, he was elected one of the members for Manchester. He co-operated with Mr. Cobden in the movement in favor of financial reform. On the formation of the first Derby ministry, Feb. 27, 1852, B. aided in the temporary reorganization of the corn-law league, in favor of the principles of free trade; and at the general election which followed, was re-elected for Manchester. A member of the peace society, and strenuously opposed to the war with Russia in 1854, B. was one of the meeting of the society of Friends, by whom a deputation was sent to the emperor Nicholas to urge upon him the maintenance of peace; and in 1855 he energetically denounced the Crimean war. A severe illness compelled him to withdraw for a time to the continent, and in his absence he was rejected by Man. chester. Elected in 1857 for Birmingham, he seconded the motion against the second reading of the conspiracy bill, which led to the overthrow of lord Palmerston's govern: ment. His name then became chiefly associated with the movement for reforming the electoral representation, which resulted in the act of 1867. In 1868, he accepted ottice as president of the board of trade, but in 1870 was again obliged to retire, in consequence of severe illness. His health having been partially restored, he held office in 1873–74 as chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster, and again in 1881. In 1880 he was appointed lord rector of Glasgow univ. In 1882 he retired from the Gladstone ministry, being unable to support the government in its Egyptian policy. After that, his appearances were infrequent, but in 1883 he defended himself in the house of commons from a charge of breach of privilege in connection with speeches delivered at Birmingham. In 1886-88 he opposed the home rule policy of Gladstone. He d. Mar. 27, 1889. He was one of the most eloquent speakers of his time. A collection of his speeches was published in 1868; a Life, by Robertson (1877); his Life and Speeches, 2 vols., by G. Barnett Smith (1881); and his Public Letters (1885).

BRIGHT, JOHN MORGAN, LL.D. See page 878.

BRIGHT, RICHARD, 1789-1858 ; an English physician educated at Edinburgh, Berlin, and Vienna ; from 1820 he was connected with Guy's hospital. He made many important medical observations (see BRIGHT'S DISEASE), and wrote numerous medical dis. sertations. His Travels through Lower Hungary (1818) contains a valuable account of the gypsies.

BRIGHTENING, in calico-printing, is the operation of rendering the colors of printed fabrics more bright or brilliant, by boiling them in solutions of soda and other materials. BRIGHTON, a former t. in Middlesex co., Mass., 4 m. w. of Boston on the Albany and Boston railroad; pop. '70, 4957. It is famous as the great cattle-market of Boston and the east. It has besides some manufacturing establishments. Since 1873 it has been a part of Boston.

BRIGHTON, originally Brighthelmstone, a t. and a celebrated watering place on the sea-coast of Sussex, 501 m. s. of London. It is built on a slope ascending eastward to a range of high chalk.cliffs (backed by the South Downs), bounding the coast as far as Beachy Head; to the west, these hills recede from the coast, and leave a long stretch of sands. Anciently, Brighthelmstone was a mere fishing-village on a level under the cliff; and more than once it was burnt and plundered by French marauders. It was fortified by Henry VIII., and more strongly by Elizabeth; but the sea proved more dangerous than the French, and now washes over the site of the village of those days. The inroads of the sea in 1699, 1703, and 1705, undermined many cliffs and destroyed many houses. Its further inroads are prevented by a sea-wall of great strength (60 ft. high, 23 ft. thick at the base, and 2 m. long), extending along the cliffs, and built at the cost of £100,000. The writings of Dr. Russel, a celebrated physician of George II.'s time, first drew public attention to B. as an eligible watering-place, and the discovery of a chalybeate spring in the vicinity increased its popularity. The visit of the prince of Wales in 1782, and his subsequent yearly residence there, finally opened the eyes of the fashionable world to its immense attractions, and B. thenceforth became the crowded resort of a healthseeking population. Its progress has been very rapid, and the town is still steadily increasing. B. is for the most part extremely well built, as becomes a favored retreat of wealth and aristocracy. It mostly consists of new and elegant streets, squares, and terraces. The hotels are magnificent. A range of splendid houses fronts the sea for nearly 3 m., including the famous sea-wall, and the beach is easily accessible by gaps in the chalk-cliffs. Formerly, trees were a great rarity in B.; but within the last thirty years they have been planted both in and around the town, and are now to be seen of considerable size in the North Steyne Inclosures, the Level, and the Queen's park. Pop. in 1801, 7339; in '21, 24,429; in '51, 65,569; in '81, 107,528. B. returns two members to parliament. The population is greatly increased during the fashionable season by the influx of visitors. The town was incorporated in 1854. Living and house-rent are about a third higher than in London. Near the center of the town is the pavilion or marine palace, a fantastic oriental or Chinese structure, with domes, minarets, and pinnacles, and Moorish stables, begun for the prince of Wales in 1784, and finished in 1827. It is now the property of the corporation of B., and with its fine pleasure-grounds of above seven acres, it is devoted to the recreation of the inhabitants. It stands in the Steyne, an open space between the e. and w. parts of the town. The marine parade, a fine terrace, extends about a m. along the margin of the cliff, between the Steyne and Kemp town, a handsome district on the east. Westward, there is a similar parade or promenade, extending a great length in front of the more modern part of the town, and here there is daily a large and fashionable concourse. There are two piers—a chain pier on the e., opposite the marine parade, and a broad wooden pier on piles on the w.; both are used for promenading. A magnificent aquarium, 715 ft. in length, was opened in 1872. B. has no maritime trade. It is reputedly a town for recreation and sea-bathing Its only defect is a want of trees to shade ihe promenades; the sea breeze being adverse to the growth of trees. B. possesses several large public hotels, and is more particularly noted for its excellent private hotels or boarding houses, locally known as “mansions." B. is connected with London, and also with the towns along the coast, by railways. From its salubrity, the town abounds in boarding-schools.

