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into the back of the eye. C. may affect the lens alone (lenticular C.), or the front of back of the capsule of the lens (capsular C.), or both lens and capsule (capsulo-lenticular cataract). Its whiteness varies from that of half-boiled white of egg to that of snow. Heat will produce a like change on the lens out of the body, just as it changes white of egg from transparent to opaque. · The rounded lens of the fish is seen at table in this opaque condition,
C. is painless, and unaccompanied by inflammation. It occasions blindness simply by obstructing the passage of the light; but C. alone does not produce so complete blindness but that the patient can tell light from darkness. It may occur at any age, but is most common in elderly persons, and is not unfrequent in children, who may be even born with it. The catoptric test, as it is called, is an ingenious method of distinguishing incipient C. from certain other deep affections of the eye. When a lighted candle is held before the eye of a person whose back is to the window, three candles are seen in the healthy eye. Two are erect-the large front one caused by the convex cornea, the smaller and fainter one behind by the convex front of the lens. The third, occasioned by the concave back of the lens, is in the middle; is small, bright, and turned upside down; and, when the candle is moved, goes in the opposite direction, while the two erect images move with the candle. When the back of the lens becomes opaque, the inverted image is obscured or disappears; and when the front of the lens is affected, only the great front image, caused by the cornea, remains. This curious experiment may be tried on a large scale, by holding a common bi-convex lens a little way behind a watch-glass. Then, on greasing the back of the lens, lo imitate C., the inverted image disappears, and on turning the lens round, all but the image in the watch-glass disappears.
No medical or other treatment has any influence in arresting the progress of C., nor can it be cured but by a surgical operation. A clever imposture used to be practiced by quacks. By applying belladonna to the eye-as the surgeon does when he wishes to dilate the pupil for an examination or operation-some little light was temporarily admitted through the less opaque edge of the lens. The patient beginning to see somewhat better, after long and increasing dimness of vision, began to congratulate himself on a cure; the quack, of course, hastened to get his money without waiting for the further result, which was sure to be blank disappointment. So long as there is fair vision with one eye, the operation on the other may be delayed. It is a mistake to delay the operation in children on account of their tender age. The sooner it is done the better, both for the eye and the education of the child.
Three methods of operation are practiced. 1. For absorption or solution. This is suitable for children, in whom the C., like the natural lens, is soft, and in all other cases in which there is reason to suppose that the C. is soft. An appropriate needle is passed through the cornea; made to open and lacerate the front of the capsule, the rags of which curl out of the way behind the iris, so that their subsequent opacity does not obstruct the light; then the soft cataractous lens is punctured and picked so as more effectually to admit the aqueous humor, which naturally fills the space between the lens and the cornea, and which has the remarkable property of absorbing or dissolving the lens or cataract when admitted within the capsule. This operation may require to be repeated several times, at intervals of a few weeks, before the whole Č. is dissolved. 2. Displacement. A needle is passed through the fore part of the white of the eye, until it is seen through the upper part of the pupil, lying across the front of the upper part of the lens. This is now pressed back, so as to make the lens sink down and back into the vitreous humor, when it is either slowly absorbed, or may in part permanently remain. The older method of displacement, termed couching, in which the lens was pushed more directly downwards, is now abandoned, as more likely to press on the retina, and cause subsequent evil to the eye. 3. Extraction. Half the cornea, through nearly its whole breadtli
, is divided with Beer's knife, an operation requiring great skill; the front of the capsule is opened, and disposed of with a needle; and the lens is gently assisted out of its place, through the pupil, and out of the opening in the cornea, great care being taken not to allow the vitreous humor to follow. Displacement and extraction are both applicable to hard cataracts, the form it generally takes in old age, as the lens itself becomes naturally harder with age, as well as more flat and amber-tinted. Displacement is more likely to be followed by bad consequences, some time after, from the presence of the displaced lens, while the risk of extraction is greater at the opera tion. The surgeon must decide which is best for each case. Though not so simple and successful as the operation for absorption through the cornea for soft C., displacement and extraction are generally very successful in restoring vision. The place of the lens is supplied by fluid humor, the refracting power of which is nearly equal to that of the lens, and the restoration of vision may be perfect. All of these operations require minute anatomical knowledge (see EYE), and great nicety and skill in the use of the instruments.
