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for the storage of water. In many places one meets with the successive beds of driedup lakes, with a narrow outlet at the lower ends, through which a periodic stream filows. By closing up this outlet, artificial lakes or dams may be formed to almost any extent, and of unlimited number; and from the steepness of the slope, the lands lower down admit easily of being laid under water.
As regards minerals, the diamond fields are in Griqua-land (q.v.), till recently beyond the limits of the colony, and in the free state. In 1874, the lieutenant of West Griqualand issued an order for the better management of diggings and mines of precious stones and minerals, in which he requires that miners shall have a certificate, dealers a license, and the mines be under official inspection. This ordinance created a great outcry against it by a great body of dealers; but it seems necessary that such protection should shield the weak and the dealer who wishes to trade according to recognized law. Gold is confidently reported to have been found in the Transvaal in payable quantities; but the only mineral within the colony which has greatly added to its wealth is tho rich copper ore found in Namaqua-land.
There is in the colony almost a total want of navigable rivers, but the system of railways is rapidly extending. In 1880, there was a mileage of about 600 miles open for trattic, the existing lines being mainly connected with three systems—the western, start ing from Cape Town; the Midland, starting from Port Elizabeth ; and the North. western, also from Port Elizabeth. The railways are all the property of the government. Direct telegraphic communication with Europe was established, in 1879, by the East African submarine cable from Aden to Natal, and thence by the land lines. The shipping at Cape Town is now secure by a breakwater and docks. The same cannot be said of Port Elizabeth, East London, and the Kowie; but measures are being taken which, it is hoped, will result in making these also safe from the fierce s.e. winds.
This splendid country is at present occupied by an assemblage of very varied races. The Portuguese were the first Europeans who landed here. The Dutch are probably still the most numerous, notwithstanding the exodus to the Orange river free state, prompted by the slave question. Next in number are the English, by whom some parts of the country, particularly in the e., are occupied almost exclusively. The French are also largely represented, many refugees having settled in it subsequently to the revocation of the edict of Nantes, but they are now nearly absorbed in the Dutch population. They were at first located principally in the w., where they introduced the culture of the vine, but their names are now found in almost every part of the land. There is also a considerable importation of Germans, who have been settled on the frontiers adjoining the Kathirs for defensive purposes. As regards the colored inhabitants, large numbers of Kaffirs have been retained in the districts which they formerly occupied, and others have come into the country as shepherds and servants. There is a large number of people of Malay origin in and around Cape Town, and in towns on the e. coast, who gain a livelihood as fishermen, porters, and the more laborious sorts of skilled labor. There are a few Mozambiqueres and Hottentots, besides a number of half-castes, to whom the name of Africander properly belongs
The constitution of the country, after several changes, was fixed in its present form, by an act passed by the colonial legislature in 1872, which provides for responsible gov. ernment. There are two elective chambers, the upper house, consisting of 21 members, 11 of whom represent the western province as one constituency, and 10 the eastern. They are presided over by the lord chief-justice. To the lower house, or house of assembly, two representatives are appointed by each division of the colony, with the exception of the Cape district, which, as being more populous, returns four. They amount in all to 72, and are presided over by a speaker of their own choice. The 16 electoral divisions into which the western and eastern provinces are each divided, are again subdivided for magisterial and fiscal purposes. The governor carries on the administration along with a ministry of 5 members—the colonial secretary, the attorney-general, the treasurer-general, the commissioner of crown lands and public works, the secretary for native affairs. The supreme court, which has its sittings in Cape Town, has two judges beside the lord chief-justice. Another court holds its sittings in Graham's Town, in which there are two judges only, but there lies an appeal to the supreme court. In other parts of the colony, justice is administered by the judges going on circuit. A colonial university has recently been founded.
Wool is the staple product of the colony; ostrich farming and the culture of the vine are carried on. The following tables show the exports and imports of the colony
for recent years:
The Cape Colony is not exceptional in showing a decline in imports and exports in 1877; but the insecurity caused by the troubles ending in the Zulu war of 1879 has told against the prosperity of the colony. The official tables include in the returns of revenue also the loans raised by the government; the increase since 1873 is accordingly not to be regarded as normal.