BRIGHT'S DISEASE (of the kidneys), so called after the English physician, Dr. Bright, who first investigated its character, consists of a degeneration of the tissues of the kidney into fat, and will be better understood after the anatomy of the organ has been studied. Suffice it to say now, that this degenerated condition im pairs the excreting powers of the organ, so that the urea is not sufficiently separated from the blood. The flow of the latter, when charged with this urea, is retarded through the minute ves. sels, congestion ensues, and exudation of albumen and fibrin is the result. When we apply heat to the urine from a kidney so affected, it becomes opaque, showing that it contained albumen (q.v.); and on examining a drop of it under the microscope, we observe the exuded lymph mixed with epithelium in the form of casts of the small ducts of the diseased organ. The patient presents a flabby, bloodless look, is drowsy, and easily fatigued. The disease may succeed any of the eruptive fevers, and is frequently associated with enlargement of the heart.

The causes of this terrible malady are any which cause congestion of the kidneysindulgence in strong drinks, long continued suppuration, exposure to wet and cold, the exanthematous fevers, and pregnancy. The indications for treatment are, to remove any of those causes which may be present, rectify the other secretions, relieve any temporary congestion of the kidneys, at the same time endeavoring to increase the number of red blood globules by the administration of iron and vegetable bitters. And in the advanced stages, when the blood is poisoning the nervous centers, attempts should be made to restore the secretion of urine by administering diuretics (q.v.), by giving hydrochloric and vegetable acids, sponging the patient with vinegar, and relieving the congestion of the brain by purgatives and local bleeding. See ALBUMINURIA.

BRIGITTINES, or ORDER OF OUR SAVIOR, founded in 1344, as a branch of the Augus. tinians, by St. Brigida or Brigitta, of Sweden. There were both monks and nuns who inhabited contiguous buildings, but were said never to see each other. Temporal affairs were supervised by the nuns; spiritual by the monks. The northern kingdoms of Europe had monasteries of this order, but the reformation swept them away. Henry V. founded one house near London; Henry VIII. suppressed it; Mary re-established it; and Elizabeth finally suppressed it. There are now no monks of the order. A few convents existed in 1860 in Bavaria, Poland, and elsewhere.

BRIGNOLES, a t. in the department of Var, France, beautifully situated in a fertile valley, surrounded by forest-clad hills, and watered by a stream called the Calami, about 22 m. w.s. w. of Draguignan. B., which is a very salubrious place, has manufactures of broadcloth, silk twist, soap, leather, pottery, etc.; and a trade in wines, brandy, olives, and prunes. Pop. '81, 6134.


BRIHUE'GA, a t. of New Castile, Spain, 20 m. e.n.e. of Guadalajara, is situated on the Tajuña, and was formerly surrounded by walls, of which traces still exist. The remains of an old Moorish fortress now serve as å cemetary. B. has manufactures of woolens, linen, glass, and leather. Pop. 4500. Here, in 1710, during the war of the succession, the English general Stanhope, owing to the dilatoriness of his allies in affording him support, was defeated by the Duke de Vendôme, and compelled to surrender, with all his force, amounting to about 5500 men.

