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, and soon collected around him a body of loyal peasantry, whom he led against and defeated the republicans in several conflicts. After the victory of Saumur (q.v.), the council of generals appointed him, as having the greatest influence over his countrymen, commander-in-chief. He immediately determined to make an attack upon Nantes, and managed to penetrate into the town, where he was wounded by a musket-ball
, and his troops immediately dispersed. He was carried to St. Florent, where he died July 11, 1793. He was a man of great simplicity and honesty of character, and his piety was such, that he was called the saint of Anjou.
CATHERINE OF BRAGANZA, 1638–1705; queen of Charles II. of England, daughter of John, duke of Braganza, the rightful heir to the throne of Portugal, then under Spanish rule. John headed the revolt of 1640, and after years of fighting succeeded in reaching his throne. The mother of Catherine was a woman of ability, and governed Portugal for several years after the death of her husband. She foresaw the coming restoration in England, and proposed the marriage of Catherine with Charles mainly to gain a powerful ally against Spain. The latter power vainly tried to prevent the marriage, and when it was agreed upon, Portugal promised a dowry of £500,000, and the towns of Tangier and Bombay (the latter being the tirst of the now enormous English possessions in the east), besides many privileges of trade. On the marriage at Plymouth, May 13, 1663, Charles appeared to be well pleased with his bride; but the union proved unhappy. Catherine had been brought up in a convent, and had none of the manners required by the most fashionable and profligate court of Europe. The chief trouble, however, was the heartless and shameless profligacy of her husband, who brought his mistresses into the court, and, when the queen expressed her indignation at the insult, lectured her upon the duty of submission. After repeated humiliations of this kind, the queen's spirit was broken, and alienation naturally followed. As she was a Roman Catholic, she was an object of suspicion outside of the court, and her name was subjected to calumny. The only satisfaction she could experience in her unfortunate connection was the great aid rendered by England against Spain in the struggle of her native power with that kingdom. After a life of entire seclusion during the reign of James II. and the first years of William III., she returned to Portugal in 1692, where, for a time before her death, she acted in capacity of regent to her brother, Don Pedro. She had no children.
CATHERINE FIESCHI ADORNO, Saint, 1447–1510; a daughter of the viceroy of Naples, who, at the age of 13, devoted herself to a religious life, but three years later, in obedience to parental desire, married Julian Adorno, a gay young nobleman of Genoa -a reckless fellow, who spent her fortune and gave her a life of misery for many years. After his death she became mother-superior in the hospital, and extended her care to the sick throughout the city. She wrote several works, two of which, Purgatory, and Dialogue Between the Soul and the Body, are evidently records of her own experience. She was canonized in 1737. In her, a piety contemplative, mystical, and almost ecstatic, had an accompaniment not always found of active beneficence.
CATHERINE OF VALOIS, or of FRANCE, 1401–37; Queen of Henry V. of Eng. land. She was unfortunate in her childhood, her father, Charles VI. of France, being subject to prolonged fits of insanity, while her mother, who was one of the most abandoned women of the time-neglected her children to such an extent that they were often without suitable food or clothing. She was at last taken away from her mother and educated in a convent. When she was only 12 years old, Henry asked her hand in marriage, coupling the proposal with a demand for a large dowry in money, and the restitution to England of the French provinces once held by the English crown. The proposition was indignantly rejected, and Henry soon afterwards invaded France and asserted his claims in a manner that was not to be resisted. All his claims were admitted, and when he married Catherine at Troyes in 1420 he received immediate possession of the provinces claimed, the regency of France during the life of the father-in-law, and the reversion of the sovereignty after the death of Charles. In 1421, Catherine was crowned at London, and in Dec. of that year she became the mother of Henry VI. The next year she was in France, where her husband died, and she returned to London with the funeral cortége; but after the funeral little is heard of her history, the only notable event being her secret marriage to Owen Tudor, the heir of a princely house in Wales, who had distinguished himself for bravery at Agincourt. His position in England, however, was low, and the marriage was long kept secret-a necessity that caused Catherine much vexation and probably hastened her death. Her son by Tudor was made earl of Richmond, and married Margaret Beaufort, heiress of the house of Somerset, and junior representative of the branch of John of Gaunt, and she became the mother of Henry VII., and consequently the ancestress of the Tudor line of English kings.
CATHERINE-WHEEL (see CATHARINE, ST.) is frequently used as a charge in coats of arms, when it is represented with teeth.
