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ings; to imperfectly cleansed cattle-trucks. So subtile and potent is the plague poison, and so endowed with the power of self-multiplication and growth, that a very minute portion of it finding access to the blood of a healthy animal of the bovine race increases 60 rapidly, that to use the words of the commissioners' report, No. III. p. 4, “ the whole mass of the blood, weighing many pounds, is infected; and every small particle of that blood contains enough poison to give the disease to another animal.” It may gain access to the blood probably through the air-passages, perhaps also by absorption through the mucous surface of the bowels, or even through the skin.
Symptoms.-In from three to six days after an animal has been exposed to the virus of cattle-plague, or about 36 to 48 hours after being purposely inoculated, the temperature of the body is raised by several degrees. A delicate thermometer introduced into the vagina or rectum, instead of marking about 102° F., indicates 104° to 106o. As yet the appetite, secretion of milk, breathing, and pulse are scarcely if at all affocted, and but for the elevation of temperature, accompanied sometimes by dullness, the animal might be supposed to be in the best of health. Two or three days later, or usually within six or eight days after the beast has taken in the subtile virus, the mucous membrane of the mouth is generally observed to be slightly reddened, and soon a granular yellowish-white eruption, consisting of thickened epithelium cells and granules, appears on the gums round the incisor teeth, and by and by on the lips and dental pad. Some hours later, the same eruption extends to the cheeks, tongue, and hard palate. Within 48 hours, or about the sixth day of attack, a crust of epithelium covers the gums, lips, and mouth, and when wiped away, or accidentally rubbed off, leaves the abraded membrane red and vascular, and exhibiting patches of erosion. The membrane lining the vagina indicates very similar appearances; it is reddened and vascular, dotted with grayish translucent elevations about the size of rape-seeds, covered with a whitish-yellow, usually sticky discharge, and occasionally marked with patches of excoriation. The skin, like the mucous surfaces, is congested; there is hence a perverted develop ment of scarf skin, and of the oleaginous secretion of the irritated sebaceous glands. The skin is thus invested with a furfuraceous desquamation; whilst on its thinner portions about the lips, between the thighs, and on the udder, there are papular eruptions orelevations. About two, or even three days after the temperature has been increased, and usually one, or even two days after the appearance of the characteristic eruption on the gums, the constitutional symptoms present themselves. The animal is dull, hangs its head, arches its back, the eyes are leaden and watery, and from both eyes and nose there latterly comes a dirty slimy discharge. Appetite and rumination are irregular, and in dairy cows, the secretion of milk rapidly abates. The breathing, especially towards the sixth day, is oppressed, expiration is prolonged, and accompanied by a peculiar grunt. The pulse is small and thready, and quickened as death approaches. The bowels, usually at first confined, become, towards the sixth or seventh day, much relaxed; the discharges passed, often with pain and straining, are profuse and liquid, offensive, acrid, pale colored, and occasionally mixed with blood. The patient loses weight and strength, totters if it attempt to walk, and prefers to lie rather than to stand. Death usually occurs about the seventh day, and is preceded by muscular twitchings, a peculiar sickly, often offensive smell, a cold clammy state of body, moaning, grinding of the teeth, and rapidly increasing prostration.
Prognosis. —Cases usually terminate unfavorably when about the fifth or sixth day the animal temperature falls rapidly; the pulse becomes small, quick, and weak; the breathing more difficult, distressed, and moaning; the diarrhea increased; and the depression more notable. A more favorable termination may be anticipated when, after the fifth day, the heightened temperature, so notable even from the earliest stages, abates gradually; the breathing becomes easier; the pulse firmer; the visible mucous mem. branes appear healthier; and patches of extravasation
or erosion speedily
disappear. Sheep do not take rinderpest spontaneously, and even when kept with diseased cattle, or inoculated with cattle-plague virus, they do not catch the disease so certainly as cattle do. When diseased, they exhibit, however, very similar symptoms, but professor Röll, and other observers, record that upwards of 40 per cent recover. Goats, deer, antelopes, gazelles, yaks, and indeed all animals taking rinderpest, exhibit with tolerable uniformity the same characteristic symptoms.
