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in the position of other dissenters, the government having declined either to endow them, or to introduce any machinery for prying into their relations to the pope. But the public use of their insignia of office, and of episcopal titles and names, was denied them; the extension of monachism was prohibited; and it was enacted that the number of Jesuits should not be increased, and that they should henceforth be subject to registration. For further information, see Miss Martineau's History of England during thu Peace from 1815 to 1846. W. & R. Chambers, 1858.

CATHOLIC EPISTLES, the name given, according to Clemens Alexandrinus and Origen, to certain epistles, addressed not to particular churches or individuals, but either to the church universal or to a large and indefinite circle of readers. Originally, the C. E. comprised only the first epistle of John and the first of Peter, but, at least as early as the 4th c. (as evinced by the testimony of Eusebius), the term was applied to all the apostolic writings used as “lessons” in the orthodox Christian churches, But this included the epistle of James, of Jude, the 2d of Peter, and the 2d and 3d of John. These seven thus constituted the C. E., although the genuineness and authenticity of the last-mentioned five were not universally acknowledged; but this very incorporation with epistles whose canonicity was not questioned, naturally had the effect of contirming their authority, so that in a short time the entire seven came to be considered a portion of the canon.

CATHOL'ICOS, the title of the patriarchs or chief ecclesiastics in the hierarchy of the Armenian church, and of the Christians of Georgia and Mingrelia.

CATILI'NA, LUCIUS SERGIUS, descended from a patrician but impoverished family, was b. about the year 108 B.C. During his youth, he attached himself to the party of Sulla. His bodily constitution, which was capable of enduring any amount of labor, fatigue, and hardship, allied to a mind which could stoop to every baseness and feared no crime, fitted him to take the lead in the conspiracy which has made his name infamous to all ages. In the year 68 B.C., he was elected prætor; in 67 B.C., governor of Africa; and in 66 B.C., he desired to stand for the consulship, but was disqualified on account of the accusations brought against him of maladministration in his province. Disappointed thus in his ambition, and burdened with many and heavy debts, he saw no hope for himself but in the chances of a political revolution, and therefore entered into a conspiracy, including many other young Roman nobles, in morals and circumstances greatly líke himself. The plot, however, was revealed to Cicero by Fulvia, mistress of one of the conspirators. Operations were to commence with the assassination of Cicero in the Campus Martius, but the latter was kept aware of every step of the conspiracy, and contrived to frustrate the whole design. In the night of Nov. 6 (63 B.C.), Catiline assembled his confederates, and explained to them a new plan for assassinating Cicero; for bring. ing up the Tuscan army (which he had seduced from its allegiance), under Manlius, from the encampment at Fæsulæ; for setting fire to Rome, and putting to death the hostile senators and citizens. In the course of a few

hours, everything was made known to Cicero. Accordingly, when the chosen assassins came to the house of the consul, on pretense of a visit, they were immediately repulsed. On the 8th of Nov., Catiline audaciously appeared in the senate, when Cicero—who had received intelligence that the insurrection had already broken out in Etruria--commenced the celebrated invective beginning: Quousque tandem abutêre, Catilina, patientia nostra ? etc. (“How long now, Catiline, will you abuse our patience?"). The scoundrel was abashed, not by the keenness of Cicero's attack, but by the minute knowledge he displayed of the conspiracy. His attempt at a reply was miserable, and was drowned in cries of execration. With curses on his lips, he abruptly left the senate, and escaped from Rome during the night. Catiline and Manlius were now denounced as traitors, and an army under the consul, Antonius, was sent against them. The conspirators who remained in Rome, the chief of whom was Lentulus, were arrested, tried, condemned, and executed, Dec. 5. The insurrections in several parts of Italy were meanwhile suppressed; many who had resorted to Catiline's camp in Étruria, deserted when they heard what had taken place in Rome, and his intention to proceed into Gaul was frustrated. In the beginning of Jan. (62), he returned by Pistoria (now Pistoja) into Etruria, where he encountered the forces under Antonius, and, after a des. perate battle, in which he displayed almost superhuman courage and enthusiasm, was defeated and slain. The appearance of Catiline was in harmony with his character. He had a daring and reckless look; his face was haggard with a sense of crime; his eyes were wild and bloodshot, and his step unsteady, from nightly debauchery. The history of the Catiline conspiracy is given by Sallust in a remarkably concise and nervous style.