CATARACTS and RAPIDS. See WATERFALLS.
CATARRH (Gr. katarreo, I flow down), a disease of great frequency in temperate lati. tudes, especially in changeable moist climates in the winter season. From its well. known connection with sudden falls of temperature, and other epidemic or atmospheric causes (see INFLUENZA), as also from the chill often experienced at the commencemeni of the disease, it is popularly called a cold—a term, however, perhaps somewhat less definite in its meaning than Č., which word is usually restricted to the case of a cold affecting the chest, and attended with discharge of mucus by coughing. A "cold in the head” is termed, in strict scientific language, coryza; we shall, however, keep both forms in view in the present article. c., or cold, commonly begins with a feeling of chilliness, which may or may not be attributable to external causes. Sometimes this is absent, there being only a sense of languor and indisposition; not unfrequently there is do sensation of an unusual kind, until a stuffing is experienced in the nostrils, or severe headache, or hoarseness with cough, or oppression of the breathing. The regular form of a cold is to attack the nostrils first, and afterwards the air-passages leading to the chest. When it habitually attacks the chest, without running through its ordinary course as indicated above, there is often some special cause of delicacy in the lungs, or some constitutional tendency towards consumption (q.v.). The discharge is in the beginning watery, becoming afterwards more abundant, glairy, and of yellowish color; the early stages of the disease are attended by considerable irritation of the surfaces affected, and probably no one of the little miseries of life is more prostrating and discouraging for the time than a bad cold in the head. The tendency of C. to attack the chest, and thus to pass into bronchitis or pneumonia (q.v.), or to lay the foundation of tubercular disease, constitutes almost its only danger. See CHEST.
The treatment of a cold is commonly a simple matter, so far as the particular attack is concerned. Confinement to the house, and, in severe cases, to bed, or to the sofa, for a day or two; a warm hip or foot bath, to remove the chill; light farinaceous diet, and, if the stomach and bowels are at all loaded, a dose or two of some gentle laxative, are commonly sufficient to subdue the disease. Some persons cure their colds by entire abstinence from food, and as much as possible from drink; others by a large opiate, or by a succession of doses of Dover's powder; others by spirit of mindererus and paregoric; some even profess to carry out the popular maxim, "stuff a cold, and starve a fever,” and maintain that a good dinner, and a tumbler of whisky or brandy toddy, are the best specifics. That colds get well under all these methods, needs not be denied; but that any violently perturbative or specific practice assists the cure, or shortens the disease, has yet to be proved; and multiplied experience has shown, that “stufling a cold”. is by no means to be commended. In the later stages, however, a more liberal diet than at first, and in some cases even a moderate allowance of stimulants, affords considerable relief from the feeling of depression that remains for a time on the subsidence of a catarrh. The tendency to this disease, when habitual, and when not dependent on any form of constitutional disorder requiring special means for its cure, is best met by the daily use of the cold bath, with frequent exercise in the open air, and proper ventilation of the sleeping-apartment; also by friction of the skin, and by clothing, which, without being oppressive, is comfortably warm. Exposure to draughts or sudden chills, when the surface is perspiring, is to be avoided; but a close confined air habitually breathed in a workshop or bedroom, is a fruitful predisposing cause of the disease.
CATASAU'QUA, a t. in Lehigh co., Penn., on Lehigh river, 3 m. above Allentown; pop. '80, 3,065. "The Lehigh Valley and the Lehigh and Susquehanna railroads unite here.
CATASTROPHISM. See page 890.