Revenue. Expenditure. 1870.
£831,211 £795,695 1873.
2,078,220 2,159,658 1875.
2, 246,179 2,272, 275 1880..
3,541,720 3,742,665 CAPE PALMAS, the s. extremity of Liberia, Africa, 4° 27' n., 7° 44' west. This was the point at which the Maryland colony of free colored emigrants settled in 1834. The surrounding country is one of the Liberian states, and is called Maryland. There is a light-house on the cape.
CAPE PRINCE OF WALES, in Behring sea, the w, point of the mainland of Alaska, directly opposite to East cape in Siberia, the strait between the two being the narrowest water between America and Asia. The cape is a few miles s. of the Arctic circle, and terminates in a bold bluff, n. of which are dangerous shoals.
CAPE RACE, the s.e. point of Newfoundland, usually the first American land seen by steamers from England, 46° 40' n., 52° 54' west. There is a revolving light 180 ft. above the sea The cape terminates in a bold rough headland.
CAPERCAIL'ZIE, CAPERCAILLIE, WOOD-GROUSE, or Cock OF THE WOODS (tetrao uro. gallus), the largest of the gallinaceous birds of Europe. It is a species of grouse (9.v.), almost equal in size to the turkey; the male, which is the largest, sometimes weighing fifteen pounds or more. In figure and appearance, it much resembles the black-cock, but the tail of the male C. is rounded, and not forked, as in that species; and the male c. has the feathers of the head elongated. The general color of the adult male is brownish black, minutely freckled with grayish white, and with lighter brown; the quill-feathers dark browo; the tail-feathers nearly black, some of the longer tail-coverts on the sides of the tail tipped with white; the chest is of a shining dark green; there is a small scarlet patch of naked skin above the eye, and the bill is whitish. The general color of the female and of young males is dark brown, freckled with yellowish brown; the front of the neck and the chest are yellowish chestput; and the feathers of the under parts are generally edged with white. The C. has the feet feathered to the toes, but the toes are naked. It is an inhabitant of pine-woods; feeds on berries, seeds, worms, insects, etc., and on the young shoots of the pine, greatly preferring the Scotch fir to the spruce; occasionally also eating, at least in winter, the buds of the birch and other trees. The female makes her nest on the ground, and lays from six to twelve eggs, of a pale reddish or yellowish brown, spotted with other shades of brown, and more than 2 in. long. Like the black-cock, the C. is polygamous.—The geographical distribution of the C. is very extensive: it is found on the pine-covered mountains of all parts of Europe, from Spain and Italy almost to the North cape, and is abundant in the northern parts of Asia. It was at one time found both in Scotland and Ireland, but was completely extirpated about the end of the 18th or beginning of the 19th century. Through the exertions, however, of the earl of Fife and other proprietors of great Highland estates, but particularly of the marquis of Breadalbane, it has again been restored to the forests of the Highlands of Scotland. The C. is very capable of domestication, and breeds readily, if allowed the range of a space containing a few pine-trees. It is much esteemed for the table. The market of Stockholm is well supplied with it in winter; and since the establishment of steam communication, it has been regularly brought from Scandinavia to London.
CAPE RIVER, properly Vaunks, taking its popular name from the proximity of its mouth to cape Gracias a Dios, on the e. reach of the Mosquito shore in Central America. After a generally n.e. course of nearly 300 m., it enters the Caribbean sea, about lat. 14° 59' n., and long. 83° 11' w., being navigable for a considerable distance upwards.
CAPERNAUM, meaning "the field of repentance," or city of comfort," was in the time of our Savior a favorite and exalted city, and one of the three which he upbraided “because they repented not.” It was situated on the north-western coast of the sea of Galilee, or lake of Gennesareth. It is now a heap of ruins, extending more than a mile along the shore and back towards the mountains, so overgrown with grass and bushes, that it is difficult to move among them. C. is called by the natives of Syria Tell-hûn.