CATI'NEAU-LAROCHE, PIERRE MARIE SÉBASTIEN, 1772–1828; a French philologist who emigrated to San Domingo, where his antislavery sentiments were so obnoxious that he was prosecuted and saved from death only by the interference of the home government. He went to Cape Haytien, where in the great massacre he alone of 17 Frenchmen was saved. He returned to Paris by way of the United States, set up a printing-office, and produced several dictionaries. In 1819, he was sent by the govern. ment to study the Climate of French Guiana, and three years later his notes were pub lished.


CATKIN, Amentum, in botany, a spike of numerous, small, unisexual flowers, destitute of calyx and corolla, and furnished with scale-like bracteæ instead, the whole inflor. escence finally falling off by an articulation in a single piece. Examples are found in the willow, hazel, oak, birch, alder, and other trees and shrubs, forming the natural order amentaceæ (q.v.). In some, as in the oak and hazel, the male flowers only are in catkins.

CATLIN, GEORGE, 1796–1872; b. Penn.; an artist celebrated for his travels, writings, and portraits of American Indians. He was bred to the law and practiced for a year or two in Philadelphia, but having a taste for art he established himself in New York as a portrait-painter. About 1832, he became impressed with the fact, that the most remarkable American Indians were fast disappearing, and resolved to rescue at least the portraits of some of them from oblivion. In pursuit of this object he traveled and dwelt among the aboriginal tribes in North and South America, acquiring their languages, and thoroughly studying their manners and customs, traditions, history, and modes of life. After collecting many portraits, and many sketches of life and scenery, he pub. lished in London, in 1841, a large work on the Manners, Customs, and Condition of the North American Indians, with 300 illustrations. In 1844, followed the North American Portfolio of Hunting Scenes; in 1848, Eight Years' Trarels and Residence in Europe, in which he gives the stories of several Indians whom he had introduced to various European courts. In 1864, he published a little monograph which created much interest among medioal men,

entitled The Breath of Life, in which he argued the importance of keeping one's mouth closed when sleeping-an idea doubtless suggested by the fact that the Indians use special care in this respect. His last work was Last Rambles among the Indians of the Rocky Mountains and the Andes.


CATMINT, Nepeta cataria, a plant of the natural order labiata, pretty common in England, in chalky and gravelly soils, but rare in Scotland and Ireland, widely diffused throughout Europe and the middle latitudes of Asia, and of North America; remarkable for the fondness which cats display for it. It appears to act upon them in a similar way to valerian root; and when its leaves are bruised so as to be highly odoriferous, they are at once attracted to it, rub themselves on it, tear at it, and chew it. Its odor has been described as intermediate between that of mint and that of pennyroyal. It has erect stems, 2 to 3 ft. high, dense whorls of many whitish flowers, tinged and spotted with rose-color, and stalked heart-shaped leaves of a velvety softness, whitish and downy beneath.—Other species are numerous in the s. of Europe, and middle latitudes of Asia.


CA'TO, DIONYSIUS, is the name prefixed to a little volume of moral precepts in verse which was a great favorite during the middle ages. Whether or not such a person ever existed, is a point of the greatest uncertainty. The title which the book itself commonly bears, is Dionysii Catonis Disticha de Moribus ad Filium. Its contents have been differently estimated: some scholars have considered the precepts admirable; others, weak and vapid: some have found indications of a superior scriptural knowledge, others, of a deep-rooted paganism. The style has been pronounced the purest Latin and the most corrupt jargon. The truth would seem to be, that on a ground-work of excellent Latin of the silver age, the illiterate monks of a later period have, as it were, inwoven a multitude of their own barbaric errors, which preclude us from determining precisely the period when the volume was composed. It begins with a preface addressed by the supposed author to his son, after which come 56 injunctions of rather a simple character, such as parentem ama. This is followed by the substance and main portion of the book-viz., 144 moral precepts, each of which is expressed in two dactylic hexameters. During the middle ages, the Disticha was used as a text-book for young scholars. In the 15th c., more than 30 editions were printed. The best edition, how ever, is that published at Amsterdam in 1754 by Otto Arntzenius. Caxton translated it into English.