CATAWBA, a light sparkling wine, of rich muscadine flavor, produced in the neigh. borhood of Cincinnati, Ohio, U. S. It is made from a grape called the Catawba grape, “first found growing on the banks of the Catawba river, in Carolina.” This wine, which is scarcely known in England, is now in extensive use in North America, where it is gradually superseding the importation of the Rhenish and French sparkling wines, to which, in general character, it bears a resemblance. The vineyards where the C. is produced are situated on the steep and beautiful slopes with a southern exposure on the banks of the Ohio river, under the shelter of high hills on the north. The first great grower of the C. was Mr. Longworth, an esteemed and wealthy proprietor in this quarter, who, embarking in the pursuit less on business considerations than as an enthusiast, succeeded, after much patient care and expense, in producing a wine that throughout the states finds more favor, and commands a higher price, than the choicest wines imported. Some of the finer kinds of C. rival the best champagne in delicacy and purity, and are not to be confounded with inferior American imitations.
CATAW'BA, a co. in w. North Carolina, on the Catawba river, crossed by the Western North Carolina railroad; 250 sq.m.; pop. '80, 14,946—2474 colored. It has a varied surface and fertile soil, producing wheat, corn, oats, etc. Iron ore is found in abundance. Co. seat, Newton.
CATAWBA, or GREAT CATAWBA, a river rising in the Blue Ridge in n.w. North Carolina, and flowing e. and s. through the gold region of that state into South Caro. lina, where it takes the name of the Wateree and joins the Congaree, the two forming the Santee. The C. is about 250 m. long.
CATAW'BAS, Indians of North Carolina, once a large tribe in the region of Catawba river, but now a mere remnant. At the time of the early white settlements, they could muster many thousands of warriors, and as late as the revolution were able to furnish a valuable contingent to the Carolina troops. They occupied several towns along the river that still bears their name; but at last leased the lands to the whites, and removed into the territory of the Cherokees, with whom they had been at war. After a short residence they returned to a reservation in their original district. Their language is closely allied to that of the Waccoes and the Carolina tribe. Peter Harris, a revolutionary soldier, was said to be the last full-blooded survivor of the Catawba tribe.
CATBALO'GAN, or CADVALONGA, a t. of the Philippines, capital of the island of Samar, on a small bay on the w. coast. The houses are mostly constructed of nipa palm, but there are some of stone. Pop. about 7,000.
CAT-BIRD, Turdus felivox, an American thrush, of the same group with the mocking-bird, which it resembles in its vocal powers. It is a bird of passage, making its way northward in spring through Georgia and Carolina as far as Massachusetts. It feeds on fruit and berries of all kinds, worms, and insects; builds a large nest of dry twigs, weeds, etc., without any attempt at concealment, in a bush or tree, often in the immediate vicinity of human habitations, and shows extraordinary boldness in the defense of its young. It has its name from a mewing cry which it utters when annoyed by an intruder approaching too near its nest.
CATCH, a species of musical composition peculiar to England, and in the canon style. The words of the C. are generally humorous, and intended to be sung in social parties over a glass. The music is generally for three voices, of which there exist hundreds of specimens from the time of Purcell to the present day. As in the canon, each voice takes up the subject at a certain distance after the first has begun. One of the best specimens of a Č. is by Calcott, on Hawkins's and Burney's histories of music, where the humor lies in one of the parts repeating “ Burney's history”-sounding like “burn his history”—while the others are advocating Hawkins.
CATCH-DRAINS, open drains, and sometimes covered drains, along a declivity to intercept and carry off surface water.
CATCHFLY, the common English name of several plants of the natural order caryophyllacea—as silene armeria, 8. Anglica, lychnis viscaria, etc.—which being clammy, in consequence of a peculiar exudation, on the calyx, on the joints of the stem, etc., often prove fatal to insects settling upon them. See Lychnis and SILENE. - The name is sometimes employed by botanists as a sort of popular equivalent to silene. -Diona muscipula is also sometimes called the Carolina catechism. See DIONÆA.