CA'PERS are the pickled flower-buds of the caper-bush (capparis spinosa). They have an agreeable pungency of taste, with a slight bitterness, and have long been in very general use as a condiment and ingredient of sauces, along with boiled mution and other kinds of food. They possess medicinal properties, being antiscorbutic, stimulant, and laxative. They are of a grayish green color, to improve which, however, copper is sometimes used, as in the case of gherkins and other pickles, rendering them poisonous. This can be detected by thrusting a polished iron rod into the vessel which contains the C.; the surface of the rod soon becoming coated with copper, if it is present. - The caper-bush is a native of the s. of Europe, and other countries near the Mediterra
It is extensively cultivated in some parts of the s. of France and in Italy, but most of all in Sicily. It succeeds in the open air even at Paris, but in Britain requires the aid of artificial heat. It is a trailing. rambling shrub, loving dry places, and often growing on rocks or walls, adding a fresh charm of beauty to many an ancient
ruin. It begins to flower early in summer, and continues flowering till winter. The buds are gathered every morning, and are immediately put into vinegar and salt: at the end of the season, they are sorted according to their size and color, the greenest and least expanded being the best, and are again put into vinegar, the finest being sent to the market in bottles, the coarser in small barrels. The fruit, which is a small berry, is also pickled in the s. of Italy. The flower-buds of the caper of Mount Sinai (capparis Sinaica) are pickled like those of the common species; the seeds are also pickled, and are called by a name signifying mountain pepper. The fruit of capparis aphylla is made into a pickle in India. Species of capparis are numerous in India, the warm parts of America, etc. See CAPPARIDEÆ.- Various substitutes for C. are sometimes used, as the flower-buds of the marsh marigold (caltha palustris), those of the Indian cress (tropæolum majus), and those of the bean caper (zygophyllum fabago).
CAPERS, WILLIAM, D.D., 1790–1855; a Methodist minister of South Carolina, in early life a missionary among the Indians in Georgia. He was for several years presiding elder in Charleston, where he edited the Wesleyan Journal, afterwards merged in Zion's Herald, and still later changed to the Christian Advocate and Journal, of New York. In 1838, he was representative to the Wesleyan conference in England, and in 1855 was chosen professor of the evidences of Christianity in the South Carolina university. In 1846, he was elected bishop, and filled the office until his death.
CAPE SABLE, the s. point of the mainland of Florida, and the s.e. extremity of the mainland of the United States, 26° 55' n., 81° 15' west. The cape is occupied by fort Poinsett.
CAPE SABLE, the s. point of Nova Scotia, 43° 26' n., 66° 38' west. There is a light on Cape Sable island, which island has a pop. of about 600 fishermen.
CAPE SAN LUCAS, the s. point of the peninsula of Lower California, 22° 44' n. 109° 54' west. Directly e. across the gulf is the Mexican port and city of Mazatlan.
CAPE SAN ROQUE, in n.e. Brazil, in the province of Rio Grande, 5° 28' s., 35° 16' west. Behind the cape is a bay, on which is the town of St. Joseph.
CAPE SPARTIVEN'TO, in s. Italy, in the Mediterranean, 37° 57' n., 16° 5' east. The ancients called it “Hercules' Promontorium,” and supposed it to be the most southerly point of Italy.
CAPE ST. VINCENT, a headland forming the s.w. extremity of Portugal, in lat. 37" % n., long. 9° w., is celebrated on account of two naval battles in which British ships were engaged, fought off it, one in 1693, the other in 1797. In the former, admiral Rooke, who with some 20 English and Dutch men-of-war was convoying a fleet of some 400 merchantmen, was attacked off this point by the French admiral De Tourville, and after a running fight lost several ships and 80 merchantmen. In Feb. 1797, sir John Jervis, with a fleet of 15 sail, gave battle to a Spanish fleet of 27 sail of the line, and defeated them, capturing four ships and driving the rest into Cadiz bay, where they were blockaded.
CAPE ST. VINCENT, the s.w. extremity of Portugal, 37° 2' n., 9° west. Off the cape, Feb. 14, 1797, the English admiral Jervis defeated á Spanish'fleet much larger than his own.
