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accumulations of shingle very troublesome; and several years must elapse before it cal be made evident whether the Dover B. is worth the national money expended upon it.
Alderney B. is a great work, consisting of ashlar walls and parapet, built on a stone mound up to low-water from a depth of 72 feet. Small breakwaters have been con. structed at Cette near Marseilles, at the mouth of the Delaware in the United States, and at Buffalo in lake Erie; but they do not call for description.
Cherbourg B. is the greatest and the most costly ever constructed. Nearly 100 years ago, M. de Cessart proposed to the French government the formation of a B. at Cherbourg, to be commenced by the construction of a number of hollow concs formed of timber-framing, sunk in a line as close as they could be placed to each other, and then filled with stones. These cones, of which there were to be 64, each about 70 ft. high, 150 ft. in diameter at the base, and 60 ft. at the top, were intended to form a nucleus to the stone breakwater, to prevent the stones, during its formation, being knocked about and too much spread out by the action of the waves. In 1784 to 1788, 16 cones were constructed, and 13 of them sunk; but so great was the destruction which they underwent during stormy weather, that the government at length abandoned the plan, and carried on the stone breakwater without the aid of the cones. It was completed under Napoleon III. at a cost exceeding £2,500,000. The B. itself was finished in 1853, but since that year large fortifications have been built upon the upper works. The length is nearly 21 m.; the B. is 300 ft. wide at the bottom, and 31 at the top. The chief mass consists of rubble or unshaped stones, thrown down from ships; but there is a larger ratio of wrought and finished masonry than in the Plymouth B., consisting of granite blocks imbedded in cement. The depth of water is about 60 ft. at low-water spring-tides; and the B. rises to 12 ft, above high-water level. The water-space included within and protected by the B., is about 2000 acres, but two thirds of this has scarcely depth enough for the largest-sized ships. The relation which this B. bears to the vast military and naval arrangements of the place will be noticed under CHERBOURG.
Many substitutes have been proposed for solid breakwaters, such as floating break, waters constructed of timber framework, open iron screens, etc., but none of them have been shown to be suitable for actual practice. Close timber-work, filled in with stones, is found to be quite efficacious; but on most of our coasts the timber is liable to be eaten by the marine worm, which is an almost insuperable objection to its being used under water.
BREAKWATER (ante). In the United States the most important work of the kind is at Lewes, Del., at the entrance of Delaware bay. A breakwater was resolved upon in 1828, and the next year the site was fixed at cape Henlopen. In 1870, the engineer reported the completion of the harbor “according to the original project devised more than 40 years ago." In the year after the completion, more than 20,000 vessels visited the harbor, and since its first use in 1833, about 300,000 vessels of all sorts have sought shelter or trade behind the Delaware breakwater. A recent report says: “Let a threatening sky foretell the approaching storm, and a few hours will suffice to fill a previously vacant harbor. Let a north-easterly storm continue a day or two with severity, and the harbor becomes crowded entirely beyond its capacity.” Its present capacity is determined by the space that is sheltered by the B. proper. This is a straight line nearly half a mile long, and may be taken as the diameter of a half circle behind it, the area of which will represent approximately the sheltered harbor. North-east of the B. is the icebreaker structure, a quarter of a mile in length, with an opening of about the same extent, through which the sea rolls without hindrance. Within the past five or six years this important work has been much extended and improved. It is altogether of stone, in rubble-wall and more finished work. There are finished or in construction several B.'s in the northern lakes, for the most part made of timber cribs filled with stone.
BREAM, a name which is apt to occasion some confusion to beginners in ichthyology, being applied equally to certain fresh-water fishes of the family cyprinidae (q.v.), and to certain sea-fishes of the families sparidae (q.v.) and chætodontidae (q.v.) or squamipennes, among which the resemblance is a mere general one of outward form, the first of these families belonging to the order of malacopterous, or soft-finned, the other two to that of acanthopterous, or spiny-finned fishes.