CATCHPOLL, a sheriff's officer, or bailiff, is so called in England, probably because he was in use to catch his victim by the poll
, or head. CATEAU, LE, or CATEAU-CAMBRESIS, a t. of France, in the department of Nord, situated on the Selle, 14 m. e.s.e. of Cambrai. C. has manufactures of shawls, merinoes, calicoes, and leather; it has also breweries and distilleries. Pop. 76, 9,444. It is celebrated as the place where, in 1559, the treaty known as that of Cateau-Cambresis was concluded between Henri II. of France and Philip II. of Spain, by which the former monarch ceded to the latter, Savoy, Corsica, and nearly 200 forts in Italy and the low countries.
CATECHETICAL SCHOOLS, the name given to the ancient Christian schools of theology, of which the chief were those of Antioch and Alexandria. Clement and Origen were the most famous of the teachers.
CATECHISM, from a Greek word, katēchco, which means to resound, or sound into one's ears; hence to instruct by word of mouth. Persons undergoing instruction in the principles of Christianity were hence called catechumens (katēchoumenoi), and the teacher appointed for this purpose was called a catechist. Hence any system of teaching by question and answer is called a catechism.
Catechisms have long formed one of the principal means employed for popular instruction in the truths and duties of the Christian religion. The composition of the first catechisms was, in all probability, suggested by the ordinary oral instruction of catechumens, and was intended for the help both of teachers and pupils. It appears to have been in the 8th and 9th centuries that the first regular catechisms were compiled, of which that by Kero, a monk of St. Gall, and that ascribed to Otfried of Weissenburg, are among the most noted. At later periods, the use of catechisms prevailed chietly among the opponents of the hierarchy, as among the Waldenses, the Albigenses, the Wickliffites, and, above all, among the Bohemian brethren. The term C. appears to have been first employed in its present sense among the latter. At an early period in the history of the reformation, the reformers began to avail themselves of this method of popu, lar instruction, and their catechisms became important instruments in that great religious movement. In 1520, Luther published his first short catechism. In 1525, Justus Jonas and John Agricola were intrusted with the preparation of a catechism. In 1529, Luther published his larger and smaller catechisms, which found a place among the symbolical books or standards of the Lutheran churches. A number of catechisms were published also by the Swiss reformers, and by those of England and other countries. The Geneva catechisms, larger and smaller, were the work of Calvin. They were published in 1536. were speedily translated into various languages, and became acknowledged standards of the reformed churches, not only in Switzerland but in the low countries, in France, and in Hungary. The church of Geneva has set aside the authority of these catechisms. — The Zurich C. is received as a standard in the church of Zurich.—The Heidelberg or palatinate C. is of greater importance, however, than any other as a standard of the Swiss reformed churches. It was compiled by the Heidelberg thcologians, Caspar Olevian and Zacharias Ursinus, at the request of the elector Frederic III. of the palatinate; it was published in 1563, was approved by several synods, and was subjected to a revision by the synod of Dort.-In the church of Rome, the Romish or Tridentine C. is of high authority. It was prepared in accordance with the decrees of the council of Trent, by archbishop Leon. Marino, bishop Ægidius Foscorari, and the Portuguese dominican, Francis Fureiro; revised by cardinals Borromeo, Sirlet, and Antonian, and sanctioned by pope Pius V. It was published at Rome in 1566—The C. of the Orthodox Greek church was prepared by Peter Mogilas, metropolitan in Kiew, and published in 1642. It received authority as a standard or symbolical book from a synod at Jerusalem in 1672. It is often called the larger Russian C., to distinguish it from the smaller C., prepared by order of Peter the great. Besides these catechisms, which have a historic interest, or are of importance from their symbolical character, there have appeared at all periods, since the reformation, many others, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, some doctrinal, some controversial, some devoted to particular subjects, as the sacraments, or to particular purposes, as the preparation of candidates for admission to the Lord's supper, some adapted to the mental capacity of very young children, etc. The opinion, however, has become prevalent, that doctrinal abstracts are not the best form in which religion can be presented to the young, and the use of catechisms has accordingly been in some measure relinquished in favor of other methods of instruction.