Post-mortem Appearances. The mucous membranes are generally deeper colored than natural, are congested, softened, marked in places with the same granular patches discoverable during life within the mouth and the vagina, and in bad cases exhibit ædema, hæmorrhage, and sloughing. The first three stomachs sometimes contain a good deal of food, but show less declension from health than the fourth stomach, of which the mucous membrane is dotted with spots of congestion and extravasation. The coats of the bowels are thinned and easily torn. The mucous coat, especially towards the middle of the small intestines, the opening into the cæcum, and posterior half of rectum, is much congested, bared of epithelium, and sometimes ecchymosed, but never ulcerated. Peyer's glands, so generally inflamed in the somewhat analogous typhoid fever of man, are perfectly healthy. The liver, spleen, and pancreas seldom present any special appearances. The respiratory mucous membrane, like the digestive, is vascular, and marked with submucous hemorrhage; the lungs are generally emphysem. atous, the heart often marked with petechial spots. The urino-genital, like the other mucous membranes, is congested in females, especially towards the lower part of the vagina and vulva; the kidneys are sometimes rather softened, the serous membranes and nervous centers are perfectly unchanged. Dr. Beale, by his microscopical observations, discovers in the capillaries a great increase of nuclear or germinal matter, and white blood-corpuscles, which he believes may account for the local congestion. The blood itself is dark in color; in the later stages it contains less water, probably owing to the draining diarrhea, and about double its usual proportion of fibrine. The muscular tissues are softened, easily broken down, and contain an abnormal amount of soluble albumen. The urine is little altered in quantity, but from the first rise in the animal temperature, it contains an increase of urea varying from 5 to 15 per cent. The chief change in the milk is its rapid diminution in quantity, and the increase of its fatty matters. The bile is watery, offensive, and prone to decomposition.
Treatment.–Cattle-plague is proved to be an eruptive fever. When the specific poison, on which such disorders depend, has entered the body of a susceptible subject, no remedy has yet been discovered which can destroy it, or even materially shorten or mitigate its effects. Until such an antidote is found, there can be no hope of certain cure. The cattle-plague commissioners have collected information regarding the four following methods of treatment-namely, the antiphlogistic, the tonic and stimulant, the antiseptic, and the special. Diverse as are these systems, the percentages of recoveries, varying from 25.83 to 27.45, were so nearly alike, that it is fair to conclude that no one of the systems tried exercised any notable influence in checking the mortality. Partly, perhaps, from the varying virulence of the plague, partly from differences in the nursing and care bestowed on the animals, the proportion of recoveries has varied greatly in different localities. Up to the end of 1865, in Huntingdon they were only 4.668 per cent; in Norfolk they were 12.102; in Flint, 15.909; in Scotland, 10.889; whilst in Fifeshire they reached 24.532; and in Yorkshire, 29. 731 per cent.
Like small-pox, measles, and other eruptive fevers in man, rinderpest runs a definite course which cannot safely be interfered with. Rational treatment is therefore limited to warding off untoward symptoms, to careful nursing, and husbanding the failing strength. It must, however, be remembered that throughout the progress of the disease there is constantly given off from the sick body minute particles, which are capable of developing the disorder in healthy cattle. Hence plague-subjects, by the orders in council, are very properly desired to be immediately destroyed. Except, therefore, for purely scientific purposes, and with careful precautions to prevent the spread of the poison, it is unwise to attempt remedial treatment. Where, however, a beast is to have a chance of recovery, so soon as the elevated temperature indicates the accession of the disease, solid indigestible food should be withheld, and the patient restricted to mashes, gruel, boiled linseed, malt, and other food, which can be digested without the necessity for rumination. The paramount importance of such a dietary is clearly demonstrated in the returns of the Edinburgh cattle.plague committee to the government commissioners. The recoveries amongst 310 cattle “fed with dry food, and treated medicinally with drugs,” were 13.6. Amongst 303 cattle treated with mixed food and hay, 22. 2 recovered. Where mashes were given during sickness, but dry food supplied during convalescence, the recoveries reached 51.5; whilst in 95 cottagers' cows, whose chief ordinary dietary consisted of mashed food, and which were fed in the same manner throughout both sickness and convalescence, and were besides carefully nursed but not doctored, the recoveries reached 73.7. Where the bowels at the outset are costive, a dose of oil, or a very small quantity of some saline purgative, may be required. Cold water, gruel, mashes, or stale bread soaked either in water or beer, should be offered at short intervals throughout the attack. The animal, kept in an atmosphere of about 60°, should be comfortably clothed, and have its legs bandaged. The hot-air bath and wet-packing has been repeatedly tried, but although probably useful in the earlier stages, appear, when the disease is fully established, to harass and weaken the patient. Small and repeated doses of sulphite of soda have in some cases proved useful, and may be conjoined with carefully regulated moderate doses of such stimulants as ale, whisky and water, sweet spirit of niter, spirit of ammonia, or strong coffee. It is most important, however, that these and other such medicines should be drunk by the animal of its own accord in its gruel, water, or mashes, as the forcible horning over of drenches always disturbs the patient. The inhalation of chloroform, although temporarily relieving the distressed breathing, does not appear to exert any permanent benefit.
