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with the Guises, in which at first only the murder of the Protestant leaders was con templated, but which resulted in the fearful massacre of St. Bartholomew's day. This event brought the whole power of the state into the hands of the queen-mother, who boasted of the deed to Roman Catholic governments, and excused it to Protestant ones, for she now managed all the correspondence of the court. About this time she succeeded, by gold and intrigues, in getting her third son, afterwards Henri III., elected to the Polish throne. But her arbitrary and tyrannical administration roused the opposition of a Roman Catholic party, at the head of whom was her own fourth son, the duke of Alençon, who allied themselves with the Protestants. It was very generally believed that she was privy to the machinations that led to his death. When, after the death of Charles IX., Henri III. returned from Poland to be king of France, his mother still ruled the court, and had the principal share in all the intrigues, treacheries, and political transactions of that woful period. Having betrayed all who trusted them, she and her son found themselves at last forsaken and abhorred by all. The league and the Guises had no more confidence in them, than had the Protestants and Henri of Navarre. Vexation on this account prayed on the proud heart of the queen-mother in her last days; and, amidst the confusion and strife of parties, she died at Blois, on 5th Jan., 1589, unheeded and unlamented. Her ruling passion was ambition, and to this she was ready to sacrifice everything. Her unprincipled policy had almost subverted the French monarchy; her extravagance and luxury exhausted the finances of the country. Her influence was powerful in increasing the demoralization of the court and of society. She unscrupu. lously employed beauties of her train to corrupt men from whose power she apprehended danger.

CATHARINE PARR, the sixth wife of Henry VIII., was the daughter of sir Thomas Parr, and was b. in 1513. Married first to lord Burgh, and afterwards to lord Latimer, she, in July 12, 1543, became queen of England by marriage with Henry VIII. She was distinguished for her learning and her knowledge of religious subjects, her discus sion of which with the king had well-nigh brought her to the block, like so many of her predecessors. Her tact, however, saved her, and brought rebuke on her enemies; for she made it appear to the king's vanity, that she had only engaged him in discourse about the reformation, in order to derive profit from his majesty's speech. She persuaded Henry to restore the right of succession to his daughters, and interested herself on behalf of the universities. After Henry's death, she married, 1547, sir Thomas Seymour, and died the following year, not without suspicion of poison.

CATHARINE'S, ST., COLLEGE, or HALL, Cambridge, was founded by Robert Wodelarke, provost of King's college, 1473, for a master and three or more fellows. The visitors sent down to the university by Edward VI. ordered that there should be then six fellows, and in future a greater or less number as the revenues permitted. The statutes confirmed in May, 1860, provide that there shall be a master and nine fellows. There are twenty-five scholars. Edwyn Sandys, archbishop of York, bishop Overall, and bishop Sherlock, were of this college.

CATHAR'TES AURA, a vulture known as the turkey-buzzard, from its resemblance to the domestic turkey. Its home is in the southern Atlantic and gulf states, though it is sometimes found in the West Indies. The full-grown bird is 30 in. long, with a spread of wings of 6 ft., and the color black and brown. This greedy bird acts as the scavenger for southern cities, devouring refuse matter that might otherwise be injurious to the public health. For this purpose they are deemed so valuable that in some places their destruction is forbidden. There is a small species known locally as the carrion-crow.

CATHARTICS (Gr. kathairõ, I purify), a name originally for all medicines supposed to purify the system from the matter of disease (materies morbi), which was generally presumed by the ancients to exist in all cases of fever and acute disease (see CRISIS), and to require to be separated or thrown off by the different excretions of the body. Ulti. mately, the term C. became limited in its signification to remedies acting on the bowels, which are popularly called purgatives—a mere translation of the Greek word. The principal C. are aloes, gamboge, colocynth, rhubarb, scammony, jalap, senna, Epsom, and other salts, and castor oil. Sulphur and cream of tartar forms a well-known mild laxative; magnesia is also useful in many cases of indigestion with acidity. Croton oil and elaterium belong to a more dangerous class of C., as also does the favorite remedy of the ancients—the black hellebore. The doses and use of the more ordinary remedies of this class are explained in all works on medicine. See CONSTIPATION.

CATHARTINE, or BITTER OF SENNA, is the essential principle in senna which possesses laxative or purgative properties. It can be isolated as a yellowish-red uncrystallizable solid, which is deliquescent, soluble in water and alcohol, insoluble in ether, has a very bitter nauseous taste, a characteristic odor, and possesses great purging pow. ers, accompanied by nausea and griping. Three grains of C. are a full dose.