The C. of the church of England, with which we are most familiar, is the smaller one published in the book of Common Prayer. It is in two parts: the first contains and explains the baptismal covenant, the creed, the ten commandments, and the Lord's prayer; the second explains the two sacraments, baptism, and the Lord's supper. It is not known with absolute certainty who was the author of the first part; probably Cranmer and Ridley had the principal hand in framing the questions and answers, It was originally put forth with the 42 articles in the reign of Edward VI., and condemned as heretical in the reign of Mary. It must not be confounded with Cranmer's C., which was a larger work, differenily arranged, and translated chiefly from the German C. used in Nuremberg. This first part of the church C. is spoken of as the shorter catechism.
There was a larger church C. compiled also in the reign of Edward VI., by Ponet, as is supposed, and it corresponds in some degree with the smaller work above described. It was afterwards revised and enlarged by Noel, dean of St. Paul's, and published in 1570; and though never officially promulgated by the church, it has some authority from having been approved by the lower house of convocation. At the Hampton court conference, in the reign of James I., the shorter C. was considered too short, and the larger one of Noel's too long; and accordingly, at the king's suggestion, an addition was made to the former of that explanation of the two sacraments which now forms the second part of the church catechism. This was drawn up by Dr. Overall. The whole is a work much esteemed by all sections of the church, as remarkable for its simplicity, truth, and catholicity. It, however, states the baptismal theory in a way that is not very acceptable to the extreme low church party. The rubrics in the Common Prayer book enjoin the teaching of the C. in the church on Sundays and holidays after the 2d lesson at evening prayer; and the 59th canon contains a like injunction, imposing penalties on the clergy who neglect this. The custom of catechizing in the church had fallen into almost universal disuse, but in many parishes it has been revived with excellent results.
The larger and shorter catechisms, which, with the Westminster confession of faith, constitute the standards or symbolical books of the Presbyterian churches throughout the British empire and the United States of America, were compiled by the assembly of divines at Westminster (q.v.); the shorter C. “ to be a directory for catechizing such as are of weaker capacity;” the larger, "- for catechizing such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the Christian religion. The shorter C. was presented to the English house of commons on 5th Nov., 1647; the larger on the 14th April, 1648; and in July, 1648, both received the sanction of the general assembly of the church of Scotland--the general assembly, in the act approving of the larger C., declaring it to be
a rich treasure for increasing knowledge among the people of God," and that they bless the Lord that so excellent a catechism has been prepared.”. The shorter C. has, however, been far more generally used for the purpose of instruction than the larger, which has been generally felt to be too minute in its statements, and too burdensome to the memory to be employed as a catechism. Even the shorter C. is regarded by many, who substantially adhere to its doctrine, as carrying the statement of dogmatic theology beyond what is proper for elementary instruction, whilst it has been long felt to be unsuitable for the very young and the very ignorant, and its use is now almost always preceded by that of catechisms more adapted to their capacity. Its influence, however, has been very great in forming the religious opinions, and in exercising and training the intellectual faculties, wherever Presbyterianism has prevailed: for it has been, and still is, in almost universal use among Presbyterians speaking the English language, and to a considerable extent among Independents or Congregationalists both in Britain and America. In Holland also, a translation of it has been much used. It is very generally regarded, by those whose doctrinal views are in accordance with it, as an admirable compend of Christian doctrine and duty.—The authorship of the Westminster assembly's catechisms has been the subject of much debate, or at least the authorship of the first drafts of them; it being admitted that they were prepared with great care by committees of the assembly. But the probability appears to be, that their author. ship is to be ascribed entirely to these committees; and that, like the Westminster confession of faith, they are thus the result of the joint labors of many. From discoveries made by the late Dr. M‘Crie, it seems probable that at least the plan or scheme of the shorter C. is to be ascribed to Mr. Palmer.
