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original Greek; the second, the Latin rendering of the schoolmen; the third, the nearest
Position in space.
Position in time.
Possession. Mr. J. S. Mill has the following remarks on the above scheme: “ The imperfections of this classification are too obvious to require, and its merits are not sufficient to reward, 8 minute examination. It is a mere catalogue of the distinctions rudely marked out by the language of familiar life, with little or no attempt to penetrate, by philosophical analysis, to the rationale even of these common distinctions. Such an analysis, however superficially conducted, would have shown the enumeration to be both redundant and defective. Some objects are admitted, and others repeated several times under different heads. It is like a division of animals into men, quadrupeds, horses, asses, and ponies. That, for instance, could not be a very comprehensive view of the nature of Relation, which could exclude action, passivity, and local situation from that category. The same observation applies to position in time and position in space; while the distinction between the latter and situation is merely verbal.”—Logic, book i., chap. ii. $1. Some writers have endeavored to save the C. from these objections, by declaring that the fourth, Relation, is to be looked upon as a general head, comprehending the remaining six under it. But there is no evidence that Aristotle had this view in his mind; on the contrary, it appears almost certain that his idea of Relation was too narrow and limited to admit of his giving it so great a comprehension.
Mr. Mill gives us the result of his own analysis, the following enumeration and classification of existences or describable things:
1. Feelings, or states of consciousness; which are the most comprehensive experience that the human mind can attain to, since even the external world is only known as conceived by our minds.
2. The minds which experience those feelings.
3. The bodies, or external objects, which are supposed to excite all that class of feelings that we denominate sensations.
4. The successions, and coexistences, the likenesses and unlikenesses, between feelings or states of consciousness. Although the relations are considered by us to subsist between the bodies, or things, external to our minds, we are driven in the last resort to consider them as really subsisting between the states of each one's own individual mind. Mr. Mill shows that all possible propositions
and it is with the truth or falsehood of propositions that the science of logic has chiefly to do—affirm or deny one or other of the following properties or facts: Èxistence—the most general attribute of all-Co-existence, sequence or succession, causation—a peculiar case of succession--and resemblance. It is to arrive at this classification of propositions, for the purposes of logic, that the foregoing analysis, corresponding to the Aristotelian C., was made. The properties affirmed of any thing or things, or the things of which any properties are affirmed, come under some one or other of the four heads above given.
The C. of Kant, which are sometimes brought into comparison with those of Aristotle, are conceived under a totally different point of view. See sir W. Hamilton's Discussions on Philosophy, 2d edit., p. 26. They refer to certain forms supposed to be inherent in the understanding itself, under which the mind embraces the objects of actual experience. The Kantian philosophy supposes that human knowledge is partly made up of the sensations of outward things-color, sound, touch, etc.—and partly of intuitions existing in the mind prior to all experience of the actual world. This is the point of difference between the school of Locke—who rejected all innate ideas, conceptions, or forms—and the school of Kant. No such question was raised under the Aristotelian categories. Kant's enumeration of his innate forms is as follows: 1. Quantity, including unity, multitude, totality; 2. Quality, including reality, negation, limitation; 3. Relation, including substance and accident, cause and effect, action and reaction; 4. Modality, which includes possibility, existence, necessity. These indicate the elements of our knowledge a priori; it being the opinion of the author, that such notions, as causation, necessity, etc., cannot be obtained from the exercise of our senses and intelligence upon the world of realities, but must have been somehow or other imprinted upon the mind originally. See ANTINOMY: KANT.
CA'TEL, FRANZ, 1778–1856; a German artist who first gained reputation by his illustrations of Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea. He labored in Paris and Rome, and his works found their way all over the continent. He left all his fortune for the benefit of poor artists.