The breams of the family cyprinidae were included in the genus cyprinus (see CARP) by the older naturalists, but are readily distinguished from that genus as now defined, and from other allied genera, by their deep and compressed form, by the great convexity of both the dorsal and the abdominal outline, by the want of spiny rays in the dorsal and anal fins, by the great length of the base of the anal fin, and by the want of cirri or barbules at the mouth. They form the genus Abramis of Cuvier. --The COMMON B., or CARP B. (A. brama), is an inhabitant of many rivers and lakes of Europe, even as far n. as Norway and Sweden, and of some of those of Britain and Ireland. It thrives best in still waters, and in some of the Irish lakes attains a large size; it has been known to reach 12 or even 14 lbs. The tail is very broad and much forked, the head small and acuminated, the eyes very large, the scales small, the general color yellowish-brown, the cheeks and gill-covers silvery-white.—The WHITE B., or BREAMFLAT (A. blicca), differs from the common B. in its silvery color, the smaller number of rays in the pectoral and anal fins, and other particulars. It has never been taken of so large a size. It is found in many parts of the continent of Europe, and in some of the British lakes and rivers.—The POMERANIAN B. (A. buggenhagii) differs much more widely from the common B.; the body is much thicker in proportion to its depth, the scales larger, the base of the anal fin shorter, the tail less forked. This fish is known to occur in a few places of England and Ireland, and is said to abound in Pomerania.
The acanthopterous breams, or SEA BREAMS, are mostly of the family sparida, and nearly allied to the gilthead (q.v.), in connection with which they may most properly be noticed. The common sea B., indeed, often receives the name of gilthead. Only one of the British sea fishes called B., the brama raii already noticed (see BRAMA), belongs to the family chatodontidae
Angling for Bream.-Of the two kinds of B. known to anglers, the carp B. is much the best for sport. The flesh of the B. is not held in much estimation, though the carp B. is infinitely to be preferred of the two. B. are found in both ponds and rivers. They prefer deep, still holes, or quiet, well-sheltered eddies in the bends of rivers. Here the angler will find them in large numbers. They are rather capricious in feeding; at times they will not bite for weeks together. Being a sly, shy-biting tish, the tackle required for them must be fine. They may be taken by means of the ledger (q.v.) in rivers, where they should be fished for in the same way as directed for barbel, save that it will be found advisable to use another hook, which should be fastened on to the line about 8 in, or a foot above the ledger lead, as B. often take their bait some inches off the bottom. The hooks should be No. 7. In float-fishing for B. in holes or eddies, a stout swan-quill float and half a dozen No. 1 shot below it, will be found sufficient for the purpose; and, having ground-baited as directed for barbel, put on two small red worms for the angling bait, or about an inch of the tail of a bright, well-scoured lobworm. The former is preferable. Two hooks, one to rest on the bottom, and one 6 or 8 in. off it, will be found useful, for sometimes one will be taken, and sometimes the other. The fish being tender-mouthed, should be played gently. After the first rush, a B. soon tires, for his form is not fitted or shaped for a prolonged resistance. The B. has an unpleasant practice of bowing downwards and rubbing the line with his tail, and the line often comes up covered with a thick slime from his body, for a foot or more above the hook. It is needless to remark that this must be cleared off before the tackle is again used. The rod should be a light cane-rod, moderately stiff, and some 12 or 13 ft. long for float-fishing for B. from a boat or punt. Of all baits, worm is decidedly the best. Some recommend bullock's blood and grains to ground bait with, but worms are found to answer all purposes. B. spawn about the end of May, choosing the most weedy spots for that purpose; and after scouring and cleansing in some gentle gravelly stream for a week or two, they return to the deep still holes again. A clay or sandy bottom is preferred to any other. The presence of B. may always be detected by their fondness for coming at times to the top of the water, or, as anglers term it, “priming." Early in the morning, or late in the evening, the whereabouts of B. may always be discovered by their rising then. In Lough Erne the shoals are prodigious, and cause a ripple on the water like a stiff breeze of wind.
BREAMING, in nautical affɛirs, is a cleansing process which a shių undergoes after a voyage, or after lying for a long time in harbor. "The ship's bottom, under such circumstances, often becomes covered with grass, ooze, shells, or sea-weed; and B. consists in the removal of these impurities. The ship is laid aground after the tide has ebbed, or is docked, or is careened (see CAREENING); furze and fagots are placed under it; fire is applied; the heat melts the pitch, etc., of the hull, and the pitch and filth can then be scraped and brushed off.