Prevention.-From what has been stated regarding the nature of cattle-plague, it must be evident that its prevention can only be effected by the destruction of the specific virus, or by removing beyond its influence all animals on which it might fasten. Sparks fall harmless where no inflammable materials lie within reach, and there are many such materials. Neither should sheep, fresh hides, hay, nor any other fodder and liter from countries where this ruinous plague exists, or has recently visited, be allowed to enter
This very obvious precaution took strong hold of the public mind, and the practical result is, that importations of cattle-plague are guarded against by the provisions of the contagious diseases (animals) acts, 1869 and 1878. Neither cattle, sheep, nor pigs, fodder, litter, or hides, can be landed from countries where the plague exists, or from places in direct communication with such infected countries. All foreign stock is
inspected at the ports of debarkation, and inspectors have orders for the immediate slaughter and disinfection of cattle-plague subjects, and of any animals with which they have been in contact. But even with such precautions, foreign cattle frequently bring with them catching disorders, notably foot-and-mouth disease. Since they constitute, however, less than 5 per cent of the total cattle stock of the country, such risks should be removed by converting the foreign cattle traffic into a dead-meat trade.
Rinderpest being found to resemble smallpox in men and sheep, it was thought that its propagation and virulence might be abated by vaccination with cowpox lymph; but catile, even when effectually vaccinated, which is often a difficult task, readily take rinderpest, often in its most mortal forms. Inoculation with the discharges from mild cases and from young calves has been tried as a palliative; but the disease, thus artificially developed, loses nothing either of its severity or of its dangerous contagious character. Cattle in Oxfordshire receiving for several weeks daily doses of sulphite of soda are stated to have had the plague in a mild form.
Where an outbreak occurs, the diseased animals must be promptly destroyed, and all cattle in immediate contact with them should likewise be slaughtered. This “stamping-out system " prevents the multiplication and diffusion of the virus, and hence saves still further losses. It is rigidly and successfully carried out in many continental countries. By stamping out and strict isolation, eight or ten outbreaks in Aberdeenshire were got rid of without serious loss. A French outbreak on the Belgian frontier in Sept., 1865, was stamped out with the sacrifice of forty-three animals. The disease was imported to Paris in Nov. by two gazelles purchased in London by the French Acclimatization society. Before it was stayed by slaughter and segregation, thirty-four animals, including yaks, antelopes, deer, gazelles, goats, and peccari, died or were destroyed. The determined slaughter of diseased and infected animals, and the restrictions on the movement of all stock, were the only means that reduced the number of attacks during the British outbreak of 1865–66. As is officially recorded in the commissioners' report, No. IV., p. 6, “where the percentage of killed is high, the ratio of increase of the disease is low, and vice versa. This has generally been noticed under each county and district."
When plague is in the neighborhood, it is desirable daily to sprinkle the walls, woodwork, and floor of the sheds and lovellings with carbolic acid solution, and to keep up throughout the premises a continual odor of this useful antiseptic, and with a diluted solution of the acid, or with M’Dougall's disinfecting soap, to wash over the cattle daily. The animals should be carefully fed on digestible soft food; receive daily about an ounce of sulphite of soda in a mash; and, in order to note the first access of the disease, should have their temperature examined by the thermometer every night and morning.
