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Buddhist temples, are said to be 124 in number. The largest of these, on Honam island, covers seven acres, and has 175 priests attached. It is called Hae Chuang Sze, or “the temple of the ocean banner.” Another famous structure is the temple of the five hundred gods," situated in the western suburbs. There are also several many-storied towers or pagodas, a Mohammedan mosque, founded about A.D. 850 by the Arabian voyagers, who then were accustomed to visit C., a foundling-hospital, an English and an American missionary hospital. Streets of wcoden houses were formerly to be seen on the river-side, but these were swept away during the late quarrel with Yeh; and one large site that they occupied was walled in for the purpose of erecting new foreign factories, the old ones having been totally destroyed by fire. A very remarkable example of life upon the water is the boat-town of Canion. The total population of the city has been vaguely estimated at 1,000,000. The climate of C. may be pronounced healthy; though the heat from June to Sept. is oppressive, and the thermometer sometimes, though rarely, stands at 100° in the shade. In ordinary years, the winter minimum is 42°, and the summer maximum 96o. The n.e. monsoon commerces in Oct., and is the prevailing wind till Mar., when the s.w. monsoon sets in. Its average temperature is 704° F., and the annual fall of rain 70.625 inches. The Cantonese are notorious for their turbulence and hatred of foreigners, and the European factories have more than once been attacked by infuriated mobs, who were only kept at bay by force of arms. This hostility may, however, be greatly due to the baneful influence of those in power; for here the government of the mandarins of the present Manchu Tartar dynasty appears to have reached its maximum of corruption and barbarity, and and was fitly represented by the notorious Yeh, late governor-general of Kwang-tung and Kwang-se. The author of Twelve Years in China gives us some startling facts illustrative of mandarinic rule in this part of China. After the defeat of the Triad rebels, who besieged C. in 1844-45, it is estimated that 1,000,000 of people perished in the province.
The admirable situation of C. for conducting traffic explains how, from an early period, it was a favorite port with foreign merchants. The Arabs, as has been said, made regular voyages hither as early as the 9th century. The Portuguese found their way to it in the 16th c., and were followed by the Dutch a hundred years later. These in turn were overtaken and supplanted by the English before the close of the 17th C., and an immense trade was carried on by the agents of the East India company. Their monopoly ceased on the 22d April, 1834. Since that date the proceedings of the C. government officers have originated two wars with the British. The city was captured by the allied French and English forces Dec., 1857, and continued to be garrisoned by them till Oct., 1861. See China. After the treaty of Nankin (signed Aug. 29, 1842), C. was known as one of the five ports; Amoy, Foochow, Ningpo, and Shanghai having also been thrown open to foreign commerce.
The chief exports from C. are tea, silk, sugar; the chief imports, raw cotton, piece-goods, opium, metallic wares, etc. “War and rebellion" (say the authors of the Treaty Ports of China and Japan, Lond. and Hong-Kong, 1867), the opening of Hankow as a shipping port for tea, and, above all, the proximity of Hong-Kong and Macao to the delta of the Canton river, with its unrivaled facilities for smuggling, have robbed C. of the pre-eminence it so long enjoyed in commercial prosperity.' Yet the following statistics show that the city is recovering ground:
Total Value of Imports Total Value of Exports
in Mexican Dollars. in Mexican Dollars. 1860.
13,659, 177 1865.
18,403, 154 1868.
23.612,439 In 1874, the total value of exports was £4.610,470; of imports, £1,985, 701, exclusive
The revenue, '78, was £280,206, and 1718 vessels entered the port. The Middle Kingdom, by Dr. S. W. Williams; The Chinese, by sir John Davis; Meadow's Chinese; Twelve Years in China (Edin. 1860); Report of the Missionary Hospital in the Western Suburbs of Canton; Treaty Ports of China and Japan (Lond. and Hong
CANTON, JOHN, 1718–72; an English natural philosopher, who made valuable discoveries in the then new science of electricity. For constructing artificial magnets he was honored with the membership and a gold medal of the royal society, and, in 1751, he became one of the council of the society. He was the first person in England to verify Franklin's theory of the identity of lightning and electricity, having, in 1752,
obtained fire from the clouds during a thunder-storm. He and Franklin almost simulta neously discovered that some clouds were charged with positive and others with nega tive electricity, a circumstance that made them warm personal friends. C. opposed the theory then generally accepted that water was incompressible.