CAT'ECHU, a substance employed both as a coloring matter and medicinally as an astringent. The C. of commerce is obtained chiefly from East Indian trees, such as the C. tree (acacia catechu), betel-nut, etc.; but the greater part of that which is exported from India is made from the C. tree. It is known in India by the name kutt; and C. is said to be a name compounded of two words signifying the juice of a tree (cate, a tree, and chu, juice). Cutch is another form of one or other of these names, and is a common commercial name. The heart-wood alone of the tree yields C., which is obtained by cutting it into small chips, and boiling it in water, straining the liquid from time to time, and adding fresh supplies of chips, till the extract is of sufficient consistence to be poured into clay molds, which are usually of a square shape; or when of the thickness of tar, it is allowed to harden for two days, so that it will not run, and is formed into balls about the size of oranges, which are placed on husks of rice or on leaves, and appear in commerce enveloped in them. The C. manufacturers in Northern India move to different parts of the country at different seasons, and erect temporary huts in the jungles, where they carry on their operations. The C. tree abounds chiefly in the Bombay and Bengal presidencies; it is a small
, erect, thorny tree, with a roundish head of (generally) prickly branches. Its sapwood is yellow, the heart-wood dark red. C. is brittle, and can readily be broken into fragments; is soluble in water, and possesses an astringent taste, but no odor. It is a very permanent color, and is employed in the dyeing of blacks, browns, fawns, drabs, and greens. It contains much tannin, and an acid called catechuic acid, which can be isolated in white silky crystals. It is often adulterated with earthy substances, but its ready solubility in water and alcohol, should at once show the presence of such, by leaving them behind in an insoluble state.—The C. of the betel-nut is obtained by boiling first the nuts, and then the extract to a proper consistency. A first boiling of the nuts for some hours is said to yield a black kind of C., called kassu; and a second boiling, after the nuts are dried, a yellowishbrown kind, called coury, which is considered the best, and is sold for the highest price. The former appears in commerce under the name of colombo C. or Ceylon C. (or cutch) in the form of circular flat cakes, covered on one side with husks of rice. The latter does not seem to reach Europe.-Gambir (q.v.) may be regarded as a kind of catechu. Kino (q.v.) is sometimes confounded with catechu. Terra Japonica, or Japan earth, is an old name for C., not quite disused, which was given to it on the supposition of its being an earthy substance brought from Japan.
CATECHUMENS (Gr. persons undergoing a course of instruction; see CATECHISM), the appellation given, in the early Christian church, to those converted Jews and heathens who had not yet received baptism, but were undergoing a course of training and instruction preparatory to it. They had a place assigned them in the congregation, but were not permitted to be present at the dispensation of the Lord's supper. In the apostolic age, converts appear to have been at once admitted to the sacraments; but afterwards this ceased to be the case, and a period of probation was required. The C. were divided into different classes or grades, according to their proficiency-those of the lowest grade were not permitted to be present during the prayers of the congregation; and those only of the highest, and who had been declared fit to be baptized at the next administration of the ordinance, were permitted to witness the dispensation of the Lord's supper.—The term C. was afterwards employed to designate young members of the Christian church who were receiving instruction to prepare them for confirmation or for the Lord's supper, and it is still often used in this sense.
CATEGORIES. This designation has come down to us from Aristotle. One of the books of his Organon or Logical System is so named. The C., or predicaments, as the schoolmen called them, are to be understood as an attempt at a comprehensive classification of all that exists, for the purposes of logical affirmation, proof, or disproof. The entire universe may be classified in various ways—as into things celestial and terrestrial; into matter and spirit; into organized and unorganized; into minerals, plants, animals, etc. But the classification contemplated under the C. proceeds on the very general properties or attributes that most extensively pervade all existing things, although in unequal degrees. A good example is quantity, which pertains to every thing that we know or can think of. We give the Aristotelian enumeration—the first column is the