The recommendations of the cattle-plague commissioners for the purifying of infected sheds, litter, and manure must receive careful attention. In whatever premises infected beasts have stood, the walls should be lime-washed, a pint of carbolic acid being added to each pailful of the whitewash. The floors and wood-work, after being washed and scrubbed with boiling water, should be sprinkled with a strong solution of carbolic acid. The sheds being emptied of their living inhabitants, and the doors and windows closed, sulphur should be burned, and the vapors allowed to float about for a couple of hours before the sheds are again thrown open to the purifying influences of abundance of fresh air. A pound of sulphur placed on a shovel of burning coals suffices for a twelve-stalled shed or byre. Where cattle plague has raged, this cleaning and fumigation should be repeated, and, if possible, several weeks allowed to elapse before the premises are again occupied by sound animals. All shovels, forks, buckets, or brooms, that have either directly or indirectly come in contact with diseased or infected animals, should be washed with carbolic acid solution. The clothes and boots of attendants, inspectors, and others coming in contact with plague-stricken animals must be similarly cleansed. The manure should be sprinkled with carbolic acid at intervals of a few days, and then covered over with a foot of earth, freely mixed with soil, or carted away and plowed in. It is safer thus to put the manure on the arable land than to use it as a top-dressing for the pastures.
Authorities.—Official reports of commissioners, Nos. I., II., III., and IV.; The Cattle Plague, by prof. Gamgee; Die Rinderpest, by Roloff (2d ed., 1877); and numerous monographs by German authorities. See Supp., page 890.
CATTO'LICA, a t. of Sicily, in the province of Girgenti, and 14 m. n.w. of the city of that name. It has extensive sulphur-works, and a pop. of 7,200.
CATTY (Malayan, kati; Japanese, kin), the unit of weight used throughout Chinese and Malayan Asia, and by the Chinese all over the world. American scales exported to Asia are graduated into catties. A catty is 13 pounds avoirdupois.
CATTYWAR. See KATTYWAR.
CATUL'LUS, VALE'RIUS, a celebrated Roman lyrist, was b. at Verona, 87 B.C. His father was an intimate friend of Julius Cæsar, and the young poet must have frequently met the great warrior at the paternal residence, when the latter was on his way to Gaul. In early life, he went to Rome, where his career was that of an Epicurean, and the expense of this kind of living soon involved him in pecuniary difficulties. To release himself from these, he followed the prætor Memmius to Bithynia, with the intention, like his superior, of wringing a fortune out of the provincials. This fashionable but felonious method of acquiring money did not succeed in C.'s case, mainly, however, through the more dexterous cupidity of Memmius. After his return, C. appears to have lived mostly in Rome, and in very straitened circumstances. When he died is unknown. His poems, 116 in number, chiefly consisting of lyrics and epigrams-first brought to light by Benvenuto Campesani of Verona in the beginning of the 14th c.-have always been justly admired for their exquisite grace and beauty of style; but are, in many places, grossly indecent. In higher styles of writing, C. was equally successful, especially in his odes, of which, unfortunately, only four have been preserved. His heroic or narrative poem on the marriage of Peleus and Thetis-consisting of more than 400 hexameter lines--and the wild enthusiastic poem entitled Atys, are especially worthy of notice. Most of the earlier editions of C. include the works of Tibullus and Propertius. The best modern editions are by Sillig (1823), Lachmann (1829), and Ellis (1867 and 1878). There are English translations by Lamb (1821), Martin (1861), Cranstoun (1867), etc. See Munro's Criticisms (1878).
CAT'ULUS, QUINTUS LUTATIUS, d. 87 B.C.; consul of Rome_with Caius Marius. Catulus was beaten by the invading Cimbri and driven across the Po, but Marius came to his aid, and the barbarians were defeated at Vercellæ in July, 101 B.C. In the civil war Catulus supported Sulla and was proscribed. Preferring death to capture, he suffocated himself over burning charcoal.
CA T'ULUS, QUINTUS LUTATIUS, son of the consul; made consul in 78, and censor in 65, B.C. He put down a rebellion incited by Lepidus after the death of Sulla, and assisted Cicero in the suppression of Catiline's conspiracy.