CAT'ENARY. The C. is the curve formed by a flexible homogeneous cord hanging freely between two points of support, and acted on by no other force than gravity. If the cord is not homogeneous, and the density varies in any regular way, the cord hangs in a curve slightly different in shape from that of the ordinary catenary. The C. possesses several remarkable properties, one of which is, that its center of gravity (q.v.) is lower than that of any curve of equal perimeter, and with the same fixed points for its extremities. Where the cord is such that the weight of any part of it is proportioned to its horizontal projection, the curve is a parabola (q.v.).
The latter curve and the ordinary C. are of importance chiefly in the theory of suspension bridges (q.v.),
CATENIPORA, a genus of fossil lamelliferous corals peculiar to paleozoic strata, confined in Britain to the Silurian measures. The genus is easily recognized. The cells are terminal and oval, arranged like a loose net-work of chains, hence called “chain coral.” Vertical anastomosing lamellæ united the cells together, and formed a hemispherical polypidom, sometimes of great size. See illus., SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN FosSILS, vol. XIII., p. 504, fig. 23.
CATE'RINA, SANTA, a t. of Sicily, in the province of Caltanisetta, and 7. m. 1.n.w. of the town of that name. It is situated on a hill near the river Salso, is fortified, has manufactures of fine earthenware; and in the neighborhood are found jaspers and agates of good quality. Pop. 5,800.
CATERPILLAR, the name given to the larvæ of lepidopterous insects—butterflies, moths, and hawk-moths. Caterpillars exhibit as great differences as subsist among the perfect insects into which they change, and the family, genus, and species may be determined by the characters of the C., as well as of the perfect insect. Their body is generally long, nearly cylindrical, soft, and consisting of 12 rings or segments besides the head, with nine spiracles or small openings for respiration on each side. The head is much harder than the rest of the body, of a sort of almost horny substance, and has 6 small shining points on each side, which are regarded as simple or stemmatic eyes, and is also furnished with two very short rudimentary antennæ. The mouth is adapted for tearing, cutting, and masticating the substances on which the C. is destined to feed, which are very various in the different species, although in all extremely different from the food of the perfect insect; it is provided with two strong mandibles, or upper jaws: two marillæ, or lower jaws; a labium, or lower lip; and four palpi, or feelers. In the mouth also is situated the spineret of those species which, when they change into the chrysalis or pupa state, envelop themselves in silken cocoons. See SILK-WORM. The first three segments of the body are each furnished with a pair of feet, which are hard and scaly, and represent the 6 feet of the perfect insect; some of the remaining segments are also furnished with feet, varying in all from 4 to 10 in number, the last pair situated at the posterior extremity of the body; but these feet are soft and membranous or fleshy, and armed at their extremity with a sort of circlet of minute hooks. All the feet or legs are very short. Those caterpillars in which the pro-legs, as they are sometimes called, or supplementary soft feet, are pretty equally distributed along the body, move by a sort of regular crawling motion; but those which have only four such feet situated near the posterior extremity, move by alternately taking hold by what may be called their forefeet and their hind-feet, now stretching the body out to its full length, and now bending it into an arch, whilst the hinder part is brought forward almost into contact with the forepart. Caterpillars which move in this way are called geometers or loopers. Some caterpillars have the power of fixing themselves by the two hind feet to a twig, and stretching themselves out as straight as a rod, so that being in color very like a twig of the tree on the leaves of which they feed, they are not readily observed. The muscular power required for this position of rest is very great, and Lyonnet found the number of muscles in a C. to be more than 4,000. The skin of some caterpillars is naked, that of others is covered with hairs, spines, or tubercles. Some make for themselves nests or tents of silk, under which they dwell in societies, protected from the inclemency of the weather. Many construct cases or sheaths by agglutinating various substances together, as the C. of the common clothes-moth. Some roll together leaves, and fix them by threads,, so forming a dwelling for themselves; and a few burrow and excavate galleries in the substance of leaves. Many feed on leaves; many being limited to a particular kind of plant, or to a few nearly allied plants. Some feed on flowers, some on seeds, some on roots, and some even on the woody portions of stems; some on wool, hides, furs, and other animal substances; a few on lard, and other kinds of fat. Among the admirable arrangements which make all nature harmonious, is the adjustment of the time of each kind of C.'s appearance to that of the leaf or flower on which it is to feed. See illus., BUTTERFLIES, ETC., vol. III., p. 232, figs. 47, 50, 60, 63, 65.
