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leading to Kew. It consists chiefly of one long irregular street. Pop. '81, 11,808. It has large gin-distilleries, a soap-work, and the works of the West London water company. There are many market-gardens in the vicinity. Here Ironside defeated the Danes in 1016, after expelling them from London; in 1558, six martyrs were burned at the stake; and in 1642," the royalists, under Rupert, defeated the parliamentarians under col. Hollis.

BRENT GOOSE, or BRENT BARNACLE. This bird has been already noticed under BARNACLE (9.v.). We add here a few sentences from col. Hawker's Instructions to Young Sportsmen, which we borrow from Yarrell's British Birds. They refer to wildfowl shooting on the coasts of Dorsetshire and Hampshire. “Towards Nov. or Dec., we have the Brent geese, which are always wild, unless in very hard weather. In calm weather, these geese have the cunning, in general, to leave the mud as soon as the tide flows high enough to bear an enemy; and then they go off to sea, and feed on the drifting weeds. To kill Brent geese by day, get out of sight in a small punt, at low water, and keep as near as possible to the edge of the sea. You will then hear them coming like a pack of hounds in full cry, and they will repeatedly pass within fair shot, provided you are well concealed, and the weather is windy to make them fly low. Before you tire at them, spring suddenly up, and these awkward birds will be in such a fright as to hover together and present a mark like a barn-door.”—The extensive muddy and sandy flats between Holy island and the coast of Northumberland are a great winter resort of this species. It is also particularly abundant on muddy and sandy flats in Cromarty bay. The markets, both of London and Edinburgh, are well supplied with it during winter. The B. G. is known in some parts of England as the black goose; it is considered the most delicate for table of all its tribe, and is perhaps as much sought after as any. The B. G. differs in its habits from the common gray lag and several other species, inasmuch as it never feeds on fresh-water herbage, its tastes being exclusively salinous. B. G. may be distinguished, when on the wing, by their black bodies and white tails. Folkhard, in his excellent work, The Wild Furcler, gives much interesting information regarding this bird.

BRENTON, EDWARD PELHAM, 1774–1839; a capt. in the British navy. He wrote a Naral History of Great Britain, from 1783 to 1822. He was the founder of the Children's Friend Society.

BRENTON, WILLIAM, d. Newport, R. I., 1674; an emigrant from England, who held important offices in the colonies of Massachusetts and Rhode Island, being governor of the latter, 1666-69.

BRENZ, JOHANN, 1499-1570; a German reformer under Luther: a writer of great ability and popularity. One of his teachings was that the body of the Lord is everywhere present; hence his followers were called “Ubiquitarians.

BRESCIA, or BRESCIANO, a province in Lombardy, Italy, separated from Verona by Lago di Garda; 1784 sq.m.; pop. '79, 470,746. The n. part is occupied by a chain of the Rhætian Alps; the remainder, about two thirds of the province, is a part of the great and fertile plain of Lombardy. The rivers are the Oglio, the Mella, and the Chiese, tributaries of the Po. Corn, fax, hemp, grapes, and olives are cultivated. The mountains yield iron, copper, marble, alabaster, and granite. There are manufactures of silk, wool, cotton, linen, iron, steel, copper, glass, and paper. The chief towns are Rovato, Chiara, Orzinnovo, Monte-Chiaro, Salo, and Pontevico.

BRESCIA, a city of Italy, capital of the province of the same name, in Lombardy, about 60 m. e.n.e. of Milan. It is romantically situated on the rivers Mella and Garza, in a wide fertile plain, at the base of several hills. The railway from Milan to Venice passes through Brescia. The city is for the most part regularly built, and, besides two cathedrals, the old and the new, it has numerous ancient churches, adorned with pictures and frescos, including many,by masters of the Venetian school. Several interesting antiquities have been discovered. It has a valuable public library, the Biblioteca Quiriniana, founded and nobly endowed about 1750, by cardinal Quirini, a munificent encourager of literature. It contains upwards of 30,000 volumes, with many rare manuscripts. The pop. in 1881 was 43,354. B. has manufactures of woolen, silk, leather, paper, etc., and its wine is of good quality. The old name of B. was Brixia, and its inhabitants were allied with the Romans when Hannibal crossed the Alps. It was captured by the Huns during their migrations, and afterwards passed through the hands of the Longobards, Charlemagne, the Franks, and the Germans. It was taken by the French under Gaston de Foix, in 1512, when it is stated that more than 40,000 of the inhabitants were massacred. The city never fully recovered from the effects of that inhuman sack and pillage. In Mar., 1849, B., as the only important town opposed to Austrian rule in Lombardy, was besieged by Haynau, and forced to capitulate.