BRIL, the name of two Dutch painters.-MATTHÆUS B., b. at Antwerp, 1550, went during his youth to Italy, and, under the patronage of pope Gregory XIII., painted several frescos in the Vatican. He was also distinguished as a historical and landscape painter. He died in 1584. His more celebrated younger brother, PAUL B., b. 1554 or 1556, received instruction under Matthæus in Rome, and soon excelled his master. His pieces were at first conceived in the fantastic style which then prevailed; but gradually his style increased in power and beauty, until it exerted a striking intiuence over land. scape-painting. The works of his riper age exhibit high poetical qualities, and a fine appreciation of the effects of light in the sky, which have been described as but little inferior to those of his great successor, Claude Lorraine. They have a character of sol. emn rest and calmness, and at times even an elegiac tone of melancholy, which well accords with representations of the glories of fallen Rome. A collection of excellent landscapes by B. is found in the palace Rospigliosi in Rome, and two beautiful land. scapes enricli the gallery of the Pitti palace, Florence. Besides landscapes, B. painted scenes from Biblical history; among them, the “ Tower of Babel,” now in the Berlin museum. Other pictures by B. are found in the galleries of Munich, Vienna, and the Louvre. He died at Rome in 1626.

BRILL, Rhombus vulgaris, a fish of the same genus with the turbot (q.v.), found in considerable abundance on some parts of the British coasts, and common in the markets of the larger towns. It resembles the turbot more than any other British species of this genus, but is at once distinguished by its inferior breadth, which (excluding the fins) is only equal to half its entire length; by the want of tubercles on the upper surface; by a few of the most anterior rays of the dorsal fin being elongated beyond the membrane; and by the coloring, which is reddish sandy-brown on the upper side, varied with darker brown and sprinkled with white pearly spots, the under side being (as in the turbot) white. The B. is taken both in sandy bays and in deep water. Although considered very inferior to the turbot, it is yet much esteemed for the table. It seldom or never attains so great a size as the turbot, rarely exceeding 8 lbs. in weight.

BRILLAT-SAVARIN, ANTHELME, 1755-1826; a French author, deputy in the states-general in 1789; judge of the court of cassation in 1792; the next year mayor of Bellay, but obliged to fly from the revolution. He came to New York, where he lived for three years, teaching French and playing in the orchestra of a theater. He returned to France in 1796, and under the consulate again became a judge. He wrote on political economy, and on the archæology of the department of Ain, but is best known by his Physiology of Taste.

BRILLIANT is a popular name given to the diamond when cut in a particular way See DIAMOND.

BRIMSTONE (Saxon brenne-stone, a stone that burns) is the commercial name for sulphur (q.v.), in sticks or rolls.

BRIN'DISI (the ancient Brundisium or Brundusium), a seaport t. of southern Italy, in the province of Lecce, is situated on a small promontory in a bay of the Adriatic sex, about 45 m. e.n.e. of Taranto. B. is a city of very great antiquity. It was taken from the Sallentines by the Romans 267 B.C., who some 20 years later established a colony here. The town, partly owing to the fertility of the country, but chiefly on account of its

excellent port-consisting of an inner and outer barbor, the former perfectly landlocked, and capable of containing the largest fleets and of casy defense on account of its narrow entrance, and the latter also very well sheltered-rapidly increased in wealth and importance. It soon became the principal naval station of the Romans in the Adriatic In 230 B.C., B. was the starting-place of the Roman troops that took part in the first Illyrian war; and from this point the Romans nearly always directed subsequent wars with Macedonia, Greece, and Asia. And when the Roman power had been firmly established beyond the Adriatic, B. became a city second to none in south Italy in commercial importance. Horace, who accompanied Antony in a hostile movement on B. in 41 B.c., has made the journey the subject of one of his satires (Sat. i. 5). Virgil died here in 19 B.C., on his return from Greece. The city appears to have retained its importance until the fall of the empire, but it suffered greatly in the wars which followed. When the Normans became possessed of it in the 11th c., the Crusaders made it their chief port for embarkation to the Holy Land; but with the decline of the crusades, B. sank into comparative insignificance as a naval station. The city subsequently suffered greatly from wars and earthquakes. The principal buildings are the cathedral, where the emperor Frederick II, was married to Yolanda in 1225; and the castle, com menced by Frederick II., and finished by Charles V. The district around B. is still remarkable for its fertility, olive oil being produced in large quantities. Some years ago, B. was constituted an entrepôt for foreign goods. Since the establishment of the overland route to India, B. has greatly increased, being the most convenient point of departure for the east from northern and central Europe. The extensive and wellsheltered harbor has undergone great improvement, and a substantial bulwark has been built across the n. arm to prevent it from being filled with sand. In 1874, 929 vessels, of 380,069 tons, cleared the port. Pop. '81, 14,508.