CA'TO, MARCUS PORCIUS, surnamed Censorius and Sapiens ("the wise "), afterwards known as Cato Priscus or Cato Major—to distinguish him from Cato of Utica-was b. at Tusculum in 234 B.C. He inherited from his plebeian father a small farm in the country of the Sabines, where he busied himself in agricultural operations, and learned to love the simple and severe manners of his Roman forefathers, which still lingered round his rural home. Induced by Lucius Valerius Flaccus to remove to Rome when that city was in a transition epoch, from the old-fashioned strictness and severe frugality of social habits, to the luxury and licentiousness of Grecian manners, C. appeared to protest against this, to denounce the degeneracy of the Philo-hellenic party, and to set a pattern of sterner and purer character. He soon distinguished bimself as a pleader at the bar of justice, and after passing through minor offices, was elected consul. In his province of Nearer Spain, where an insurrection had broken out after the departure of the elder Scipio (206 B.C.), 'C. was so successful in quelling disturbances and restoring order, that in the following year he was honored by a triumph. C. exhibited extraordinary military genius in Spain; his stratagems were brilliant, his plans of battle were

marked by great skill, and his general movements were rapid, bold, and unexpected. In 187 B.C., a fine opportunity occurred for the display of “antique Roman” notions. M. Fulvius Nobilior had just returned from Ætolia victorious, and sought the bonor of a triumph. C. objected. Fulvius was indulgent to his soldiers, a man of literary taste, etc., and C. charges him, among other enormities, with "keeping poets in his camp.” These rude prejudices of C. were not acceptable to the senate, and C.'s opposition was fruitless. In 184 B.C., C. was elected censor, and discharged so rigorously the duties of his office, that the epithet Censorius, formerly applied to all persons in the same station, was made his permanent surname. Many of his acts were highly commendable. He repaired the water-courses, paved the reservoirs, cleansed the drains, raised the rents paid by the publicans for the farming of the taxes, and diminished the contract prices paid by the state to the undertakers of public works. More questionable reforms were those in regard to the price of slaves, dress, furniture, equipage, etc. His despotism in enforcing his own idea of decency may be illustrated from the fact, that he degraded Manilius, a man of prætorian rank, for having kissed his wife in his daughter's presence in open day. C. was a thoroughly dogmatic moralist, intolerant, stoical, but great, because he manfully contended with rapidly swelling evils; yet not wise, because he opposed the bad and the good in the innovations of his age with equal animosity.

In the year 175 B.C., Č. was sent to Carthage to negotiate on the differences between the Carthaginians and the Numidian king Masinissa; but having been offended by the Carthaginians, he returned to Rome, where, ever afterwards, he described Carthage as the most formidable rival of the empire, and concluded all his addresses in the senate. house-whatever the immediate subject might be—with the well-known words: “Ceterum censeo, Carthaginem esse delendam(“For the rest, I vote that Carthage must be destroyed ”).

Though C. was acquainted with the Greek language and its literature, his severe principles led him to denounce the latter as injurious to national morals. He died 149 B.C., at the age of 85. C. was twice married. In his eightieth year, his second wife, Salonia, bore him a son, the grandfather of Cato of Utica. C. treated his slaves with shocking harshness and cruelty. In his old age, he became greedy of gain, yet never once allowed his avarice to interfere with his honesty as a state-functionary. He also composed various literary works, such as De Re Rustica (a treatise on agriculture)-much corrupted, however. The best editions are by Gesner and Schneider in their Scriptores Rei Rustice. His greatest historical work, Origines, has, unfortunately, perished; but some few fragments are given in Krause's Historicorum, Romanorum Fragmenta (Berlin, 1833). Fragments of C.'s orations-of which as many as 150 were read by Cicero—are given in Meyer's Oratorum Romanorum Fragmenta (Zurich, 1842).