CATHCART, Sir GEORGE, son of William, Earl Cathcart, was b. in London, 1794. Educated at Eton and Edinburgh, he, in 1810, joined the 20 life guards, and fought with the grand army in the campaigns of 1812 and 1813; and as aid-de-camp to the duke of Wellington, was present at Quartre Bras and Waterloo. In 1828, he was made lieut.


col., and served in British America and the West Indies for about 8 years; and in 1837 he proved himself an energetic and efficient officer in quelling the outbreak in Canada, where he remained for more than 6 years. In 1852, having held the appointment of deputy lieut. of the tower for some years, he was made governor of the cape of Good Hope, with command of the forces, and in this capacity succeeded in bringing to a successful end the harassing Kafir war. He returned to England in time to be sent out to the Crimea as general of division. His bravery here was conspicuous, especially in the battle of Inkermann, where the odds were so terribly against the British forces, and where he was slain. He was buried on the spot where he fell, and which, in his honor, was named Cathcart's hill. C. was the author of a very valuable work, entitled Commentaries on the War in Russia and Germany in 1812'and 1813 (Lond. 1850).

CATHCART, WILLIAM SHAW, Earl, a British gen. and diplomatist, son of baron Cathcart of Cathcart, co. of Renfrew, was b. Sept. 17, 1755. Having studied at Glasgow, he entered the army, took a prominent part in the American war, and fought with distinction in Flanders and n. Germany. In 1801, he was made lieut. gen., and in 1803, commander-in-chief for Ireland. In 1805, he was engaged on a diplomatic mission to the czar Alexander. In July, 1807, he received the command of the land forces employed to co-operate with the fleet in the attack on Copenhagen, and, for his services in this capacity, was made a British peer, with the title of viscount, and received a vote of thanks from both houses of parliament, Jan. 28, 1808. In 1812, he was sent as ambassador to St. Petersburg, accompanied the czar Alexander in the campaigns of 1813 and 1814, and was present at the congresses of Chatillon and Vienna. He was raised to the rank of earl, June 18, 1814. The latter years of his life were chiefly spent at his country residence, Cartside, near Glasgow, where he died June 17, 1843. --His eldest son, CHARLES MURRAY, EARL CATHCART (formerly known as lord Greenock), was born 1783; served in Spain and at Waterloo under Wellington; afterwards acted in Canada; and was made a general and colonel of the 1st dragoon guards. He died July, 1859.

CATHEDRAL, from a Greek word cathedra, signifying a seat. Thus, " to speak ex cathedrá,” is to speak as from a seat of authority. The č. city is the seat of the bishop of the diocese, and his throne is placed in the Č. church, which is the parish church of the whole diocese. The diocese was, in fact, anciently called parochia, until the application of this name to the smaller portions into which it was derived. A C. town has generally been understood to be entitled to the honors of a city, even although the town be not a borough incorporate; but in the case of Manchester, the claim was disallowed by a court of law. The distinction between C. and collegiate churches consists principally in the see of the bishop being at the former. The governing body of a C. is called the dean and chapter-i.e., the dean and canons who meet for corporate purposes in the chapter-house of the cathedral. The property of the C. vests in this body. They elect the bishop of the diocese on the issue of a congé d'élire from the crown, but as the person to be elected is always named, and they may be compelled by a mandamus to elect that person and no other, the election is merely å form.

The bishop is “ visitor" of the dean and chapter. In England, by the act of 1840, all members of cathedrals, except the dean, are styled canons. Their seat in the C. is called their stall. They are no longer called prebends. Canons must reside 3 months in each year. The act allows to the canons of Durham, Manchester, St. Paul's, and Westminster, an income of £1000 per annum; to those of every other C. in England, £500. The bishop was always considered of common right to have the patronage of canonries, but formerly there were exceptions. Now, the appointment to all canonries is vested either in the bishop, or in the crown. Where the bishop is patron, he “ collates," and the dean and chapter “induct,” by placing the new canon in a stall in the church. The crown appoints by letters-patent, and the canon is installed without collation. Honorary canons have no emoluments, but rank after the canons. Minor canons, of whom there are from 2 to 6 in each C., perform the daily choral services. The C. service is the usual church of England service intoned, with an anthem and the Psalms chanted. For the general plan of C. buildings, see CHURCH. The more remarkable cathedrals will be noticed under the names of the towns in which they are situated. In England, the number of cathedrals is above 30.

CATHEDRAL (ante). As Christianity was at first established chiefly in cities, the churches that grew up adjacent to them were, either originally or eventually, included in the diocese of the city bishop. Throughout the Roman empire the ecclesiastical divisions were the same as the civil, and the bishop's seat was placed in the same city with the governor's chair of state. From this point the transition was easy to the formal decree requiring that a C. as the seat of a bishop should be established in cities only; In Britain, however, where in the early days of Christianity cities were few and small, this rule could not be enforced. The bishop was over a district or tribe rather than a city, and naturally placed his seat where he found it most convenient and safe. Often he was compelled to remove it from one place to another. As the country became more settled this necessity ceased to exist, and at the close of the 11th century a law was passed requiring that the sees of bishops should be removed from villages to walled cities. In the early missionary work, especially of Britain, instead of beginning with a bishop,