CATERPILLAR FUNGUS, or FUNGOID Parasites, a species of fungus that at tacks insects, particularly the larvæ of moths and beetles, tilling their bodies and sending shoots beyond the skin so that the creature takes the appearance of a vegetable growth. These growths vary in length from a slight projection to nearly a foot, and in diameter from a hair to a quarter of an inch.
CATES'BY, Mark, 1680–1749; an English naturalist who was seven years in the American colonies, returning to England in 1719 with a fine collection of plants. He 'made another journey in 1722, exploring South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and the Bahamas. He published Natural History of Carolina, Florida, and the Bahama Islands, in which the figures were etched by himself from his own paintings, etc.
CAT-FISH, & name given to several species of the family Siluridæ, dwelling in American rivers and lakes. The common cat-fish, or horned pout, of the Atlantic slope, is preferred above most river fish for food. They are from 7 to 9 in. long, dusky brown in color on the back and sides, and white underneath. The upper jaw is the longest; the tail is rounded; skin without scales and commonly covered with a slimy secretion. It has two fleshy barbels (long beard-like spines) on the top of the nose, and others at the angles of the jaws. Its mouth is very large. Immense cat-fish are found in the great lakes and western rivers, more than 4 ft. long and weighing 60 to 150 lbs. See illus., Fishes, vol. VI., p. 14, fig. 9.
CATGUT is employed in the fabrication of the strings of violins, harps, guitars, and other musical instruments; as also in the cords used by clockmakers, in the bows of archers, and in whip-cord. It is generally prepared from the intestines of the sheep, rarely from those of the horse, ass, or mule, and not those of the cat. The first stage in the operation is the thorough cleansing of the intestines from adherent feculent and fatty matters; after which they are steeped in water for several days, so as to loosen the external membrane, which can then be removed by scraping with a blunt knife. The material which is thus scraped off is employed for the cords of battle-doors and rackets, and also as thread in sewing the ends of intestines together. The scraped intestines are then steeped in water, and scraped again, when the large intestines are cut and placed in tubs with salt, to preserve them for the sausage-maker; and the smaller intestines are steeped in water, thereafter treated with a dilute solution of alkali (4 oz. potash, 4 oz. carbonate of potash, and 3 to 4 gallons of water, with occasionally a little alum), and are lastly drawn through a perforated brass thimble, and assorted into their respective sizes. In order to destroy any adherent animal matter, which would lead to putrefaction and the consequent development of offensive odors, it is customary to subject the C. to the fumes of burning sulphur-sulphurous acid, which acts as an antiseptic (q.v.), and arrests decomposition. The best strings are used for musical instruments;
and those which come from Italy, and are known as Roman strings, are the strongest. They are remarkable for their clearness and transparency. Cord for clockmakers is made from the smallest of the intestines, and occasionally from larger ones, which have been split longitudinally into several lengths. Whip-cord is fabricated from C. which has been twisted in a manner somewhat similar to single-corded ropes. The C. obtained from the intestines of horses, asses, and mules is principally made in France, and is employed instead of leather-belts for driving machinery.
CA'THA, a genus of the natural order celastraccæ. The fruit is a three-cornered capsule.-C. edulis, sometimes called ARABIAN TEA, the Kuật of the Arabians, is a shrub with erect smooth branches, elliptical obtusely serrated leaves, and small flowers in axillary cymes. It is a native of Arabia, and the Arabs ascribe to its leaves, even carried about the person, extraordinary virtues as a preventive of plague, with probably about as much reason as our forefathers had for esteeming the rowan tree formidable to witches. When fresh, they are stimulant, narcotic, and intoxicating, and are eaten with greediness by the Arabs. They are very antisoporific, so that a man, after using them, may keep watch for a whole night without drowsiness.