CANTONMENTS, in the general operations of European armies, are temporary resting places. Many circumstances, especially the state of the weather and the supply of food, influence a gen. in determining whether to go into C. or to encamp, in the intervals between active operations; or he may take the former course during an armistice. The quartermaster-gen. previously examines the district, and determines how many men and horses to place in each village; arrangements are also made for a main-guard, cavalry pickets, alarm-posts, road-barricades, lines of sentries, mounted orderlies, etc., lo guard against a sudden surprise from the enemy. In C. the men are not generally under canvas, as described in CAMP.
In India, C. are permanent places, regular military towns, distinct and at some little distances from the principal cities. If on a large scale, such a cantonment contains barracks for European cavalry, infantry, and artillery; rows of bungalows or houses, each inclosed in a garden, for the officers; rows of huts for the native soldiery; magazines and parade-grounds; public offices and buildings of various kinds; and a bazaar for the accommodation of the native troops. During the revolt in 1857–58, most of the outbreaks began in the cantonments. It was in the cantonment outside Cawnpore that Nana Sahib commenced his treachery.
CANTONNÉE, in heraldry. When a cross is placed between four other objects, e.g., scallop shells, it is said to be cantonnée.
CANTON'S PHOSPHORUS, or PYRO'PHORUS, is obtained by heating in close a vessel 3 parts oyster-shells and 1 part sublimed sulphur, when the sulphuret of calcium (CaS) is formed, which takes fire when exposed to or thrown into the air.
CANTOR. See PRECENTOR.
CANTU, CESARE, one of the best of modern Italian authors, was b. Sept. 5, 1805, at Brescia, in northern Italy, and was educated at Sondrio, where he was appointed professor of belles-lettres. Having been imprisoned for the offense of expressing liberal tendencies in a historical work on Lombardy, C. spent his leisure hours in describing the sorrows of a prisoner in the form of a historical romance, Margherita Pusterla (Florence, 1815). C. has also written several religious hymns and songs, which have become popular; but his great work is the Storia Universale (35 vols., Turin, 1837–42). His History of Italian Literature appeared in 1851; History of the Last Hundred Years, 1852; History of the Italians, 1859; and Milano, Storia del Popolo e pel Popolo, 1871.
CANTURIO, or CANTU', a t. in northern Italy, 5 m. s.e. of Como. It is situated in the midst of a rich district, has a church with an elegant tower, which served as a beacon during the middle ages, and manufactures of iron-wares. Pop. 5,500.
CANUN, a Turkish musical instrument, strung with gut-strings; is played on by the fingers, on which are thimbles of tortoise-shell, pointed with pieces of cocoa-nut, forming plectra for striking the strings with. The C. is a favorite instrument with the ladies in seraglios, many of whom produce very pleasant music and harmony on it.
CANUTE, or CNUT, succeeded to the rulership of the Danes in England on the death of his father, Swein or Sweyn, and was by them proclaimed king of England. On the death of Ethelred, he shared the sovereignty with Edmund Ironside, who ruled over the s., while C. was monarch over the n. of England. The sudden decease or assassination of Edmund made C. sole ruler in 1017, and he continued to reign until his death, in 1035 or 1036. His rule was marked at first by cruelty, but when all who were likely to interfere with his power had been disposed of, he exhibited great mildness and jus. tice, combined with talent and judgment. The Anglo-Saxons, whose complete subju. gation he had effected, did not feel their chains: they had experienced no such good government since the time of Alfred and Athelstane. He was easily accessible to all his subjects; and won the hearts of the people by his love song and ballad, and his liberal patronage of gleemen. One verse of an Ènglish song written by C. is still extant. As soon as English affairs were settled, C. superseded his brother Harold as king of Denmark; and in 1028 he extended his dominion over Norway-becoming thus ono of the most powerful princes of Europe. In his latter years he was devout.
CANVAS, regarded from an artist's point of view, is the principal material upon which oil-paintings are made. Two kinds are prepared for this purpose, of which the best is calleil ticking. Before it is put into the artist's hands, it is usually primed, or grounded (see GROUND) of a neutral gray, or other tint, as he may direct. Certain sizes of C. being in greater request than others, are kept ready stretched on frames. Those used for portraits are known by the names of kit-cat, which measures 28 or 29 in, by 36: three-quarters, 25 by 30 in.; half-length, 40 by 50; Bishop's half-length 44 or 45 by 56: Bishop's whole lengtă, 58 by 94.
CANVAS, SHIP's. See SAIL, SAILCLOTH.
CANVAS-BACK, fuligina (athya) vallisneria, a species of duck frequenting the Atlantic coast of the United States, greatly prized for its flesh. The canvas-back reaches its highest perfection in and around Chesapeake bay, where these birds pass the winter after returning from their breeding grounds in the far north-west. In its annual migrations it is taken in great numbers in the marshes which surround the southern extremity of lake Michigan, where the zostera vallisneria, or so-called wild celery, known to be identical with the plant of that name in the Chesapeake bay, abounds.