BRESLAU, the capital of the province of Silesia, Prussia, is situated at the confluence of the Ohlau and Oder. Next to Berlin, it is the most populous city in Prussia; its pop. was 207,997 in 1870; and in 1880, 272,390, more than the half of whom are Protestants. The Oder divides it into two parts, which are connected by numerous handsome bridges. The fortifications have been converted into beautiful promenades, and the ditch has been transformed into an ornamental sheet of water. The streets of the new portion of


B. are spacious and regular, and the houses stately and handsome, affording a pleasant contrast to the somber, massive structures of the old town. Educational institutions are numerous, including a university founded by the emperor Leopold I. in 1702, and now accommodating from 900 to 1000 students. The library contains 300,000 volumes. B. bas many churches, the most remarkable being the Protestant church dedicated to St. Elizabeth, with a steeple 364 ft. in height (the highest in Prussia), and a splendid organ. The position of B., in the center of the manufacturing districts of the province, secures it a large trade, which its railway connection with all the important cities on every side, in addition to the facilities of communication which the Oder affords, enables it to turn to the best account. It has manufactures of linen, woolens, cotton, silks, lace, jewelry, machines, carthenware, soap, alum, starch, etc., and upwards of 100 distilleries; and a trade in corn, coal, metals, timber, hemp, and flax. B. is a city of Slavonic ori. gin, and was for many centuries occupied alternately by the Poles and the Bol emians. It afterwards passed to Austria, from which it was taken by Frederick II. of Prussia, in 1741. Six years afterwards, it was captured by the Austrians, after a bloody battle, but retaken by Frederick in about a mouth. From that time until 1814, when its fortifications were completely demolished, it was frequently besieged.

BRESSA'NI, FRANCESCO GIUSEPPE, 1612–72; a Jesuit missionary among the Indians of Canada. In 1644, he was sent to the Huron country, but was captured and tortured by the Iroquois. After great suffering he was sent to the Dutch setilements at Albany, where he was ransomed for a large sum. He returned to France, but came back to missionary work and labored many years among the Hurons.

BRESSAY, one of the Shetland isles, e. of the Mainland, and separated from Lerwick by Bressay sound. It is 6 m. long and 2 broad, and is composed of Devonian rocks, It supplied Lerwick with peat, until the proprietor, fearing that the peat might be exhausted, stopped exportation; and it continues to supply the Shetland isles with slates. Pop. '81, 847, chiefly fishermen. Bressay sound is one of the finest natural harbors in the world, and is a rendezvous for herring-boats, and for all whalers and other vessels. proceeding north. East of B., and separated from it by a narrow and dangerous sound, is a rocky isle, called Noss, 6 m. in circuit, girt on all sides by perpendicular cliffs, and rising abruptly from the sea to the height of nearly 600 ft., with a flattish top. A detached rock, or holm, on the s.e. side of the Noss, used to be communicated with by means of a cradle or wooden chair run on strong ropes, stretched across a yawning gulf, and admitting a man with a sheep to be drawn over at a time.

BREST, a strongly fortified city, in the department of Finistère, France, and one of the chief naval stations of the empire, is situated in lat. 48° 24' n., and long. 4° 29' w., on the n. side of the bay or road of Brest, which forms one of the finest harbors in the world. The only entrance to the bay is by a narrow channel called Le Goulet, which is scarcely a mile wide, and is strongly defended by batteries; the difficulty and danger of access to hostile ships being increased by certain rocks in the center of the channel. A new Hoating dock, quays, and pier were completed in 1876, at a cost of 22,500,000 francs. The small river Penfel flows through the town, which is, on the whole, irregularly built on an uneven site, and has steep, narrow, dark, and very dirty streets. In some parts communication between the lower and upper parts of the town can be effected only by stairs. The new quarter, the parade, and the quays, are more cleanly. B. has extensive ship-building yards, rope-walks, store-bouses, etc.; its industry, indeed, is confined entirely to the equipment of the navy in its various branches. It has telegraphic communication with America by a submarine cable. The Bagnes (q.v.) or hulks no longer exists, the prisoners having been removed to the penal colony of Cayenne. Pop. '81, exclusive of garrison, 64.599. B. is a very ancient place, but it was not of much importance until the 17th century. Its splendid position made it an object of contention to French, English, and Spaniards. În 1631, Cardinal Richelieu resolved to make it a naval station, and commenced the fortifications, which were completed by Vauban, but have since been greatly extended. In 1994, the Englisla under lorci Berkeley were repulsed here with great loss. In 1794, the French fleet, under admiral Villaret-Joyeuse, was defeated off B. by the English fleet under admiral Howe.