CATHETER (Gr. kathiemi, to thrust into), was a name applied indifferently to all instruments used for passing along mucous canals. In modern times, however, it has gen. erally been reserved for tubular rods through which fluids or air may pass, and which may give free exit to the accumulated contents of such organs as the urinary bladder. The
C. for the latter purpose is a very old surgical instrument. The ancients made theirs of copper, which accumulated verdigris. In the 9th c. silver was substituted by the Arabian surgeons as a cleanlier metal, and is still used by all who are not obliged, for economica! reasons, to have their catheters made of German silver or pewter. The urinary C. for the male varies in length from 10 to 11 in.; the female C. need not be more than 4 or 5 inches. The form is a matter of indifference, but most surgeons prefer an instrument straight to within the last few inches of its length; the latter should be curved into the segment of a small circle. Others, however, use a double curve, and, indeed, nearly every surgeon has a peculiar fancy in this respect.
Flexible catheters are made of gum elastic, which may be used either alone or supported on a wire. Many other materials have been proposed. Of late years, guttapercha has been used, but owing to some awkward accidents—such as portions often breaking off in the bladder—it has not been generally adopted by surgeons.
CATHODE. See ANODE : ELECTRO-CHEMISTRY.
CATHOLIC CHURCH. The term catholic literally signifies universal. The phrase C. C. is therefore equivalent to “universal church," and cannot properly be applied to any particular sect or body, such as the Roman, Anglican, Genevan, Reformed Lutheran, or Presbyterian, all of which form merely portions more or less pure of the “ church universal.” It was first employed to distinguish the Christian church from the Jewish; the latter being restricted to a single nation, whereas the former was intended for the world in general. Afterwards, it served to mark the difference between the orthodox Christian church and the various sects which sprang from it, such as the Cerinthians, Basilidians, Arians, Macedonians, etc. The name has been retained by the church of Rome, which was the visible successor of the primitive one; and aithough Protestant divines have been careful to deny its applicability to a church which they consider buried under the corrupt accretions of centuries, yet the term catholic is still used by the populace of almost every Protestant country as synonymous with Roman Catholic, so that from their minds all conception of the literal meaning of the word has vanished. For an account of the church of Rome, see art. ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH,
CATHOLIC, or UNITED, COPTS, a body of about 10,000 native Egyptians who acknowledge the authority of the pope of Rome. In 1855, one of their priests was appointed vicar apostolic and bishop in partibus.
CATHOLIC CREDITOR, in the law of Scotland, is one whose debt is secured over several or the whole subjects belonging to the debtor-e.g., over two or more heritable estates for the same debt. The C. C. is bound so to exercise his right as not unneces. sarily to injure the securities of the other creditors. Thus, if he draw his whole debt from one of the subjects, he must assign his security over the others to the postponed creditors.
CATHOLIC (ROMAN) EMANCIPATION ACT (10 Geo. IV. c. 7). To render this famous measure intelligible, and still more to convey a conception of its importance to younger readers, it is necessary that we should preface our account of it by a slight sketch of the position of our Roman Catholic fellow-subjects before it was passed. From first to last, the sufferings of the Roman Catholics were the fruit of political tyranny quite as much as of religious rancour or fanaticism, and their release was effected by a change in the political rather than in the religious views or feelings of the dominant party. The first occasion on which even a promise of a different line of policy from that which had been originally adopted was held out to the Roman Catholics of Ireland, was on the termination of the revolutionary war in 1691; and had king William been able to carry out the views which his personal enlightenment and liberality dictated, it is probable that Catholic emancipation would have been hastened by more than a century. But the English parliament, which was intensely anti-Roman Catholic, enacted, on ihe 22d of Oct. 1691, that Irish members of both houses should take the oaths of supremacy; and three years later, a set of acts were passed, which placed the Roman Catholics in a worse position than at any previous period of their history. The whole population was disarmed, and the priests banished from the country. But what must have been still more intolerable, was the interference with the private arrangements of their families. All Roman Catholics were prohibited from acting as guardians not only to Protestant but to Catholic children. At a somewhat later date (1704), it was enacted that if a son chose to turn Protestant, he should be entitled to dispossess his father, and at once to take possession of the family estate. Though Catholics were not directly declared incapable of holding land, they were deprived of the right of acquiring it by purchase, or even by long lease; and if a Čatholic chanced to occupy a place in a line of entail, he was passed over in favor of the next Protestant heir. No office of trust, civil or military, was now open to a Catholic; he was forbidden to vote at elections, to intermarry with a Protestant, or even to dwell in Limerick or Galway, except under certain conditions. But perhaps the most demoralizing provision of all, was that which empowered the son of a Catholic to bring his father into chancery, to force him to declare on oath the value of his property, and to settle such an allowance on him as the court should determine, not only for the father's life, but the son's.