CANZO'NÉ is the name of one of the oldest and most prized forms of the Italian lyric. The word is borrowed from the Provençals, whose cansős or chansős, however, were not restricted to any precise form, but were simply verses intended to be sung. The Italian writers first attempted to regulate the wayward and arbitrary character of the Provençal cansós; Dante, and subsequently Petrarch, being especially successful. The canzone Petrarchesca or Toscana was any considerable lyrical poem, composed of stanzas exactly corresponding to one another in number of lines, measure, and position of rhymes, and which customarily closed with a short stanza. About the end of the 16th c.,
the Italian writers began to deviate from the strict form of the Petrarchian canzone. Torquato Tasso and Chiabrera are the most notable names in the new movement. The most of the canzones of the latter-called by their author canzonette-are written in short lines and stanzas, the position of the rhymes being also completely arbitrary.
*CAOUTCHOUC', Gum Elastic, or India RUBBER, a substance which, on account of its peculiar properties, is extensively used in the arts, and of which the use is continually and rapidly increasing. It is one of the products of the wonderful chemistry of nature, being found in the milky juices of plants, and most abundantly in the natural orders moracece, artocarpaceæ, euphorbiaceæ, apocynacea, asclepiadacea, and papayaceæ. It exists in the milky, juice of plants growing in temperate climates; but it is only in tropical and subtropical countries that it occurs so abundantly as to be of economicaì importance. Its uses to the plants in which it is elaborated have not been ascertained;
and the conjectures of theorists on this subject are not supported by arguments sufficient to give them, much probability. In the milky juice, the C. is diffused in the form of minute globules, and not, strictly speaking, in solution; and when the juice is extracted from the plant, and allowed to stand for a short time, these globules separate from the watery part of it, and form a sort of cream on the top, or, in close vessels, appear throughout it as a flaky coagulum. C., as well as some of its useful and curious properties, must have been known in America at a very early period, because balls made of the gum of a tree, lighter and bouncing better than the wind-balls of Castile, are mentioned by Herrera when speaking of the amusements of the natives of Hayti, 'in his
account of Columbus' second voyage. In a book published in Madrid in 1615, Juan de Torquemada mentions the tree which yields it in Mexico, describes the mode of collecting the gum, and states that it is made into shoes; also that the Spaniards use it for waxing their canvas cloaks to make them resist water. More exact information regarding c. was afterwards furnished by M. de la Condamine, who visited South America in 1735, but it is curious to note that some of the purposes for which india- rubber is most extensively used at the present time are the same as those for which
it was employed in South America nearly three centuries ago. It was at first known by the name of elastic gum, and received that of india-rubber from the discovery of its use for rubbing out black-lead pencil marks, for which purpose it began to be imported into Britain in small
quantities about the end time its employment for the manufacture of flexible tubes for the use of surgeons and Chemists had been successfully attempted; but the expensive character of the solvents then known for it, prevented its general application to any purpose in the arts. It was marks, although in the meantime the quantity imported had considerably increased. Its application to the manufacture of water-proof cloth first gave it commercial imporkinds by casting C. in molds. Its elasticity and flexibility, its insolubility in water, and it to a great variety of uses ; but for by far the greater number of its applications it is Dow employed in the vulcanized state.
The C. of commerce is obtained most largely from South America, but considerable quantities are also procured from British India, the Indian archipelago, the west coast of Africa, and the Mauritius. During the year 1872, the actual imports of this material into Great Britain were: From Brazil....
68,143 New Granada, Ecuador, and Central America..
16,390 British India....
13,855 Strait Settlements..
15,296 West Coast of Africa..
10,433 Other Countries..
In 1852, the total imports were only 15,269 cwts.; in 1862, 59,703 cwts.; and in 1876, 157,509 cwts. The average annual yield of Brazil for the five years preceding 1871, according to a table sent from that country to the Vienna exhibition of 1873, was about 5,000,000 kilogrammes. The value of the 169,587 cwts. of C. imported in 1880 was £2,387,947.
Brazilian C. is the product of several species of siphonia (natural order euphorbiacea), but chiefly siphonia elastica. Bates says that “this tree is not remarkable in appearance; in bark and foliage it is not unlike the European ash, but the trunk, like that of all forest trees, shoots up to an immense height before throwing off branches.", The C. of New Granada, Ecuador, and Central America is obtained from castilloa elastica (nat. ord. artocarpacec), that of East India from the beautiful glossy-leaved ficus elastica (nat. ord. moraceae), now so common as an ornamental plant in our conservatories, that of Borneo from urceola elastica, and that of western Africa from several species of landolphia, and also ficus. Species of vahea, willughbeia, euphorbia, and other genera likewise yield useful varieties of C., and the sources of some kinds are unknown.