BREST-LITOVSK, a t. in the government of Grodno, Russia, 131 m. s. of Grodno, in 52° 5' n. and 23° 27' e., at the junction of the Mukhovetz and the Bng. It is the seat of an Armenian bishop, who has authority over the Armenians in all the country. It has a varied and extensive trade, by means of the two rivers and the royal canal, in grain, flax, hemp, birch-tar, leather, etc. Pop. '80, 38,672.

BRETAGNE, or Brit'TANY (Britannia Minor), a peninsula in the n.w. of France, formerly a province, and now divided into the departments of Finistère, Côtes-du-Nord, Morbihan, Loire- Inférieure, and Ille-et-Vilaine, is surrounded by the sea on the n.w. and s.w.

Though the height of the mountains is nowhere considerable, their structure gives to the peninsula a wild and savage aspect. Clay slate forms the center of the country, and mosses of granite rise in the n. and the south. The climate is often foggy, and subject to violent storms of wind. Large tracts of land lie uncultivated; but in the well-watered valleys, vegetation is luxuriant. In ancient times, B., under the name of


Armorica, was the central seat of the confederated Armorican tribes, who were of Celtic and Kymric origin. Traces of them still remain in the old Kymric dialect of the three most westerly departments, and in the numerous so-called Druidical monuments. The name Armorica was changed for that of B., in consequence of the numerous immigrations from Great Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries. The peculiar, shut-in situation, and the characteristics of soil and climate in B., seem to have had a powerful effect on the character of its people. The Breton has generally a tinge of melancholy in his disposition; but often conceals, under a dull and indifferent exterior, a lively imagin. ation and strong feelings. ". The tenacity with which the Breton clings to the habits and belief of his forefathers, is apparent by his retention of the Celtic language almost universally in Basse B., and by his quaint costume, which in many districts is that of the 16th century.” The greater number of the people are found to be ignorant and coarse in their manners, and their agriculture is of a very rude character, by no means calculated to develop the natural resources of the country. Until within recent years, B. had escaped the observation of tourists; but it has now been found out, and seems likely to be considerably run upon, as well as to have a pretty extensive literature of its own. It will be some time yet before it is exhausted, and apart from the beauty of its scenery, it possesses great interest, as the only place where men can be seen living and acting much as our forefathers did three centuries ago. Under the Romans, the country, after 58 B.C., was made the Prorincia Lugdunen sis Tertia; but its subjugation was hardly more than nominal, and it was entirely liberated in the 4th c., when it was divided into several allied republican states, which, afterwards, were changed into petty monarchies. B. became subject to the Franks in the reign of Charlemagne, and was handed over by Charles the simple to the Northmen in 912. After some fierce struggles, the Bretons appear to have at length acknowledged the suzerainty of the Norman dukes., Geoffroi, count of Rennes, was the first to assume the title of duke of Bretagne in 992. The duchy of B. was incorporated with France in 1532, by Francis I., to whom it had come by marriage, and subsequently shared in the general fortunes of the empire, but retained a local parliament until the outbreak of the revolution. During the revolution, B., which was intensely loyal, was the arena of sanguinary conflicts, and especially of the movements of the Chouans (q.v.), who reappeared as recently as 1832. Daru, Histoire de B. (Par. 1826); Roujoux, Histoire des Rois et des Ducs de B. (Par. 1829); Courson, La B. du 5e au 124 Siècle (1863); Le Saint, La B. Ancienne et Moderne (1873); De Kerorguen, Recherches sur les Etats de B. (1875).