CATHARI, or CATHARISTS (Gr. pure), a name very generally given to various sects which appeared in the church during the middle ages. It appears to have been sometimes assumed in profession of a purity of doctrine and morals superior to that which generally prevailed in the church, sometimes bestowed ironically in ridicule of such a profession, and perhaps was first used as a designation of the Paulicians (q.v.). It became a common appellation of sects which appeared in Lombardy in the beginning of the 11th C., and afterwards in France and the w. of Germany: Xaving some connection with the Bulgarian Paulicians, they were sometimes called Bulgarians; sometimes also Patarenes or Patarines, sometimes Publicans or Popelitans, and in the Low Countries, Piphles. The names Albigenses and C. are often used as equivalent to one another; but we are under the disadvantage of having to depend entirely on the writings of very bigoted adversaries for our knowledge of their doctrines and practices, and considerable obscurity rests on all this interesting part of ecclesiastical history. Manicheism, Gnosticism, and Montanism are ascribed to the C.; but there is much reason to think that the errors of a few were often indiscriminately charged upon all, and that such charges indeed sometimes rested on ignorant or willful misconstruction. It appears quite certain, that the C. differed considerably in their doctrines and in the degree of their opposition to the dominant church. Some of them advocated and practiced a rigid asceticism. There is no good evidence that any of them nearly approached to the doctrines of the reformation; although in their rejection of tradition, of the authority of Rome, of the worship of saints and images, etc., there are notable points of agreement with the views of the reformers.
CATH'ARINE is the name of several saints of the Roman Catholic church. The simple designation of Saint C., however, is given to a virgin, said to have been of royal descent
in Alexandria, who, publicly confessing the gospel at a sacrificial feast appointed by the emperor Maximinus, was put to death in 307 A.D., after being tortured on a wheel. Hence the name of “St. Catharine's wheel.” Very extraordinary legends exist as to her converting 50 philosophers sent by the emperor to convert her in prison, besides & multitude of other persons; the conveyance of her head by the angels to Mt. Sinai, etc. She is regarded as the patroness of girls' schools.- Saint C. of Siena, one of the most famous saints of Italy, was the daughter of a dyer in Siena, and was born there in 1347 A.D.; practiced extraordinary mortifications; and was said to be favored with extraordinary tokens of favor by Christ, whose wounds were impressed upon her body, etc. She became a Dominican, and therefore afterwards à patron saint of the Dominicans. She wrote devotional pieces, letters, and poems, which have been more than once printed: the best edition appeared at Siena and Lucca, in 1707–13, in 4 vols. 4to, under the title of Opere della serufica Santa Catarina.-S1. C. of Bologna and St. C. of Sweden are of less note.