C. is sometimes collected by cutting the trees down, but much more usually by making simple incisions in the trunks. The method of collecting and preparing the liquid C. is thus described in a work recently published at Rio Janeiro. In a few hours, the juice which flows out fills the basins, made of large leaves and plastic clay, which are adapted the lower part of the tree. It is then poured into other vessels of various shapes; in a short time it becomes thickened, and solidifies in consequence of the evaporation of the liquid part. In order to dry it completely, the practice is to expose it to a gentle heat; for this purpose it is suspended over a brazier lighted with wood, and the Hame maintained with the fruits of auricuri, in such a manner that it may receive the smoke, hence the blackish color which the C. of commerce generally presents. Whilst it is liquid, it is fashioned by means of molds, according to the purposes to which it is destined. An attempt has recently been made to import the juice of the tree, and subject it to the drying process in this country, but little has as yet been imported into Britain. The characters of the juice are, that it possesses the consistence of cream, has a yellow color, is miscible with water, but not with naphtha or other of the solvents of ordinary C., and its specific gravity varies from 1.02 to 1.41-ordinary C. being 930. The juice contains about 30 per cent of caoutchouc. When heated, it coagulates (as the glaire of egg does), owing to the presence of albumen; and exposed to the air, it dries up and leaves a film of caoutchouc. In the preparation of pure C., the natural juice is mixed with five or six times its bulk of water, and then either heated or mixed with common salt or hydrochloric acid, when the pure C. separates as a white opaque substance, which becomes transparent when dry. " Pure C. is a carbo-hydrogen, its composition being carbon 87.5 and hydrogen 12.5.
Para C. is the best, and commands the highest price in the market. The other South American kinds are of medium quality: East Indian rubber-naturally a fine quality—is too often injured by adulteration and careless collecting. The poorest kind is the w. African, being clammy, offensive in its odor, and only slightly elastic.
Commercial C. is a tough Abrous substance, possessing elastic properties in the highest degree. Reduced to the temperature of freezing water (32° F.), it hardens, and in greater part, if not entirely, loses its elasticity, bnt does not become brittle. When heated, as by placing in boiling water, it softens, and becomes very much more elastic than at ordinary temperatures, though it does not in any degree dissolve in the water. If suddenly stretched to seven or eight times its original length, it becomes warm; and if kept in this outstretched form for several weeks, it appears to lose, in great part, its elastic properties, and in this condition is readily cut into those thin threads which are used in the elastic put in gloves, bonnets, etc., and the elasticity of which is readily renewed by the application of gentle heat. Of late years, however, elastic thread is usually prepared with vulcanized rubber. Commercial c. is insoluble in water and alcohol, is not acted upon by alkalies or acids, except when the latter are concentrated, and heat is applied; but is soluble in ether, chloroform, bisulphide of carbon, naphtha, petroleum, benzol, and the essential oils of turpentine, lavender, and sassafras. Many other essential and fixed oils, when heated with C., cause it to soften, and produce thick glutinous compounds, especially linseed oil, which, in the proportion of 1 lb. of the oil to 4 ozs. C. in thin strips or films, yields a solution which, when strained, is of great use in rendering shoes, cloth, etc , water-proof. When heated to 248° F., C. fuses; and at 600° it is volatilized, at the same time undergoing decomposition, and yields a liquid called caoutchoucine or caoutchisine, with the specific gravity 680, and possessing great solvent powers over C. and other substances. Caoutchoucine is necessarily very expensive, and hence its use is limited; but cordage steeped in it and dried acquires great supple and tenacious properties, and cloth saturated with it, and dried by exposure to the air, becomes water-tight.