BREAST, THE FEMALE, or mammary gland, consists of a series of tubes, radiating from a common center, the nipple, which is situated in an areola or dark-colored patch. On the surface of the latter are several (from 4 to 10) sebaceous glands, which secrete an unctuous fluid to protect the skin of the nipple, which is very thin, from the saliva of the sucking infant. The milk-tubes (15 to 18 in number) enlarge into sinuses, and pass each to a separate lobe or subdivision of the breast, where they divide into twigs and branches (the lactiferous ducts), which end in minute vesicles. The lobes are held together by fibrous tissue, and are well packed in fat, which increases sometimes to an enormous extent the apparent size of the organ. It will be readily understood how over-distension of these delicate tubes, from whatever cause, must be productive of great suffering. When an abscess forms in the B., it is very dangerous to allow the matter to remain; but when an opening is made into an abscess of the B., the cut must be made in some line radiating from the nipple, so as to avoid division of the milk-tubes.
BREASTPLATE, in ancient armor, was a plate of iron, steel, or other metal, so fastened as to protect the chest or front of the wearer. The back-plate, in like manner, was worn to protect him from attack from behind. In modern European armies, almost the only representative of the B. is the front half of the cuirass, worn by the cuirassiers in certain foreign states, and by the household cavalry (life-guards and horseguards) in England.
BREAST-SUMMER, BRESSUMER (Fr. sommier, a lintel), a beam supporting the whole front of a building, in the same way in which a lintel supports the portion over an
opening. They are seen in England and on the continent in old houses that are built partly of wood and partly of stone, brick, or mud.
BREAST WHEEL. See WATER POWER.
BREASTWORK, in fortification, is a hastily constructed earthwork; not so high as to need a banquette (q.v.) for the defenders to stand upon, but sufficient to afford shelter when they are standing on the level of the ground, and firing over the crest. The dry ditch or trench from which the earth has been taken to form the B., affords an addi. tional defense. A B. is midway between a parapet and an épaulement, in size and importance. See illus., FORTIFICATIONS, vol. VI., p. 158, figs. 50, 53, 57, 58.
BREATH, OFFENSIVE, may depend upon some cause limited to the mouth or nose, or it may arise from diseased conditions of the respiratory or digestive apparatus. If, from want of proper attention, the teeth have collected a quantity of putrescent particles around them, they must be well scrubbed with a brush and tepid water, with some powdered carbonate of magnesia mixed with it. A wash composed of a teaspoonful of tincture of myrrh in a pint of water is also very useful. Occasionally the secretion from the tonsils (q.v.) is very offensive; and then a solution of nitrate of silver, 4 grains to 1 ounce of water, should be applied to them every morning, with a camelhair brush, and small alterative doses of medicine administered. Solutions of soda in water are also very useful. Should the fetid smell arise from a portion of dead bone, the latter must be removed whenever it becomes loose. Inhalations of steam from hot water into which some creasote has been dropped, is much recommended for cases in which the cause resides in the nose and respiratory passages. When, however, it is caused by digestive derangements, the treatment should consist in purging, to empty the intestinal canal, followed by soda, to correct acidity, and tonics, of which the bitter infusions and tinctures, and the dilute mineral acids, are among the best.
All medical treatment is unavailing to correct the foul odor which rises from the stomach of the habitual drunkard, or from the victim of gangrene or abscess in the lungs.
BREATH AND BREATHING. See RESPIRATION.
BREATHITT, a co. in e. Kentucky; 600 sq.m.; pop. '70, 5652—181 colored; in '80, 7742. The co. is hilly, with forests, and has iron and coal; but the main productions are agricultural. Co. seat, Jackson.
BREBEUF, JEAN DE, b. France, 1593; killed in the Huron country in 1649; a Jesuit missionary who came with Champlain in 1626. His labors were mainly among the Hurons, with whose life and language be became very familiar. When the town of St. Louis was taken by the Iroquois, B. and Lalemont, his associate, were made prisoners and tortured to death. It is said that B.'s head is preserved in the pediment of a silver bust in the convent of the hospital nuns in Quebec. Some of his writings on the Huron lan. guage are preserved, and were translated by Albert Gallatin.