companies of priests were organized, with the church as their center of work and the monastery as their home. After sufficient progress had been made, a bishop was appointed over them, and the church became a cathedral. The revival of missionary work by the church of England, at the beginning of the present century, led to a renewal of this system. The bishop followed the missionaries, and placed his seat in a church not originally designed for the honor. In colonial and foreign missionary work, within the last 25 years, there has been a return to the earlier plan. In the dioceses of Africa, New Zealand, and elsewhere, the bishop takes the lead in the date of his appointment as well as in rank, and his cathedral church is at once erected and manned. In this way the original design of such an establishment as described by bishop Stillingfleet is accomplished. Every C., in its first institution, was as a temple to the whole diocese, where the worship was to be performed in the most decent and constant manner; for which end it was necessary to have such a number of ecclesiastical persons there attending as might still be ready to do all the offices which did belong to the Christian churchsuch as constant offering of prayer, singing, preaching, and administering sacramentswhich were to be kept up in such a church as the daily sacrifice was in the temple.” The bishop in his church was surrounded by his college of presbyters, of which he was the head, and the design of which was: 1. To strengthen him by wise counsel. 2. To maintain public worship with reverence and dignity, 3. To go forth at his command, as evangelists, whithersoever he might send them. In this way the chapter of the C. was established, originally in closest connection with the bishop, and having no corporate existence separate from him. It sometimes consisted of “secular clergy," who were not bound by monastic vows, and had separate homes of their own; and sometimes of "regulars," who were under monastic rule and lived in buildings common to all. Of both kinds of chapters the bishop was the head: of the latter, as the abbot of the mon. astery to which his cathedral church belonged; and of the former, as having sole authority over it. In early times, there was an arch-presbyter, who had chief authority among the cathedral clergy, always in strict subordination to the bishop. He was gradually supplanted by the archdeacon, who was followed in the 8th and 9th centuries by the “præpositus” or provost. Thé “dean,” the present head of all English cathedral chapters, first appears in the 10th or 11th century. Gradually, as the bishop's diocesan duties increased and important political functions also were assigned m, he was obliged to leave the affairs of his C. to the head of the chapter, who consequently, in time, became the actual chief; and when the chapter was organized as an independent corporation, the bishop, seldom present, sank into a mere " visitor,” called in occasionally to correct abuses or settle disputes. This is the explanation of the strange anomaly, witnessed in modern times, that in his own cathedral church, of which he is the titular head, and which is dignified by the presence of his seat, the bishop has less authority than in any other church of his diocese. Under the bishop as its nominal head, the chapter of a fully organized C., formed of secular priests, consisted of four chief dignitaries and a body of canons. The four high officers were: 1, the “dean," as the general head of the chapter charged with its internal discipline; 2, the precentor, presiding over the choir and musical arrangements; 3, the chancellor, who superintended the religious and literary instruction of the younger members, took care of the library, and wrote the letters; 4, the treasurer, to whom were intrusted, not the money of the church (as might appear from the modern use of the word), but its sacred vessels, altar-furniture, reliquaries, and similar treasures. II. In addition to these dignitaries, a cathedral chapter consisted of a board of officers called canons, because they were inrolled on the list and perhaps because they were subjected to the rules, some of them who enjoyed a separate estate (præbenda) in addition to their share of the corporate funds, were called prebendaries. A preben. dary was always a canon, but a canon was not always a prebendary. Each canon had his own house and personal establishment. In the middle ages an attempt was made to impose on them, in part, monastic rules with dining-hall and lodging-rooms in common; but the restriction was never acceptable, and was gradually given up. Monastic cathe. drals closely resembled other monasteries, except that in the almost constant absence of the bishop-their nominal abbot—they were governed by a prior. At the reformation the distinction between secular and monastic cathedrals was maintained under the titles of cathedrals of the old and new foundations. And when the monasteries were suppressed, the cathedrals connected with them were furnished with new chapters of secular canons, presided over by a dean. In the early part of queen Victoria's reign all the cathedrals in England and Wales were reduced to a uniform constitution.

In 1888, the following dioceses of the Protestant Episcopal church in the United States bad cathedrals : Albany, Arkansas, Central Pennsylvania, Chicago, Colorado, Easton, Fond du Lac, Georgia, Iowa, Kansas, Long Island, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, Northern Texas, Quincy, Tennessee, Utah, Western Texas, Wisconsin ; and funds are now being raised towards the erection of noble C. buildings in New York city for the diocese of New York. The C. system of the Episcopal church in this country, wherever it exists (and it seems destined to become universal), is the center of the active ecciesiastical and benevolent work of the diocese.

CATHELINEAU, JACQUES, general of the army in La Vendée, in the w. of France. was b. Jan. 5. 1759, in very bumble life, at Pin-en-Mauges, in lower Anjou. Horrified at the atrocities and despotic acts of the convention, he placed himself in opposition to


CATHEDRALS. - 1. Cathedral at Worms. 2. Interior of cathedral at Lichfield. 3. Interior of cathen


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