CAUB, a t. of Nassau, n. Germany, on the right bank of the Rhine, 21 m. w.n.w. of Wiesbaden. It is noteworthy as the place where Blücher crossed the Rhine with his army, Jan. 1, 1814; and also as the place where, till 1866, toll was levied by the duke of Nassau-the only ruler who kept up this feudal privilege-from vessels navigating the Rhine. C. has underground slate-quarries; and opposite, on an island in the river, where Louis le Débonnaire died, 840, is a castle called the Pfalz, built in 1326, and which is said to have been resorted to for safety by the countesses Palatine during their confinement. C. is threatened with destruction by the disintegration of the mountains behind, and in Mar., 1876, a destructive landslip took place. Pop. '71, 2,098.
CAUCA, a river of the United States of Colombia, in South America, which, after flowing 500 m. to the n.e., joins the Magdalena on the w., 150 m. from the Caribbean sea. It gives name to a department of 260,000 sq.m., and (1880) 445,000 inhabitants.
CAU'CA, one of the United States of Colombia, occupying the whole w. coast of the Caribbean sea to Ecuador, including the chain of the Andes and the valley of the Rio Cauca; 257,462 sq.m. (more than half of the republic); pop. '80, 445,000. The region is well cultivated, producing cereals, sugar, tobacco, coffee, cocoa, cotton, etc., and vast herds of horned cattle and mules. The capital is Popayan.
CAUCAS'IAN VARIETY OF MANKIND, an ethnological division adopted by Blumenbach, which included all the inhabitants, ancient and modern, of Europe (except the Finns); in Asia, the Hindus (of high class at least), Persians, Assyrians, Arabians, Jews, Phænicians, inhabitants of Asia Minor and of the Caucasus, etc.; and in Africa, the Egyptians, Abyssinians, and Moors. What Blumenbach had called Caucasians, Dr. Prichard, who may be said to have laid the real foundation of ethnology, makes to consist of two independent groups or varieties, grounding on a radical difference of language. One of these is the Syro-Arabian or Semitic (q.v.) race, and the other the IndoEuropean or Aryan (q.v.) race. The inhabitants of the Caucasus, so long held to be types of the European variety, are now by some excluded from it altogether, and classed with the sallow flat-faced Mongols, to which it is considered the nature of their language and other facts ally them more closely than the symmetry of their shape and complexion do to the European variety. The narrow basis upon which the theory of the Caucasian type was first formed is thus stated by Dr. Latham: “Blumenbach had a solitary Georgian skull; and that skull was the finest in his collection—that of a Greek being the next. Hence it was taken as the type of the skull of the more organized divisions of our species. More than this, it gave its name to the type, and introduced the term Caucasian. Never has a single head done more harm to science than was done in the way of posthumous mischief by the head of this well-shaped female from Georgia.” See ETHNOLOGY
CAUCASUS, a mountain range of great geographical and ethnographical importance, occupying the isthmus between the Black sea and the Caspian, its general direction being from w.n.w. to e.s.e.—from the peninsula of Taman on the Black sea, in lat. 45° 10' n., long. 36° 45' e., to the peninsula of Apsheron on the Caspian, in lat. 40° 20' n., long. 50° 20' e.—a length of about 750 miles. The breadth, including the secondary ranges and spurs, may be stated at about 150 m., but the breadth of the higher C. is much less, not much exceeding 60 or 70 miles. This range, formerly belonging entirely to Asia, now forms part of the boundary-line between Europe and Asia. The higher and central part of the range is formed of parallel chains, not separated by deep and wide valleys, but
remarkably connected by elevated plateaus, which are traversed by narrow fissures of extreme depth. The highest peaks are in the most central ridge or chain-Mt. Elburz attaining an elevation of 18,000 ft. above the sea, while Mt. Kasbeck reaches a height of more than 16,000 ft., and several others rise above the line of perpetual snow, here between 10,000 and 11,000 ft. bigh; but the whole amount of perpetual snow is not great, nor are the glaciers very large or numerous. This central chain is formed of trachyte. The secondary parallel chains are, on the inner side, mostly formed of argillaceous slate and plutonic rocks; on the outer side of limestone. The spurs and outlying mountains or hills are of less extent and importance than those of almost any other mountain-range of similar magnitude, subsiding as they do until they are only about 200 ft. high along the shores of the Black sea Some parts are entirely destitute of wood, but other parts are very densely wooded, and the secondary ranges, near the Black sea, exhibit most magnificent forests of oak, beech, ash, maple, and walnut; grain is cultivated in some parts to a height of 8,000 ft., while, in the lower valleys, rice, tobacco, cotton, indigo, etc., are produced, As might be expected from the geographical situation of the C., the climate, though it is generally healthy, is very different on the northern and southern sides, the vine growing wild in great abundance on the s., which is not the case on the north. The s, declivity of the mountains, towards Georgia, presents much exceedingly beautiful and romantic scenery.