In the employment of C. as a branch of manufacture, the first operation is the purification of the crude material as it comes from abroad. The crude material is cut into minute shreds, and washed by powerful machinery, immersed in water, which releases the solid impurities, and the pure C. being removed, is placed on iron trays, and dried in a room heated by steam. The material then undergoes a process of kneading under very heavy rollers, which causes the adhesion of the various pieces of C. to each other, other hand,
and ultimately yields a mass or block of C. in which the condensation is so perfect that all air-holes, and other cells and interstices, disappear. The block of C. is then cut under water by powerful knives or shears into sheets, from which the pieces sold by stationers may be shaped out, or from which C. bands or thread may be obtained. In the manufacture of square threads, mere cutting is had recourse to; and the delicacy of the operation may be understood when it is stated that 1 lb. of C. will yield 32,000 yds. of thread. The round thread elastic is prepared from C. which has been treated with about double its weight of bisulphide of carbon, containing about 5 per cent of alcohol, which yields a soft material resembling in consistence bread dough or putty; and this being squeezed through a series of small holes, is obtained in minute round threads, which are first received on an endless piece of velvet and ultimately on an endless web of common cloth 500 to 600 yds. Iong, during the transit of the threads across which, the solvent or bisulphide of carbon evaporates, and leaves the caoutchouc. When it is wished to weave these threads into cloth, they are wound upon bobbins, taking care to stretch the C. as much as possible, so as to deprive it, for the time being, of its elasticity; and after it has been woven into the cloth, à hot iron is passed over the fabric, and immediately the C. resumes its elasticity.
In the manufacture of water-proof clothing, or the coats called Mackintoshes, which was the first application of rubber on a large scale, the C. is made into a solution with spirits of turpentine, or other solvent, and spread upon the cloth; when thus coated, the fabric is pressed between heavy rollers. This variety of water-proof cloth has now, however, been almost entirely superseded by another kind made with vulcanized rubber, which we shall notice presently.
Vulca nized Caoutchouc.-Pure india-rubber is now used only to a limited extent in the arts, but it is applied in the vulcanized state to an almost endless variety of purposes, The remarkable change which C undergoes when mixed with sulphur and heated, according to circumstances, from 240° to 310° F., was discovered by Charles Goodyear, in America, in 1843, and independently, about the same time, by Mr. Thomas Hancock, in England. In the process of vulcanizing, the rubber, as a preliminary step, is either torn into shreds or crushed into thin pieces by machinery, and afterwards washed. There are two principal kinds of vulcanized rubber, one hard and horny in its texture,
the other soft and elastic. In the case of the former, the C. is mixed with about one third of its weight of sulphur, and heated for several hours, the temperature finally rising to fully 300° F. For the soft kind of vulcanized rubber, on the
a much smaller proportion of sulphur is required-namely, from 24 to 10 per cent, and the heat to which it is subjected in the vulcanizing chamber is considerably less. Usually, too, with this latter kind, the articles are made before the rubber is heated. The sulphur is commonly added in the ground state, but sometimes the rubber is treated with some solution containing this element, such as the bisulphide
Although sulphur is the only essential ingredient required for vulcanizing rubber, yet other substances are usually added. Thus, in the case of machinery belting, pipes, and some other articles, the silicate of magnesia (French chalk) is used to prevent adhesiveness. Litharge, or carbonate of lead, again, is frequently mixed with the rubber and sulphur for certain purposes; but there is really a long list of materials more or less used in preparing different qualities of vulcanized C., each manufacturer using mixtures, the exact nature of which he is careful not to divulge. Asphalte, tar, lampblack, whiting, rosin, sulphide of antimony, and ground cork are some of the ingredients most commonly employed in this way. Belting for machinery, and some kinds of tubing, are formed of alternate layers of canvas and vulcanized rubber.
Natural C., as already stated, is elastic, cohesive, impervious to gases, insoluble in water, and resists many chemical re-agents; but it loses its elasticity by cold, softens by heat, and is destroyed by many fixed oils. After being vulcanized, c. has its elasticity greatly increased, is not hardened by cold, and does not soften or become viscid at any temperature short of its absolute decomposition. Besides, it is barely soluble in turpentine, naphtha, and the other solvents of pure C.; nor does oil readily penetrate
It would be a hopeless task to attempt to specify the many useful purposes to Which vulcanized c. is applied, even if we had the space to spare. From the year 1843, when it was first made, to the present time, the various patented applications of it must be two or three thousand in number. The mere abridgments of the specifications connected with this material, issued by the English patent Office, form a thick volume. Under the head GOLOSHES, will be foủnd a brief description of the process of making india-rubber shoes. Water-proof coats are now made in a similar way, the mixture of rubber and vulcanizing materials being pressed on the surface of any suitably woven fabric by heated iron rollers in a calender. The coats are then cut out and the various pieces put together, without sewing, by some solvent, such as turpentine, which makes the edges adhere. They are afterwards heated in the vulcanizing chamber. Both coats and shoes of this material have, however, the objectionable property of preventing the Escape of moisture from the skin. Belting, butřers, wheel tires, washers, valves, pipes, fire hose, and other engineering
appliances, form a large branch of the rubber trade. For medical and surgical purposes, many articles are made of this material. Of such an
or soften it.