CA'PETIAN DY'NASTY, the third Frankish dynasty, founded about the close of the 10th c., when Hugo Capet ascended the throne. The surname CAPET has been derived from cappetus, “a monk's hood,” because, though duke of France, Hugo was also abbot of St. Martin de Tours. On the death of the last Carlovingian monarch (Louis V., surnamed Le Fainéant-i.e., the Slothful), Hugo, the most powerful of French vassals, seized the throne, and by moderation and prudent concessions made to the authorities of the church, as well as to his brother-nobles, who had made themselves independent, contrived to retain the power he had seized. He was crowned at Noyon, July 3, 987. In order to establish his dynasty, Hugo caused his eldest son Robert to be crowned as co-regent, 988. Capet first made Paris the capital of France. He died in 996; when his son Robert, a well-disposed but feeble ruler, ascended the throne, who died 1031, beloved by his domestics, but despised by his neighbors and vassals, forgotten by his people, and permitting all power to vanish from his hands. It was during his long lethargic reign that the towns and cities of France began to form themselves into corporations, to act in their own name, to contract obligations, and lay the foundations of middle-class freedom. In many other ways, also, the happy dissolution of royal power sowed the seeds of national prosperity. Robert's sons were Henry, who succeeded him, and Robert, ancestor of the older house of Burgundy.
Henry left two sons- -Philippe I., who ascended the throne, and Hugo, who distinguished himself in the first crusade (1096), and died 1102. Philippe, under the regency of Baldwin, count of Flanders, came to the throne when only eight years old, and first really began to reign after the death of the regent (1066). He took hardly any part in the great movements and events of his times, but supported Robert, son of William the conqueror, in his rebellion against his father. Consequently, William commenced an expedition against Paris, and would probably have dethroned Philippe, but died in
1089. By his dissolute course of life, Philippe fell under a sentence of excommunication issued by pope Gregory VII. in 1094, and, after doing penance, died in 1108.
His successor, Louis VỈ., surnamed Le Gros, had, during Philippe's lifetime, been active in the support of the crown, and now extended the royal power, which had been almost entirely confined within the duchy of Paris. By bold and vigorous measures he brought everywhere his vassels into real subjection to his authority, liberated the towns from baronial oppression, partly abolished feudal bondage, and extended considerably the jurisdiction of the crown. His life was an almost incessant contest with the small and turbulent vassals who had rioted in the license afforded them by the weakness of his predecessors. He died 1137, leaving a numerous family.
As his eldest son and co-regent, Philippe, had died during the reign of Louis, his second son, Louis VII., le Jeune, now came to the throne, and by his marriage with Eleanor of Guienne, heiress of the duke of Aquitaine, gained a considerable accession to the power of the crown. He engaged in the second crusade, and led 100,000 men to the east; but was unsuccessful, and returned to France after an absence of two years. In 1152, he divorced his unfaithful wife Eleanor, who subsequently married Henry Plantagenet, afterwards Henry II. of England. This marriage made Henry far more powerful than the king of France, and Louis would probably have lost his crown had not the disturbances in England—the quarrels with Becket and with his own sonsproved sufficient to occupy Henry's attention. Louis le Jeune died 1180.
Philippe Auguste (q.v.), his son by a third marriage, ascended the throne ten months before his father's death, and proved himself the most able ruler of the Capetian dynasty. Against the wishes of his family, he married Isabelle of Hainault, great-granddaughter of the last of the Carlovingians, and thus finally united the two houses. His successor, Louis VIII., who died 1226, was said to have been poisoned by the count of Champagne, paramour of the queen, Blanca of Castile. Louis VIII. was followed by his son, Louis IX. (SAINT LOUIS, q.v.), who died at Tunis, 1270. Of the eleven children of St. Louis, the eldest, Louis, died aged 16 years, while the youngest, Robert, became the founder of the Bourbon dynasty (see BOURBON). The second son, Philippe III., le hardi, succeeded his father, and, by the decease of two brothers and two uncles, acquired possession of Poitou, Auvergne, and Toulouse. His son (Philippe IV., le bel) acquired by marriage Champagne with Navarre. These acquisitions, and his attempt to secure for his uncle, Charles of Anjou, the throne of Naples, involved Philippe III. in contentions with Italy and Spain. He subjugated Navarre, 1276, and died of the plague in 1285. Philippe IV., le bel, succeeded to the throne when 17 years old. He soon gave signs of a despotic character, plundered the estates of the church, defied papal authority, persecuted the order of Templars (q.v.), and removed the residence of the pope to Avignon. The atrocious act of burning the grand-master, with sixty knights, of the order of Templars, after they had recalled all the confessions drawn from them by torture, has left an ineffaceable blot on the name of Philippe le bel. He died 1314, and left three sons and a daughter.