There are no active volcanoes in Mt. C., but every evidence of volcanic action. There are mud-volcanoes at each end of the range, and there are also famous paphtha springs in the peninsula of Apsheron. See Baku. Mineral springs also occur in many places. The bison, or aurochs, is found in the mountains; in the forests are many fur-bearing animals; and game abounds. Bears, wolves, and jackals are among the carnivorous animals. Lead, iron, sulphur, coal, and copper are found.
The waters of the C. flow into four principal rivers—the Kuban, and the Rion or Faz (the Phasis of the ancients), which flow into the Black sea; and the Kur and the Terek, which flow into the Caspian. The Russians have carried a military load, with great labor and danger, through a valley somewhat wider than most of the Caucasian valleys, between the sources of the Kuban and the Terek. This road passes over a height of about 8,000 ft., and is protected by many forts, but is exposed to other dangers besides those which arise from the hostility of the mountain tribes. The only other road is by the pass of Derbend, near the Caspian sea.
The resistance which the Caucasian tribes, for more than half a century, offered to the arms of Russia, attracted to them the attention of the world. But with the capture (1859) of the prophet-chief of the Lesghians-Schamyl, the most active and determined of the foes of Russia, who for a quarter of a century withstood and harassed the armies sent against him—the power of the Caucasians was greatly shattered; and after his death in 1871 the Russians regarded the territory as virtually subjugated. A large number of the Circassians elected io migrate to Turkish territory, where they were welcomed. The general name Circassians (q.v.) is often, but not very correctly, applied to the tribes which inhabit the Caucasus, and whose whole number is not above 1,300,000 or 1,500,000. From the situation of Mount C., there have gathered together in it tribes belong. ing to a greater number of distinct races than can perhaps be found within the same space anywhere upon the earth. There are more than 100 different languages or dialects spoken; the Turkish-Tartar language, however, serving for a general medium of communication. The different tribes inhabiting the C., long believed to be the purest type of the Indo-European family, are now considered not to belong to it at all, but to have more affinity with the Mongolian races. See CAUCASIAN VARIETY OF MANKIND. The principal tribes are the Tsherkesses or Circassians, Ossetes, Lesghians, Abchasians, Georgians, Suans, and Tchetches. The Georgians and Ossetes are at least nominally Christians; the Lesghians are fanatical Mohammedans. The Byzantine emperors and kings of Georgia planted Christian churches throughout this region, and many ruins of them remain, some of which are very beautiful. But the present Christianity of the nominally Christian tribes is more akin to heathenism than to true Christianity. In character, they are distinguished by their valor and love of freedom, but also by cruelty and treachery. They carry on a little agriculture, but live more by the care of their flocks, and by hunting.–The Russian lieutenancy of the C., lying on both sides of the mountain range, has an area of 172,170 sq.m., and a pop. (1880) of 5,546,554. For type of people, see illus., ETHNOLOGY, vol. V., p. 564, figs. 20, 29.
CAUCASUS, INDIAN. See HINDU-KUSH,
CAUCHON', JOSEPH, b. 1816 ; a Canadian journalist and legislator, prominent in the colonial or Dominion parliament 1844-77. From 1867 to 1872, he was speaker of the senate. He established the Quebec Journalin 1842. C. was lieut.-gov., Manitoba, 1877-8.
CAUCHY, AUGUSTIN Louis, 1789-1857; a French mathematician; a member of the academy in 1816, and professor of mathematics in the polytechnic school. His reputation rests chiefly upon his residuary and imaginary calculus. In politics he was a firm legitimist, steadily refusing to take the oaths of allegiance from time to time proffered, and on that account resigning his chair of mathematics in the new university of Paris in 1852. He published several valuable works on the calculus, etc.