CATHARINE I., Empress of Russia, was originally by name Martha Rabe, and was the posthumous daughter of John Rabe, a Swedish quarter-master in Livonia. Her mother died in 1685, when she was but three years old. Left hopeless and destitute, & parish-clerk took compassion on her, and supported her, and a Lutheran clergyman in Marienburg, afterwards received her into his house as an attendant on his children. In 1701, she married a Swedish dragoon, who next year was called to active service; and Marienburg being taken by the Russians, she became for some time the mistress of gen. Bauer; and afterwards entering the service of the princess Menschikoff, she attracted the notice of Peter the great. In 1703, she went over to the Greek church, and took the name of Catharinay Alexiewna. After being for some years the emperor's mistress, she was privately married to him in 1711; the marriage was publicly avowed in 1712; she was proclaimed empress in 1718, and was crowned at Moscow in 1724. She bore eight children to the emperor, all of whom died in childhood, except two daughters, Anne and Elizabeth, the latter of whom was afterwards empress of Russia, and the former married the duke of Holstein, and was the mother of the emperor Peter III. When Peter the great and his army seemed entirely in the power of the Turkish army on the Pruth in 1717, C., who was with him, sought an interview with the grand vizier, and, by employ. ing her jewels to bribe his attendants, succeeded in procuring the deliverance of the Russians. Her conduct on this occasion excited so much admiration and gratitude in the emperor, that he resolved to appoint her his successor. Yet in the end of the year 1724, she became the object of his displeasure and suspicion, on account of an alleged intimacy with a chamberlain, whom he caused to be beheaded. Menschikoff, who had always been attached to her interests, was at this time in disgrace. But she had con. trived in a great measure to recover her position, when, on 28th Jan., 1725, Peter the great died. His death was kept secret as long as possible, that everything might be arranged for her taking possession of the throne; and the archbishop of Pleskow came forward and declared before the troops and people, that the emperor, on his death-bed, had declared her alone worthy to be his successor. The hostility and hesitation of the nobles were at once overcome, and C. was acknowledged as empress and sole ruler of all the Russias. Under Menschikoff's directions, the affairs of government went on well enough for a time; but the empress ere long began to yield to the influence of a number of favorites, addicted herself to drunkenness, and lived such a life as could not fail to hurry her to the grave. She died, however, unexpectedly, 17th May, 1727.
CATHARINE II., empress of Russia, was b. at Stettin on 25th April, 1729. Her father, the prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, was a Prussian field-marshal, and governor of Stettin. She received the name of Sophia Augusta; but the empress Elizabeth of Russia having selected her for the wife of her nephew and intended successor, Peter, she passed from the Lutheran to the Greek church, and took the name of Catharina Alexiewna. In 1745, her marriage took place. She soon quarreled with her husband, and each of them lived a life of unrestrained vice. Among his attendants was a count Soltikow, with whom her intimacy soon became scandalous; and Soltikow was sent on an embassy abroad. But the young Polish count, Stanislaus Poniatowski, almost immediately supplied his place. After the death of the empress Elizabeth in 1761, Peter III. ascended the Russian throne; but the conjugal difference became continually wider. C. was banished to a separate abode; and the emperor seemed to entertain the design of divorcing her, declaring her only son, Paul, illegitimate, and marrying his mistress, Elizabeth Woronzow. The popular dislike to Peter, however, rapidly increased; and at length, he being dethroned by a conspiracy, C. was made empress. A few days afterwards Peter was murdered (July, 1762). What participation his wife had in his murder, has never been well ascertained.
C. now exerted herself to please the people, and among other things, wade a great show of regard for the outward forms of the Greek church, although her principles were, in reality, those of the infidelity then prevalent among the French philosophers. The government of the country was carried on with great energy; and her reign was remarkable for the rapid increase of the extent and power of Russia. Not long after her accession to the throne, her influence secured the election of her former favorite, Stanislaus Poniatowski, to the throne of Poland. In her own empire, however, discontentment
was seriously manifested, the hopes of the disaffected being centered in the young prince Ivan, who was forthwith murdered in the castle of Schlüsselburg. From that time, the internal politics of Russia long consisted in great part of intrigues for the bumiliation of one favorite and the exaltation of another. The first partition of Poland in 1772, and the Turkish war, which terminated in the peace of Kainardji in 1774, vastly increased the empire. The Turkish war which terminated in the peace of Jassy in 1792, had similar results, and also the war with Sweden, which terminated in 1790. The second and third partitions of Poland, and the incorporation of_Courland with Russia, completed the triumphs of C.'s reign. She began a war with Persia, however, and cherished a scheme for the overthrow of the British power in India; but a stroke of apoplexy cut her off on Nov. 9, 1796. She was a woman of great ability; but, utterly devoid of principle, she shrunk from no crime; and sensuality and ambition governed all her actions. She was shameless in vice; and always had a paramour, who dwelt in her palace, and might be regarded as filling an acknowledged office of state, with large revenues and determinate privileges. Yet distinguished authors flattered her; and she invited to her court some of the literati and philosophers of France. She was ever ready to commence great undertakings, but most of them were left unfinished; and little was really accomplished in her reign for the improvement of the country, or the progress of civilization. On a visit to the southern provinces of the empire in 1787, she was gratified by a perpetual display of fictitious wealth and prosperity along the whole route. This imperial progress was also a triumphal procession of her vile favorite Potemkin (q.v.).