The eldest son, Louis X., le hutin, who ascended the throne, displayed remarkable weakness of character, and died 1316. He was succeeded by Philippe V., le long, second son of Philippe le bel, who died without issue. By his death (1322) the crown came to Charles IV., le bel, third son of Philippe le bel, and the last of the direct line of the Capetian kings. He died 1328, leaving by his third marriage a daughter, named Blanche, who married Philippe, duke of Orleans, and died (1392) leaving no issue. Isabelle (daughter of Philippe le bel) married Edward II. of England, and was mother of Edward III., who consequently took the title of king of France, which was retained by the kings of England until the reign of George III.; but Philippe of Valois, cousin of the last Capetian king, and grandson of Philippe III., le hardi, claimed the crown of France by virtue of the Salic law, and so founded the dynasty of Valois (q.v.).
CAPE TITMOUSE, Rarus capen sis, a small bird of the cape of Good Hope, remarkable for its curious nest, which is built of cotton or other fiber in the form of a bottle, and suspended from the limb of a tree. On the outside, near the opening, is built a pouch or pocket, in which the male bird rests while the female is on the nest, and when she leaves he manages by strokes of his wings to close the mouth of the nest, to prevent intrusion while they are in search of food.
CAPERTON, ALLEN TAYLOR. See page 889.
CAPE TOWN, the capital of Cape Colony, faces Table bay to the n.e., is flanked by the mountain Lion's Head, with its continuation to Lion's Rump or Signal hill, and has behind it the precipices of Table mountain. Its lat. is 33° 56' s., its long. 18° 28' 7" east. Its mean temperature 58.3° F. for winter, 76.6° for summer, and 67.3° for the whole year. Pop. 50,000. Two lines of passenger wagons connect it with the diamond fields, which are reached in about a week, railways with Worcester, etc., and electric telegraphs with the principal parts of the colony. It is the principal port for the coasting trade as well as foreign exports and imports; is well supplied with fish, as well as meat, dairy prod. uce, and every sort of fruit and vegetables, at a moderate price. It has a supply of fresh water of excellent quality. C. T. is the seat of the government, the supreme court, and a college and university. All the churches are well represented—the English Episcopal, the Roman Catholic, and representatives of Presbyterians, Lutherans, Wesleyans, Congregationalists, a Free church (chiefly an off-break from the Dutch church), a Jewish
synagogue, and a Mohammedan mosque, the Malay population being of that faith. There are also banks and insurance offices. The town is built upon a double slope, which subsides into a plain on the n.e. side. Its streets, at right angles to each other, are lined with houses, for the most part of an eastern type, with heavy walls, flat roofs, and large public apartments, interspersed with increasing numbers of shops and warehouses, of the sort to be met with in England.
The most remarkable structures are the breakwater, with the docks and patent slip; the castle, with its outworks and bastions; the barracks for the military, the Roman Catholic cathedral, with a few other places of worship; the museum and library, with the Botanic gardens in front; and between it and Government house, a park, with its avenues shaded by stately oaks. Out of town, a little distance to the n.w., is Somerset hospital, and the Royal observatory, about two and a half m. to the n.e.
C. T. returns four members to the colonial assembly. The municipality is administered by a town-council of 18 members—three from each of six separate districts-and is presided over by a mayor elected annually by the council. In Sept., 1882, it possessed 50 vessels, and their united tonnage was 5,000. There are 5 newspapers in C. Ì., which are issued three times a week; 2 bi-weeklies, 1 weekly, 1 fortnightly, and 3 monthly magazines.