BRECCIA, a term adopted from the Italian to designate a mass composed of angular fragments of rocks of the same or more different kinds, cemented together by an enveloping paste, or by infiltrated iron or carbonate of lime.
BRECHE-DE-ROLAND, a defile of the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, about 11 m. s. of St. Jean de Luz, with an elevation of about 9500 ft. above the sea. It is a dif. cult passage of from 200 to 300 ft. in width, between precipitous rocks rising to a height of from 300 to 600 feet.
BRE'CHIN, a t. of Forfarshire, on the left bank of the South Esk, 8 m, w, of its junction with the sea at Montrose. Pop. '81, 9031. It unites with Montrose, Arbroath, Forfar, and Bervie in returning one member to parliament. Spinning, bleaching, distilling, and brewing are carried on here, as also the manufacture of linens and sailcloth. B. was once a walled town, and contained an abbey of Culdees, instituted, it would seem, about the end of the 10th century. David I. founded a cathedral and bishopric here in the 12th century. Part of the cathedral, built chiefly in the 13th, 14th, and 15th centuries, is now the parish church. Close to the church is a round tower, similar to the Irish ones and to the one at Abernethy, the only other example in Scotland. The tower is 85 ft. high, 25 ft. in diameter at the base, and 121 ft. at the top, and it is surmounted by a 15th c. spire of 25 feet. B. castle, the ancient seat of the Maules (now of their representative, the earl of Dalhousie), was taken by Edward I. in 1303, after a siege of 20 days. B. was burned by Montrose in 1645; and near it, Huntly, on the part of James II, defeated the Crawfords in 1452. Gillies, the historian of Greece ; Maitland, the topographer; and Dr. Guthrie, the famous Scotch preacher, were natives of Brechin.
BRECKENRIDGE, & co. in n.w. Kentucky, on the Ohio river, 450 sq.m.; pop. '80, 17,486--2204 colored ; undulating surface, well watered and fertile. There are some curious sink-holes anil caves in the co.; and there are various medicinal springs. Chief productions, agricultural. Co, seat, Hardinsburg.
BRECKENRIDGE, a village in Wilkin co., Minn., on the Red River of the north ; the terminus of the St. Paul and Pacific railroad. 217 m. w.n.w. of St. Paul. Steam. ers pass down the river to Manitoba. Pop. '80, 436.
BRECKENRIDGE, JOHN, D.D., 1797-1841; b. Ky.; a Presbyterian minister, graduate of Princeton college. In 1822 he was licensed to preach, and soon afterwards served as chaplain in congress. His first church was in Lexington, Ky., where he estab. lished a newspaper, The Western Luminary. In 1831 he removed to Philadelphia and was secretary and general agent of the Presbyterian board of education; subsequently professor in Princeton theological seminary; and in 1838 secretary and general agent of the board of foreign missions. He resigned in 1840, and just before his death was chosen president of Oglethorpe university, in Georgia.
BRECKENRIDGE, JOHN CABELL, b. Ky., 1821; studied law in Transylvanian university, and settled at Lexington. He was a member of congress from his state for several terms; and in 1856 was elected vice-president. In 1860 he was nominated for president by the extreme southern section of the Democratic national convention, but, with Douglas and Bell, was defeated by Lincoln. He was immediately chosen U. S. senator, but abandoned his seat and went with the secessionists, where he entered the army and became a maj.gen. In 1865, just before the collapse of the rebellion, he was appointed confederate secretary of war. At the close of the conflict he went to Europe, where he remained several years. He died in 1875.
BRECKENRIDGE, ROBERT JEFFERSON, D.D., brother of Rev. John, 1800–71; b. Ky.; at first a lawyer and member of the legislature; but in 1829 he joined the Presby. terian church, and in 1832 became pastor of the first Presbyterian church in Baltimore, where he officiated for 13 years. In 1845, he became president of Jefferson college; two years later removed to Kentucky and became state superintendent of public instruc. tion. In 1853, he was professor of theology in Danville seminary. Dr. B. was a strong old-school leader in the great division of the Presbyterian church. In the slavery discussions he was extreme on neither side, and when the civil war began he was for the union, but he was much opposed to the emancipation proclamation. In 1864, he was president of the convention that nominated Lincoln for a second term. Dr. B. is cred. ited with being the principal author of the common school system of Kentucky. Among his works are Internal Eoidences of Christianity; Papism in the United States, and some books of travel.