CATHARINE OF ARAGON, Queen of England, the first wife of Henry VIII., and fourth daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, king and queen of Castile and Aragon, was b. Dec., 1485. She occupies a prominent place in English history, not for what she herself was, but for what she was the occasion of-the reformation. Married when scarcely 16, to Arthur, prince of Wales, son of Henry VII., she was left a widow within a year; and in the course of a few months more a second marriage was projected for her by her father-in-law, with his second son Henry, as yet a boy of only 12 years old. The pope's dispensation enabling such near relatives to marry was obtained in 1503, and the marriage took place in June, 1509, immediately after Henry's accession to the crown as Henry VIII. Although Henry was very far from being a model husband, he appears to have treated queen C., who had borne him several children, with all due respect, until about 1527, when he conceived a passion for Anne Boleyn (q.v.). He now expressed doubts as to the legality of his marriage, and set about obtaining a divorce. Pope Clement VII. would readily have annulled the marriage permitted by his predecessor, had he not feared queen C.'s powerful nephew, the emperor Charles V. He, however, granted a commission to Compeggio and Wolsey, to inquire into the validity of the marriage; but before these prelates queen C. refused to plead, and appealed to the pope. The king craved judgment. The legates cited the queen, and declaring her contumacious when she appeared not, went on with the cause; but the wily Campeggio, anxious only for time for his master when the king expected an answer, prorogued the court until a future day. The king consulted the universities of Europe, many of which declared the marriage invalid. The pope now summoned the king to Rome, but Henry haughtily refused to appear either himself, or by deputy, which he maintained would be to sacrifice the prerogatives of his crown; and setting the pope at defiance, married Anne Boleyn. Cranmer, shortly afterwards (1533), declared the first marriage void, and pope Clement annulled Cranmer's sentence, making the separation from Rome complete. Queen C. did not quit the kingdom, but took up her residence first at Ampthill, in Bedfordshire, and afterwards at Kimbolton castle, Huntingdonshire, where she led an austere religious life until her decease in Jan., 1536. Queen C.'s personal character was unimpeachable, and her disposition sweet and gentle.
CATHARINE DE' MEDICI, the queen of Henri II. of France, was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici, duke of Urbino, and was b. at Florence in 1519. In her 14th year she was brought to France, and married to Henri, the second son of Francis I. The marriage was a part of the political schemes of her uncle, pope Clement VII., but as he died soon after, she found herself friendless and neglected at the French court. In these circumstances, she conducted herself with : submission which seemed even to indicate a want of proper spirit, but which gained her the favor of the old king, and in some measure also of her husband. It was not till the accession of her eldest son, Francis II., in 1559, that her love of power began to display itself. The Guises at this time possessed a power which seemed dangerous to that of the throne, and C. entered into a secret alliance with the Huguenots to oppose them. On the death of Francis II. in 1560, and accession of Charles IX., the government fell entirely into her hands. Caring little for religion in itself, although she was very prone to superstition, she disliked the Protestants, chiefly because their principles were opposed to the absolute despotism which she desired to maintain. Yet she sought to rally the Protestant leaders around the throne, in order to remove the Guises. This attempt having failed, and the civil war which ensued having ended in the peace of Amboise, highly favorable to the Protestants, she became alarmed at the increase of their power, and entered into a secret treaty with Spain for the extirpation of heretics; and subsequently into a plot