CA'TO, MARCUS PORcius, named CATO THE YOUNGER, or Cato UTICENSIS (from the place of his death), was born 95 B.C. Having lost, during childhood, both parents, he was educated in the house of his uncle, M. Livius Drusus, and, even in his boyhood, gave proofs of his decision and strength of character. In the year 72 B.C., he serred with distinction in the campaign against Spartacus, but without finding satisfaction in military life, though he proved himself a good soldier. From Macedonia, where he was military tribune in 67, he went to Pergamus in search of the Stoic philosopher, Athen. odorus, whom he brought back to his camp, and whom he induced to proceed with him to Rome, where he spent the time partly in philosophical studies, and partly in forensic discussions. Desirous of honestly qualifying himself for the quæstorship, he commenced to study all the financial questions connected with it. Immediately after his election, he introduced, in spite of violent opposition from those interested, a rigorous reform into the treasury offices. He quitted the quæstorship at the appointed time amid gen. eral applause. In 63 B.C., he was elected tribune, and also delivered his famous speech on the Catiline conspiracy, in which he denounced Cæsar as an accomplice of that political desperado, and determined the sentence of the senate. Strongly dreading the influence of unbridled greatness, and not discerning that an imperial genius-like that of Cæsar-was the only thing that could remedy the evils of that overgrown monster, the Roman republic, he commenced a career of what seems to us blind pragmatical opposition to the three most powerful men in Rome--Crassus, Pompey, and Cæsar. C. was s noble but strait-laced theorist, who lacked the intuition into circumstances wbich belongs to men like Cæsar and Cromwell. His first opposition to Pompey was successful; but his opposition to Cæsar's consulate for the year 59 not only failed, but even served to hasten the formation of the first triumvirate between Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus. He was afterwards forced to side with Pompey, who had resiled from his connection with Cæsar, and become reconciled to the aristocracy. After the battle of Pharsalia (48 B.c.), C. intended to join Pompey, but hearing the news of his death, escaped into Africa, where he was elected commander by the partisans for Pompey, but resigned the post in favor of Metellus Scipio, and undertook the defense of Utica. Here, when he had tidings of Cæsar's decisive victory over Scipio at Thapsus (April 6, 46 B.C.), C., finding that his troops were wholly intimidated, advised the Roman senators and knights to escape from Utica, and make terms with the victor, but prohibited all intercessions in his own favor. He resolved to die rather than surrender, and, after spending the night in reading Plato's Phædo, committed suicide by stabbing himself in the breast.


CATOO'SA, a co. in n.w. Georgia, watered by affluents of the Tennessee river, and crossed by the Western and Atlantic railroad; 175 sq.m.; pop. 80, 4,739—612 colored. The region is hilly, with much woodland. The productions are chiefly agricultural. Co. seat, Ringgold.

CATOP'TRICS. The divisions of the science of optics are laid out and explained in the article OPTICS (q.v.). C. is that subdivision of geometrical optics which treats of the phenomena of light incident upon the surfaces of bodies, and reflected therefrom. All bodies reflect more or less light, even those through which it is most readily transmissible; light falling on such media, for instance, at a certain angle, is totally reflected. Rough surfaces scatter or disperse (see DISPERSION OF Light) a large portion of what falls on them, through which it is that their peculiarities of figure, color, etc., are seen by eyes in a variety of positions; they are not said to reflect light, but there is no doubt they do, though in such a way, owing to their inequalities, as never to present the phenomena of reflection. The surfaces with which c., accordingly, deals, are the smooth and polished. It tracks the course of rays and pencils of light after reflection from such surfaces, and determines the positions, and traces the forms, of images of objects as seen in mirrors of different kinds.

A ray of light is the smallest conceivable portion of a stream of light, and is represented by the line of its path, which is always a straight line. A pencil of light is an assemblage of rays constituting either a cylindrical or conical.stream. A stream of light is called a converging pencil when the rays converge to the vertex of the cone, called a focus; and á diverging pencil, when they diverge from the vertex. The axis of the cone in each case is called the axis of the pencil. When the stream consists of parallel rays, the pencil is called cylindrical, and the axis of the cylinder is the axis of the pencil. In nature, all pencils of light are primarily diverging-every point of a luminous body throwing off light in a conical stream; converging rays, however, are continually produced in optical instruments, and when light diverges from a very distant body, such as a fixed star, the rays from it falling on any small body, such as a reflector in a telescope, may, without error, be regarded as forming a cylindrical pencil. When a ray falls upon any surface, the angle which it makes with the normal to the surface at the point of incidence is called the angle of incidence; and that which the reflected ray makes with the normal, is called the angle of reflection.

Two facts of observation form the ground-work of catoptrics. They are expressed in what are called the laws cf reflection of light: 1. In the reflection of light, the incident ray, the normal to the surface at the point of incidence, and the reflected ray, lie all in one plane. 2. The angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. These laws are simple facts of observation and experiment, and they are easily verified experimentally. Rays of all colors and qualities follow these laws, so that white light, after reflection, remains undecomposed. The laws, too, hold, whatever be the nature, geometrically, of the surface. If the surface be a plane, the normal is the perpendic. ular to the plane at the point of incidence; if it be curved, then the normal is the perpendicular to the tangent plane at that point. From these laws and geometrical considerations may be deduced all the propositions of catoptrics. In the present work, only those can be noticed whose truth can in a manner be exhibited to the eye, without any rigid mathematical proof. They are arranged under the heads plane sur. faces and curve,surfaces.

Plane Surfaces.—1. When a pencil of parallel rays falls upon a plane mirror, the reflected pencil consists of parallel rays. A glance at the annexed figure (fig. 1),





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Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.