BRETHREN, WHITE, a sect of the 15th c. that sprang up in the Italian Alps. Their leader claimed to be Elias the prophet; they were clad in white, and carried crucifixes from which blood appeared to come. The leader, who appears to have left no name, prophesied the destruction of the world, and for a time had great success; but Boniface IX. seized the prophet and burnt him at the stake, and within a year the sect passed out of existence.



BRETHREN OF THE CHRISTIAN SCHOOLS, an order established at Rheims in 1679, and sanctioned by Benedict XIII. in 1725, having for its object furnishing the poor with instruction. In Paris, in 1792, they refused to take the oath of obedience to the civil constitution, and were driven from their houses and prohibited from teaching: In 1801, they returned and soon spread over France, Italy, and other countries. About 1830, they opened evening schools for adults. Their chief house is in Paris, and in 1868 they had more than 10,000 brethren, teaching 300,000 persons in France alone. There are a number of them in the United States.

BRETHREN OF THE HOLY TRINITY, a society of the 12th c., in France, whose members were pledged to give a third of their revenues towards the redemption of Christians who were in Mohammedan or infidel slavery.

BRETIGNY, a village of France, in the department of the Eure-et-Loir, about 6 m. 8.e. of Chartres, on the railway between Paris and Orleans. B. is celebrated as the place where, in 1360, Edward III. concluded a peace with France, by which John II. of France was released from his captivity in England, on agreeing to pay 3 million crowns for his ransom, England renouncing her pretensions to Normandy, Ânjou, Maine, and Touraine, and being confirmed in her possession of Gascony, Guienne, and several other parts in France recently acquired by conquest.

BRETON, EMILE. See page 877.

BRETON, JULES ADOLPHE, b. 1827; a French painter of renown, excelling in rural life and scenes, for which he has received medals. Among his works are "The Gleaners,' Evening, Blessing the Grain,” “The Weeders,” etc.

BRETON DE LOS HERREROS, Don MANUEL, the most popular of modern Spanish poets, was b. 19th Dec., 1800, at Quel, in the province of Logroño; received his earliest education in Madrid; and served as a volunteer in the army from 1814 to 1822. Subse. quently, he held several situations under government, but always lost them on account of his expression of liberal opinion. As early as his 17th year, he wrote a comedy,


entitled A la Vejez Viruelas, which, in 1824, was brought upon the stage with great success. Henceforward he furnished theatrical managers with more than 150 pieces, partly original, partly adaptations from the older Spanish classics, and partly translations from the Italian and French, most of which have been highly popular. In addition to these, Breton de los Herreros published Poesias Sueltas (Madrid, 1831, and Paris, 1840); several volumes of satirical verse; a long humorous poem, called La Desvergüenza, Poema Jocoserio (Madrid, 1858), etc. All Breton de los Herreros's poems are remarkable for their singularly sweet, yet powerful diction, and for the harmony of the versification. His peculiar sphere is the comic and the satirical, in which the Spanish or national qualities of his genius find their freest expression, and in which also he displays most ease and self-reliance. Bretón de los Herreros superintended the issue of a collected edition of his poetical works in 1850-52 (o vols., Madrid). He died at Madrid in Nov., 1873.

BRETSCHNEIDER, Heinrich GOTTFRIED, a man remarkable for his unsettled life, eccentric habits, and satirical writings, was b. at Gera, Mar. 6, 1739. He was first sent for education to the institute of Herrnhuters at Elbersdorf, and afterwards to the gym. nasium at Gera. He became capt. of horse in a Prussian volunteer corps, in which service he was made prisoner, and retained in a French fortification till 1763. In 1775, B. visited England, France, and Holland; and in 1778 was nominated librarian to the university of Ofen, where he was persecuted by the Jesuits, whose hatred he had excited. This circumstance brought him under the notice of Joseph II., who, in 1782, appointed him one of the inspectors of studies. He died in Nov., 1810. B. was the author of tales, poems, and satires. The latter are attacks upon every kind of injustice and falsehood.' 'In his “ Almanac of the Saints (Almanach der Heiligen) for the year 1788, with copper-plates and music, printed at Rome, with the permission of the principals,” the priesthood is severely attacked, and the legends of the monks ridiculed. Like Nicolai, B. was very bitter against the Werther' mania which was so prevalent in his time.