Amongst the other burdens of this heavy time, may be mentioned the exclusion of Catholics from the profession of the law, and the regulation that if a Protestant lawyer married a Catholic, he should be held to have gone over to her faith: the prohibition against Catholics acting as schoolmasters, under the penalty of being prosecuted as convicts, by which the whole body was virtually excluded from the benefits of education: and the still more summary enactment, that if a priest celebrated marriage between a Protestant and a Catholic, he săould be hanged. But as years passed away, the memory of the foul deeds of the inquisition and the confessional, and of the other enormities of which Roman Catholics had been guilty in their days of power, waxed fainter; milder feelings began to prevail; and when Graitan appeared as the champion of their rights, the field was already in some degree prepared for his labors. Favored by such influences, of which no one knew better how to avail himself, he succeeded, in 1780, in carrying, in the Irish parliament, the famous resolution, “that the king's most excellent majesty, and the lords and commons of Ireland, are the only competent power to make laws to bind Ireland.” Many of the disqualifying statutes were now repealed, and the claim for complete equality with Englishmen and Protestants, or complete separation from the sister-country, was now formally urged. From this period to the final liberation was achieved, there was no rest. The Irish rebellion of 1798 brought home to the Eng. lish nation the dangers to which it would constantly be exposed till the question was finally adjusted. The act of union of 1800 was the immediate consequence of that out
and to this act the Irish were induced to consent by a virtual pledge entered into by Mr. Pitt, to the effect that the Catholic disabilities should be at once removed. But, like William of Orange, Pitt had pledged himself to more than he was able to accomplish. The king was seized with scruples regarding the obligations imposed upon him by his coronation oath, and made a vigorous stand against the proposals of his minister.
At a subsequent period, efforts were made in the direction of emancipation by Mr. Canning and lord Castlereagh. About 1824, the press began to take up the question warmly; a Catholic association was formed, to prepare petitions to parliament; the Irish priests stimulated their flocks to subscribe for the purposes of agitation; O'Connell rapidly became a power; and as early as March, 1825, the importance of the question was so deeply felt, that sir F. Burdett ventured to introduce à relief bill, which passed the commons by a majority of 268 to 241, but was rejected by the lords. A slight temporary reaction now took place, the superstitious fears of ignorant Protestants being excited by a “no popery” cry, and in consequence, a new relief bill, introduced in 1827, though supported by the last effort of Canning's eloquence, was lost in the commons by a majority of 4. But the liberal view of the Roman Catholic claims was essentially the popular one--at least among the enlightened classes; and as a proof of this, under the hostile administration of the duke of Wellington, the very same resolution which had lost in 1827 by a minority of 4, was carried in 1828 by a majority of 6. The duke himself now began to waver in opinion, so that the beginning of the end was manifestly near. During O'Connell's famous canvass for the county of Clare, the duke declared in the house of lords, “if the public mind were now suffered to be tranquil, if the agitators of Ireland would only leave the public mind at rest, the peopie would become more satisfied, and I certainly think it would then be possible to do something.". O'Connell's return for Clare, notwithstanding the existence of the oaths which precluded him from taking his seat in the house, and the events which now followed in quick succession. made it clear that the “something” of which the duke had spoken must be the passing of the emancipation bill in the ensuing session. The king's speech, which was read on the 5th Feb. of the following year, accordingly contained a recommendation to parliament, to consider whether the civil disabilities of the Catholics could not be removed, "consistently with the full and permanent security of our establishments in church and state.
On the 5th Mar., Mr. Peel brought forward the great measure. The majority on the motion in the commons for going into committee was 188, in a house of 508 members the debate on the second reading issued in a majority of 180; and the final majority, after the bill had passed through committee, in which not one of the many amendments proposed was carried, was 178 in a house of 462. In the lords, the debate lasted three nights, the majority being 106 in favor of the second reading of a bill which, nine months before, the same house had refused, by a majority of 45, even to entertain-so rapid and threatening had been the progress of the agitation. On the 13th April, 1829, this famous measure became the law of the land.. It now only remains that, by men. tioning the provisions of the act. we sum up the results of one of the most important controversies that ever agitated the inhabitants of this country. For the oath of supremacy, another oath was substituted, by which all Catholic members of parliament bound themselves to support the existing institutions of the state, and not to injure those of the church (see ABJURATION). Catholics were admitted to all corporate offices, and to an equal enjoyment of all municipal rights. The army and navy had already been opened to them. On the other hand, they were excluded from the offices of regent, of chancellor of England or Ireland, and of viceroy of Ireland; from all offices connected with the church, its universities and schools, and from all disposal of church patronage. The most important security related to the franchise, in which a £10 was substituted for a 408. qualification in Ireland. The clergy of the R. C. church were left