Fig. 3. where PA and QB are two of the incident rays, and are reflected in the directions AR and BS respectively, will make the truth of this pretty clear to the eye. The proposition, however, may be rigidly demonstrated by aid of Euclid, book xi., with which, however, we shall not presume the reader to be acquainted. The reader may satisfy himself of its truth practically by taking a number of rods parallel to one another and inclined to the floor, and then turning them over till they shall again be equally inclined to the floor, when he will again find them all parallel.--2. If a diverging, converg: ing pencil is incident on a plane mirror, the focus of the reflected pencil is situated on the opposite side of the mirror to that of the incident pencil, and at an equal distance from it. Suppose the pencil to be diverging from the focus Q (fig. 2), on the


mirror of the surface of which CB is a section. Draw QN9 perpendicular to CB and make qN=QN, the nq is the focus of the reflected rays. For let QA, QB, QC be any of the incident rays in the plane of the figure; draw the line AM perpendicular to CB, and draw AR, making the angle MAR equal to the angle of incidence, MAQ. Then AR is the reflected ray. Join A. Now it can be proved geometrically, and indeed is apparent at a glance, that qÅ and AR are in the same straight line; in other words, the reflected ray AR proceeds as if from q. In the same way, it may be shown that the direction of any other reflected ray, as BS, is as if it proceeded from q; in other words, is the focus of reflected rays; it is, however, only their virtual focus. See art. Focus. If a pencil of rays converged to q, it is evident that they would be reflected to Q as their real focus, so that a separate proof for the case of a converging pencil is unnecessary. The reader who has followed the above will have no difficulty in understanding how the position and form of the image of an object placed before å plane mirror-as in fig. 3, where the object is the arrow AB, in the plane of the paper, to which the plane of the mirror is perpendicular-should be of the same form and magnitude as the object (as ab in the fig.), and at an equal distance from the mirror, on the opposite side of it

, but with its different parts inverted with regard to a given direction. The highest a, for instance, in the image, corresponds with the lowest point, A, in the object. He will also understand how, in the ordinary use of a looking-glass, the right hand of the image corresponds to the left hand of the object.

When two plane mirrors are placed with their reflecting surfaces towards each other, and parallel, they form the experiment called the endless gallery. Let (in fig. 4) the arrow, Q, be placed vertically between the parallel mirrors, CĐ, BA, with their sil. vered faces turned to one another, Q will produce in the mirror CD the image q? This image will act as a new object to produce with the mirror BA the image , which, again, will produce with the mirror CD another image, and so on. Another series of images, such as ', q", etc., will similarly be produced at the same time, the

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Fig. 4.

Fig. 5 first of the series being d', the image of Q in the mirror BA. By an eye placed between the mirrors, the succession of images will be seen as described; and if the mirrors were perfectly plane and parallel, and reflected all the light incident on them, the num. ber of the images of both series would be infinite. If, instead of being parallel, the mirrors are inclined at an angle, the form and position of the image of an object may be found in precisely the same way as in the former case, the image formed with the first mirror being regarded as a new (virtual) object, whose image, with regard to the second, has to be determined. For a curious application of two plane mirrors meeting and inclined at an angle an aliquot part of 180°, see art. KALEIDOSCOPE.-3. The two propositions already established are of extensive application, as has partly been shown. They include the explanation of all phenomena of light related to plane mirrors. The third proposition is one also of considerable utility, though not fundamental. It is: When a ray of light has been reflected at each of two mirrors inclined at a given angle to each other, in a plane perpendicular to their intersection, the reflected ray will deviate from its original course by an angle double the angle of inclination of the mirrors. Let A and B (fig. 5) be sections of the mirrors in a plane perpendicular to their intersection, and let their directions be produced till they meet in c. Let SA, in the plane of A and B, be the ray incident on the first mirror at A, and let AB be the line in which it is thence reflected to B. After reflection at B, it will pass in the line BD, meeting SA, its original path, produced in D. The angle ADB evidently measures its deviation from its original course, and this angle is readily shown to be double of the angle at C, which is that of the inclination of the mirrors. It is on this proposition that the important mathematical instruments called the quadrant and sex. tant (q.v.) depend.

Curved Surfaces.—As when a pencil of light is reflected by a curved mirror, each ray follows the ordinary law of reflection, in every case in which we can draw the normals for the different points of the surface, we can determine the direction in which the various rays of the pencil are reflected, as in the case of plane mirrors. It so happens that normals can be easily drawn only in the case of the sphere, and of a few

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