BRINDLEY, JAMES, an eminent English mechanic and engineer, b. in Thornsett, near Chapelen-le-Firth, Derbyshire, in 1716. Apprenticed at 17 to a millwright, he afterwards became an engineer, and in 1752 showed great ingenuity in contriving a waterengine for draining a coal-mine. A silk-mill on a new plan, and several others of his works, recommended him to the duke of Bridgewater (q.v.), who employed him to execute the canal between Worsley and Manchester. Thenceforth he devoted his great skill and genius to the construction of navigable canals; commenced the Grand Trunk, and completed the Birmingham, Chesterfield, and others. Once, when under examination before a committee of the house of commons, being jocularly asked for what purpose he supposed rivers to have been created, he is said to have replied: “Undoubtedly to feed navigable canals.” He died in 1772.

BRINE is the term applied to water highly impregnated with common salt, and BRINE SPRINGS are those natural waters containing much salt, which in many parts of the world gush out from fissures in the ground. See Salt,

BRINE-SHRIMP, Artemia salina, a small crustacean, of the order branchiopoda (q.v.), which, unlike the greater number of animals of that order, is an inhabitant not of fresh but of salt water, and is indeed remarkable, because it is to be found in myriads swim. ming about in the brine of salt-pans previous to boiling, when, having been concentrated by exposure to sun and air for about a fortnight, it destroys the life of almost all other marine animals. The full-grown B. is about half an inch long. The little animal is almost transparent, and is extremely active and graceful in its movements. The workmen at salt-pans so confidently ascribe to it the rapid clearing of the brine in which it occurs, that when it does not appear in their salterns, they transport a few from other salterns. They multiply with extraordinary rapidity.

BRINJAREE DOG, a rough-haired or long-haired variety of greybound (q.v.), used in the Deccan, and said to be the best of the hunting-dogs of India. It is said to be superior in size and strength to the Persian greyhound, but not to be equal to the British grey. hound in swiftness. It is generally of a yellowish or tan color.

BRINVILLIERS, MARIE MARGUERITE, Marquise de, notorious as a poisoner in the time of Louis XIV., was the daughter of Dreux d'Aubray, lieutenant of Paris, and re. ceived a careful education. In 1651, she was married, while still young, to the marquis de Brinvilliers. This nobleman seems to have been a gay and careless spendthrift, who allowed his wife to do very much as she pleased. He even introduced to her a young officer named Jean Baptiste de Gaudin, Seigneur de St. Croix, who was exceedingly handsome, and who inspired her with a violent passion. Her easy husband, however, was wholly indifferent to his wife's conduct; but her father, who seems to have had a stricter sense of duty, caused St. Croix to be arrested and imprisoned in the Bastile. It was here the latter learned the art of preparing poisons, from an Italian, and on bis release he imparted his fatal knowledge to his mistress, who, during his incarceration, had affected the greatest piety, spending most of her time in visiting the hospitals and in attending the sick. The marchioness novi resolved to destroy her father. St. Croix eagerly abetted her, in the hope of obtaining a portion of the paternal inheritance; but in order to test the efficacy of the poison, she tried its effects upon the invalids of the hôtel Dieu. Having satisfied herself, she commenced operations on her parent, kissing and poisoning him continually for eight months, until her diabolical patience was exhausted, and she was at last induced to administer a very violent dose. He died, and no one suspected the marchioness. With St. Croix's assistance, and that of a domestic servant, Jean Amelin, alias Chaussée, she next poisoned, with the same fearful indifference to crime, her two brothers and her sisters; her object being to find means of supporting her extravagant style of living with her paramour. Several times she attempted to poison the marquis, her husband; but he escaped, and, as was said, by means of antidotes given by St. Croix, who dreaded that he should be compelled to marry the widow. St. Croix died suddenly in 1672_his glass mask having fallen off while he was engaged in preparing a poison-leaving documents inculpating the marchioness. She was also accused about the same time by her accomplice Chaussée, who being arrested, confessed all and was condemned to be broken alive. The marchioness escaped to England; afterwards she traveled into Germany, and next went to Liege, where she took refuge in a convent. From this, however, she was craftily decoyed by an officer of justice disguised as an abbé, and conveyed to Paris. Among her papers was found a general confession of her crimes, including the above-mentioned murders, and many others. One strange confession stated that, out of pity for a virtuous young lady who had been imprisoned in a convent, the marchioness had poisoned a whole family! It is a singular fact, that this infamous woman was a bigot in her religious tenets, and was quite exemplary in her attendance at church. At her trial in Paris, she at first denied all charges brought against her, and pretended that the “general confession" had been written during the insanity caused by a fever; but after being put to the torture, she made a full confession, and was beheaded, July 16, 1676. Her career had excited such terror in France, that Louis XIV. instituted a distinct tribunal, the chambre ardente (q.v.), to investigate cases of poisoning by the “succession powder” used by the marchioness.