CAPE TRAFALGAR'. See TRAFALGAR.
CAPE VERD, the most westerly headland in Africa, jutting out into the Atlantic ocean, between the rivers Gambia and Senegal, in lat. 14° 43' n., long. 17° 34' west. It was discovered by the Portuguese about 1445, and is said to have derived its name from a group of gigantic baobab trees which adorns its summit.
CAPE VERD ISLANDS (Ilhas Verdes), a group of islands belonging to Portugal, lying in lat. 14° 45' to 17° 19' n., and long. 22°45' to 25° 25' w., and distant about 320 m. w. of the cape from which they take their
name. The principal islands are ten-viz., Santiago, the largest and most important, Fogo, Brava, Maio, Boavista, San Nicolâo, San Antonio, San Vicente, San Luzia, and Sal. There are besides four islets, barren and uninhabited. The total area is about 1700 sq.m., with a pop. (1882) of 100,000. The islands are all very mountainous, and owe their origin to the action of submarine volcanoes. The highest elevation is reached in a volcanic peak, 9,157 ft. above the sea, on the island of Fogo, and which is still active. The climate is unhealthy during the rainy season. Though water is deficient, vegetation is luxuriant, yielding African and southern European products. Sugar, cotton, coffee, tobacco, and indigo are grown, and the trade in archil, monopolized by government, has in some seasons yielded as much as £24,000. Several of the European domestic animals thrive well. Turtles are abundant in the surrounding seas, and whales also are fished by British and American vessels.. Amber is found on the coasts, and great quantities of salt formed by solar evaporation is obtained from the lagunes on the shores, especially on the island of Sal. The inhabitants, who are mostly negroes, indolent but harmiess, speak a corrupted form of Portuguese, called Lingua Creoula. The revenue for 1882–83 was estimated at about £52,000, and the expenditure for the same year at £45,000. The islands are under a governor. general, exercising both civil and military authority: The chief ports are Porto Praya, on the island of Santiago, and Porto Grande, the best harbor in the whole group, op the island of San Vicente. The islands were discovered about the middle of the 15th c. by the Portuguese, who shortly after colonized them.
CAPE VINCENT, a t. in Jefferson co., N. Y., on the St. Lawrence river; pop. of township, '80, 3,143. The village is a port of entry; is in connection with Watertown by railroad, and with Kingston, Canada, by ferry.
CAPE WRATH, a pyramidal promontory of unrivaled wildness and grandeur, forming the n.w. extremity of Scotland and of Sutherland, and running out into the Atlantic, in lat. 58° 38' n., and long. 4° 58' 5" west. It consists of gneiss, with beds of dark hornblende rock, is intersected by complex granite veins, and presents deep fissures and tall pinnacles. From it a reef of rocks, perforated with arches and caverns, juts out into the sea.
Off the cape is Stag Rock, a pillar 200 ft. high. C. W. is 600 ft. high, and there is a light-house near it, 400 ft. above the sea, and seen 25 m. off. From the cape can be seen N. Rona, 50 m. off; Hoy Head, Orkney; the Butt of Lewis; and a grand panorama of mountains in Sutherland.
CA PIAS, in the practice of the English common law, is a writ directed against the person, and so called from the commencement of the process in the old Latin form. It has various applications, the principal of which are the following:
CAPIAS AD RESPONDENDUM is a writ which a plaintiff, after action, may sue out upon affidavit against a defendant who, there is reason to believe, is about to quit Eng. land, and against whom there is a cause of action to the amount of £50 or upwards, whether as matter of contract or of damage. The writ directs the sheriff to arrest the defendant, who remains in custody on such arrest until he shall have either given a bail-bond with reasonable sureties. This arrest is only when the defendant's absence will prejudice plaintiff.
CAPIAS AD SATISFACIENDUM, or CA. SA. This is one of the writs by which a plaintiff can put a judgment recovered by him in execution. The object of it is to imprison