BRETSCHNEIDER, KARL GOTTLIEB, a distinguished German theologian, b. 11th Feb., 1776, at Gersdorf, in Saxony, studied theology at Leipsic, was appointed pastor at Schneeberg in 1807, general superintendent at Gotha in 1816, and in 1840 obtained the dignity of a councilor of the upper consistory. He died 224 Jan., 1848. B. has acquired a reputation for sober, retiective, rationalistic thought. The character of his intellect rendered him unable to enter into the profound speculations of men like Schleiermacher and Schelling; but nevertheless, by his diligence, clear, incisive understanding, and strength of character, he has secured a permanent place in the history of German theology. His most important work in dogmatics is the Manual of the Erungelical Lutheran Church (2 vols., Leip. 1814–18). In 1824, B. published Lexicon Manuale GræcoLatinum in Libros Novi Testamenti (2 vols., Leip. 1824). In 1832, appeared Der Simonismus und das Christenthum; in 1835, Die Theologie und die Revolution. B. also published many sermons, which have been well received, and in other departments of theology and literature he is considered to have done important service.

BRETT, Philip MILLEDOLER, D.D., 1817-60; b. New York; a graduate of Rutgers college; ordained in the Dutch Reformed church in 1838, and held pastorates in various places near New York. A volume of his sermons is in print.

BRET'TEN, a t. of Baden, about 13 m. e. of Carlsruhe, chiefly noteworthy as the birthplace of Melanchthon. The house in which he was born is pointed out to travelers. Pop. '71, 3133 ; '80, 4034.

BRETTS AND SCOTS, THE LAWS OF THE (Lat. Leges inter Brettos et Scotos, old Fr. Lusage de Scotis et de Bretis), the name given, in the 13th c., to a code of laws in uso among the Celtic tribes in Scotland. The Scots” were the Celtic people dwelling in the western and more mountainous districts n. of the Forth and the Clyde, who, when it became necessary to distinguish them from the Teutonic inhabitants of the low coun. try, received the names of " the wild Scots," "the Irishry of Scotland,” and, more recently, “the Scotch highlanders.” The “ Bretts” were the remains of the British or Welsh people, who were at one time the sole or chief inhabitants of the region now divided into the shires of Dumbarton, Renfrew, Ayr, Lanark, Peebles, Selkirk, Roxburgh, Dumfries, and Cumberland. This province was for some centuries an independent kingdom, known by the names of "Cambria,” “ Cumbria,” “Strathclyde," and “Strathclyde and Reged. It became, about the middle of the 10th c., a tributary principality held of the king of the English, by the heir of the king of the Scots. It so continued till after the beginning of the 12th c., when Cumberland having been incorporated with England, the gradual absorption of the rest of the territory into the dominions of the king of the Scots seems to have been imperceptibly completed. The last“ prince of Cumbria” named in record was the brother and heir of king Alexander I. of Scotland, “the earl David,” as he was called, who, on his brother's death in 1124, himself became king of the Scots. No more is heard of Cumbria as a principality; but “the Welsh" continue to be named among its inhabitants, in the charters of king David's grandsons-king Malcolm the maiden (1153-65), and king William the lion (1165-1214). And they seem to have retained more or less of their ancient Celtic laws until after the


beginning of the 14th century. It was not till the year 1305 that an ordinance of king Edward I. of England, who appeared then to have reduced all Scotland to his subjec tion, decreed “that the usages of the Scots and the Bretts be abolished, and no more used.". It is unknown how far this prohibition took effect. Of the code which it proscribed, only a fragment has been preserved. It was first printed by sir John Skene, in his Regiam Majestatem (Edin. 1609). But by far the best edition is that of Mr. Thomas Thomson and Mr. Cosmo Innes, in the Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland, vol. i. pp. 299–301 (Edin. 1844), where the laws are given in three languages-Latin, French, and English. The French version, which is the oldest, is printed from a manuscript of about 1270, formerly in the public library at Bern, in Switzerland, now in the register house at Edinburgh. The fragment of the “ laws of the Bretts and the Scots” thus published, is of much the same nature as the ancient laws of the Anglo-Saxons, the Welsh, the Irish, and other nations of Western Europe. It fixes the cro, or price at which every man was valued, according to his degree, from the king down to the churl, and which, if he were slain, was to be paid to his kindred by the homicide or his kindred.