BRECK'NOCKSHIRE, or BRE'Con, an inland co. of South Wales, to the s. of Radnor, from which it is separated by the Wye. Length, about 35 m.; average breadth, 20. Area, 719 sq.m., of which two thirds are cultivated. B. is one of the most mountainous counties in South Wales, and has deep, beautiful, and fertile valleys. Two principal mountain-chains, the highest in South Wales, rising with Brecknock peaks to a height of 2862 ft., intersect the county in the n. and s., and occupy, with their offshoots, a great part of the surface. Old red sandstone occupies the s. and middle of the co., and silurian rocks the north. The chief rivers are the Wye, Usk, Yrfon, Elan, Claerwen, and Tawe. The climate is severe and rainy but healthy among the mountains, and in the valleys comparatively mild. The agriculture, though still defective, especially in the higher districts, was greatly improved by the Brecknockshire agricultural society, instituted in 1755. The chief crops are oats and barley, but much wheat is also grown in Talgarth and Crickhowell, the most fertile districts of the county. In the valleys in the e, some hops are raised, and some orchards are seen. The native small black-cattle are reared in the hills, while in the lowlands the Hereford breed predominates. The mineral produce is small, consisting of iron, especially along the s. border; coal and limestone are also found in the south and west. The Brecon canal connects the co. with the Bristol channel, and many railways have been constructed throughout the county. There are several small factories of woolens and worsted hosiery; also several important iron-works, but the ore is chiefly obtained from adjoining counties. B. returns one member to parliament. Pop. in 1871, 59,901. The chief towns are Brecon, the co. and only corporate one, Builth, Crickhowell, Hay, and Llanelly. There are many remains of British and Roman camps, Roman roads, cairns, cromlechs, mounds, and castles throughout the county. B. formed part of the territory of the Silures, who bravely withstood the Romans. The Normans, under Barnard Newmarch, wrested the co. from the Welsh princes in 1092. Llewelyn, the last British prince of Wales, was killed in this co. in 1282, and by his fall the native mountainchiefs were entirely subdued. Half the people in B. still speak Welsh. Pop. '81, 57,735.
BRECON, BRECKNOCK, or ABERHONDDU, the capital of Brecknockshire, South Wales, is situated in an open valley in the middle of the co., at the confluence of the Usk, Honddu, and Tarell, 171 m. w.n.w of London. It lies in the midst of fine moun. tain scenery, and has beautiful public walks. South of B. lie the three mountainpeaks, the Brecon beacons. Pop. '81, 6372. It returns one member to parliament. Flannels, coarse woolens, and hats are manufactured. Barnard Newmarch, a relative of William the conqueror, founded the town, and built a castle here in 1094. He also founded two priories here in the reign of Henry I. Henry VIII. turned one of the priories into a college, still existing; the other is now the parish church. B. was formerly surrounded by a wall, having ten towers and five gates. Hugh Price, founder of Jesus college, Oxford, and Mrs. Siddons, the celebrated actress, were natives of Brecon.
BREDA', a t. of North Brabant, Holland, situated at the confluence of the navigable rivers Merk and Aa, and containing (Dec. 31, 1879) 17,109 inhabitants. It formerly possessed the means of laying the surrounding country uuder water in the event of an attack, but the importance of the town, as a military position, has passed away, and in 1876 the fortifications were removed. It has a Gothic cathedral, with a lofty tower and several interesting monuments; also an old castle built in 1350, which was for some time the residence of Charles II. of England, and is now a military academy. There are manufactures of carpets, linen, hats, soap, leather, etc., and dye-works, breweries, and rope-walks. It is celebrated as the place where, in 1566, the protest of the Dutch nobles, known as the “compromise of Breda,” against the measures of Philip II. of Spain in the Netherlands, was presented and rejected. During the subsequent centuries, it was the scene of much conflict and diplomatizing until 1813, when the French were finally driven out. B. is now a station of the railway net.