BRION, GUSTAVE, b. 1824; a French painter. Among his chief works are “The Potato Harvest during the Inundation,” “A Funeral in the Vosges," "A Marriage in Alsace,” and “The Sixth Day of Creation," the latter, exhibited in New York. D. 1877.

BRION, Luis, 1782–1821; an admiral in the Colombian service, who served in the army of Holland, studied navigation in the United States, and in 1811 was appointed captain of a frigate in the service of Caraccas. Subsequently he fitted out a fleet by his own exertions and drove the Spaniards from the island of Margarita. He was also distinguished in the conquest of Guiana, and at Cartagena and Santa Marta.

BRIOUDE, a t. of France, in the department of Ilaute-Loire, situated near the left bank of the river Allier, about 29 m. n.w. of Le Puy. It occupies the site of Brivas, a town of the ancient Averni. Its principal buildings are the college and the church of St. Julien, fonnded in the 9th c., on the site of a still more ancient edifice erected on the spot where the saint was martyred. B. has manufactures of linen and woolen, and a trade in the agricultural produce of the district. Lafayette was born here. Pop. '81, 4950.

BRISBANE. 1. B., an inland co. of Queensland, about 120 m. n.n.w. of Sydney.2. B., a seaport, the capital of Queensland, about 640 m. n. of Sydney. It stands near the mouth of a river of its own name, which falls into Moreton bay. Regular steam communication is kept up with Sydney and other Australiau ports. B. possesses some fine buildings, among the chief of which are the houses of legislature, which cost £100.000, the post-office, and the viceregal lodge. There are 31 churches. Pop. '81, 31,109.-3. B., the river just mentioned. It rises in the main ridge which divides the rivers of the interior from those of the coast.-All the foregoing are named after the subject of the succeeding article.

BRISBANE, General Sir THOMAS MAKDOUGAL, a distinguished soldier and astronomer, was b. at Brisbane, the hereditary seat of his family, near Largs, Ayrshire, July 23, 1773. At the early age of 16 he entered the army as an ensign, and in the following year, when quartered in Ireland, he formed an intimate acquaintance with Arthur Wellesley, afterwards duke of Wellington. With a company he had raised in Glasgow in 1793, B. took part in all the engagements of the campaign in Flanders; and in the West Indies, to which he was sent in 1796, he greatly distinguished himself under sir Ralph Abercromby. He afterwards served in the West Indies as col. of the 69th; and in 1812 obtained command of a brigade under the duke of Wellington in Spain. For his conspicuous bravery at the battle of the Nive he received the thanks of parliament. When Napoleon abdicated, B. was sent in command of a brigade to North America, from whence he was recalled in 1815, but too late to admit of his being present at Waterloo. In 1821, B., on the recommendation of his friend the duke, was appointed governor of New South Wales, a position he held for four years, during which time he introduced many wise reforms, especially in penal treatment; secured at his own expense good breeds of horses for the colony; promoted the cultivation of the sugar-cane, vine, tobacco, and cotton; and left at the close of his administration, which was marked by perfect tolerance and protection of all classes of Christians—50,000 acres of cleared land where he had found only 25,000. But high as B. ranks as a soldier and administrator, as a man of science he holds a still higher place. While in Australia, he catalogued no less than 7385 stars, for which great work-known as “the Brisbane Catalogue of Stars"-he received the Copley medal from the royal society. On his return to Scotland, he had an astronomical observatory established at his residence at Makerstoun, and devoted himself entirely to scientific pursuits. He entered warmly into the plans of the British association for ascertaining the laws of the earth's magnetism, and in 1841 had a splendid magnetic observatory

« 上一頁繼續 »