The cro of the king was 1000 cows; of the king's son, or of an earl, 150 cows; of an earl's son or of a thane, 100 cows; of a thane's son, 66; cows; of the nephew of a thane, or of an ogthiern, 44 cows and 21% pence; and of a villain or churl, 16 cows-all persons of lower birth than a thane's nephew, or an ogthiern, being accounted villains or churls. The cro of the married woman was less by a third than the cro of her husband. The cro of the unmarried woman was as much as the cro of her brother. Other chapters fix every man's kelchyn or gelchach, gallnes, and enouch-Celtic terms not yet satisfactorily interpreted, but apparently equivalent to the fyhtwite, mund, and manbot of the AngloSaxon, as the cro of the Bretts and Scots appears to answer to the wergild of the English. A chapter “of blood-drawing”-corresponding with the bloduyte of the Anglo-Saxons, fixes the fine to be paid for a blow to the effusion of blood, according to the degree of the person wounded and the place of the wound.

BREUGHEL, the name of a famous family of Dutch painters. - PETER B., the head of the family, was b. in the village of B., near Breda, in 1510 (or, as others say, 1530), and d. at Brussels in 1570 or 1590. He was a scholar of Peter Koeck van Aelst, traveled through Italy and France, and on his return, fixed his residence at Antwerp. He painted chiefly the pleasures of rustic life, for which he himself had a great relish, and which he transferred to his canvas with clear insight and vivid coloring, though unnecessarily exceeding at times the coarseness of his subject. He also executed several historical pieces, such as his "Building of the Tower of Babel,” now preserved in the gallery at Vienna.—His son, PETER B., distinguished by the strange title “Hellish Breughel”because he loved to paint scenes in which the leading characters were devils, hags, robbers, etc.-was b. about 1569, and d. 1625. His paintings of “Orpheus” and the “ Temptation of St. Antony are the most remarkable of his pieces. -JAN B., brother of the preceding, and on account of the splendid apparel which he wore when he became rich, usually called Velvet B., was b. 1568 or 1575, and d. 1625 or 1640. He was an industrious painter, distinguished for his landscapes and for his minute finish of small figures. In concert with Rubens, who supplied the two chief figures, he painted "Adam and Eve in Paradise,” and “ Vertumnus and Bellona.” These, with the “Four Elements,” are his chief works.-Other members of the same family were known as painters: AMBROSE B., director of the academy of painting, Antwerp, between the years 1635 and 1670; ABRAHAM B., a painter of fruits, flowers, and birds, lived long in Rome and Naples, where he d. in 1690; Jan BAPTIST B., b. in Rome, d. 1700; and finally, CASPAR B., both of whom were flower-painters.

BREVARD, a large co. in s.c. Florida, on the Atlantic ocean; 5600 sq.m.; pop, '80, 1478. It is low, flat, and full of lakes and marshes. Along the coast is Indian river, an inlet of the ocean. There is little cultivation and there are no large villages.


BREVE, a note in music, which, in the old notation of Guido d'Arezzo, had the value of two whole bars. It is written lus, F, ors, or lell. The note for a whole bar in modern notation is called semibreve, and has the value of four crotchets. In triple time, the B. contained three semibreves. The B. is now only used in a la capella movements, psalm-tunes, and fugues, or at the close of a composition.

BREVE, or BRIEVE, in the practice of the Scotch law, is a writ issuing from chancery in the name of the crown, to a judge, ordering him to try by jury the points or questions stated in the breve. In ancient times, these writs appear to have been the foundation of almost all civil actions in Scotland; but they are now only used in the following cases: 1. B. of inquest, now, however, superseded by a petition of service, according to the 10 and 11 Vict. c. 47. The object of the proceeding is judicially to ascertain the heir of a deceased person. 2. B. of tutory, the purpose of which is the appointment, as guardian to a pupil, of the nearest agnate or person most nearly related through the father. 3. Breves of idiotry and furiosity, by which the mental condition of a party may be determined for the appointment, in case of ascertained insanity, of a guardian or curator. In the B. of idiotry, the direction is to inquire whether the person is of unsound mind, furious, and naturally an idiot. In the breve of furiosity, it is whether

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