BREDA, JAN VAN, 1683–1750; a Dutch painter. He imitated Wouvermans and Breughel so cleverly that connoisseurs are often unable to detect the copy. B. was & long time employed in England.
BREDERO'DE, HENDRIK VAN, Count, 1531-68; one of the sovereign counts of Holland, and a leader against Spanish domination in that country. He was for many years turbulent, active, and a source of annoyance about as much to his own party as to the other. After the complete success of the Spaniards he asked Egmont to intercede for him with the regent; his followers were dispersed, some were put to death, and he himself died in a few months from intemperance and anxiety.
BREDOW, GABRIEL GOTTFRIED, 1773-1814; a German historian and professor in the university of Breslau. English readers know his Manual of Ancient History; Researches on History, Geography, and Chronology, and Historical Fables.
BRÉE, MATTHÆUS IGNAZIUS Van, an excellent Flemish painter, h. at Antwerp 22d Feb., 1773, and educated partly there, and partly under Vincent in Paris. As early as 1798, he attracted attention by his “Death of Cato," and several other excellent pictures soon followed. A peculiar talent for rapid and vivid sketching enabled B. to execute for Napoleon, in a few hours, “ The Maneuvering of the Fleet before Antwerp op che Scheldt,” and, with equal celerity, Napoleon's “Entrance into Amsterdam, at the Moment when the Magistrate presents him with the Keys of the City.” In 1816, he painted the famous Leyden burgomaster, Van der Werff, in the act of addressing the famished and murmuring populace during the siege of 1576: “ Take my body, and share it among you." This great work-now in the town-house of Leyden-is marked by a felicitous arrangement of the figures, and by a bold and lively coloring, after the style of Rubens. Other celebrated pictures of B.'s are: “Count Egmont receiving Spiritual Consolation before his Execution,” “ Rubens dictating his Dying Testament," " The Tomb of Nero at Rome, with a Group of Lazzaroni and Musicians." B. died 15th Dec., 1839. In the latter part of his life, he was director of the academy of fine arts at Antwerp.
BRÉE, PHILIPP JACOB VAN, brother of the preceding, b. 1786, also acquired some reputation as a historical painter.
BREECH, of a gun, is the end furthest removed froin the muzzle. It always contains a great mass of metal, to enable it to withstand the shock occasioned by the explosion of the gunpowder. For details, see CANNON, HOWITZER, etc.
BREECHES BIBLE. See BIBLE.
BREECHING, of a naval gun or carronade, is a strong rope by which the recoil of the gun is checked at such a point that the muzzle is brought wholly within the port-hole, where the seamen can sponge and reload it.
BREECH-LOADING, in artillery, relates to a mode of constructing large pieces of ordnance, and small-arms or hand-firearms, the peculiar manner of charging which the term describes. This subject is now occupying much attention, and the patented inventions relating to it are very numerous. The Armstrong gun (see ARMSTRONG), among others, is a breech-loader; and so is the Whitworth gun. A considerable amount of additionai mechanism is necessary for this purpose; seeing that the breech must be so far opened as to admit of the introduction of a ball or shell, and a cartridge, and then so firmly closed as to resist the immense pressure occasioned by the explosion. The objects sought to be attained by this change from the old system are many-quickness in loading, ease in cleaning after firing, accurate ad justment of the diameter of the ball to the caliber of the gun, facility in making the ball accommodate itself to the spiral rifle-grooves of the piece, etc.; but it is still a contested question, especially between the rival inventors of breech-loaders and muzzle-loaders, to what extent these objects are attained. In relation to muskets and fowling-pieces, Mr. Greener, of Birmingham, who has written much on the subject, disputes the usefulness of B.; he denies that it is more safe, more accurate, or more forcible than muzzle-loading; while certain advantges which it may possess are, he thinks, counterbalanced by the greater cost of the weapon. The relative merits of breech and muzzle loading fowling-pieces were tested in 1859-60 by various trials, under the management of the editor of The Field, and resulted in favor of the breech-loaders. The demand for the latter has, in consequence, enormously increased.—This subject receives further notice in various parts of the Encyclopædia, in relation to certain kinds of ordnance and small-arms expressly constructed on the B. principle. See BREECH-LOADING ARMS, etc.