« 上一頁繼續 »
ter of Aymer de Burgh, earl of Ulster-issue, one son, who succeeded him as David II., and two daughters.
BRUCE, ROBERT DE, fifth lord of Annandale, son of the fourth lord above men. tioned, and the competitor with John Baliol for the crown of Scotland, was b. in 1210. On the death of his mother, the princess Isobel, in 1252, he did homage to Henry III. for her lands in England, and in 1255 was made sheriff of Cumberland, and constable of the castle of Carlisle. About the same time he was appointed one of the fifteen regents of Scotland, in the minority of Alexander III. In 1264, he led, with Comyn and Baliol, the Scottish auxiliaries to the assistance of the English monarch at the battle of Lewes, where he was taken prisoner, but released after the battle of Evesham, the following year. On the Scottish throne becoming vacant at the death, in 1290, of Margaret, the *maiden of Norway,” granddaughter of Alexander III., Baliol and Bruce claimed the succession, the former as great-grandson of David, earl of Huntingdon, by his eldest daughter, Margaret; the latter as grandson, by his second daughter, Isobel. Edward I. of England, to whom the dispute was referred, decided in favor of Baliol, 19th Nov., 1292. To avoid swearing fealty to his successful rival, B. resigned Annandale to his eldest son, Robert de B., earl of Carrick. He died at his castle of Lochmaben, Dum. friesshire, in 1295, leaving three sons and a daughter.
BRUCE, ROBERT DE, earl of Carrick, eldest son of the preceding, accompanied king Edward I. of England to Palestine, in 1269, and was ever after greatly esteemed by that monarch. On his return to Scotland, he married in 1271, Martha Margaret, countess of Carriok, and in her right became earl of Carrick. Following the example of his father, to avoid doing homage to Baliol, he resigned the lordship of Annandale to his eldest son, Robert, the future king of Scotland, then a minor. Retiring to England, he was, on the death of his father, in 1295, appointed constable of the castle of Carlisle; and in the following year, when Baliol renounced the authority of Edward, and, assisted by the Comyns, had recourse to arms, B. fought on the side of the English. After the battle of Dunbar, in which the Scots were defeated and Baliol compelled to relinquish the sovereignty, he made application to Edward for the vacant crown, but was refused it. He died in 1304.
BRUCEA, a genus of shrubs somewhat doubtfully referred to one or other of the allied natural orders rutacer (q.v.), simarubacea (q.v.), and xanthoxylaceæ (q.v.).—B. antidysenterica, or ferruginea, is an Abyssinian species, the leaves of which are said to be tonic, astringent, and useful in dysentery. Those of B. Sumatrana, a native of the Indian archipelago, China, etc., possess the same medicinal properties. They are intensely bitter. The Abyssinian species acquired a factitious importance in the beginning of the 19th c., from a mistaken belief that it produced the dangerous false Angostura bark (see ANGOSTURA BARK), and in this belief the name brucine (q.v.) was given to an alkaloid really produced by the nux vomica (q.v.) and other species of strychnos (q.v.).
BRUCH, Max. See page 881.
BRUCHSAL, a t. of the grand duchy of Baden, situated on the Salzbach, and on the railway between Heidelberg and Carlsruhe, 12 m. n.e. of the latter place. B., which is a place of considerable antiquity, has three suburbs. The old castle of the prince. bishops of Speier, who took up their residence here early in the 11th c., is still standing, and in the church of St. Peter are some ancient tombs. B. has two prisons organized on a modified form of the Pennsylvanian system. Pop. '80, 11,373, who were chiefly engaged in the wine trade.
BRU'CINE is one of the alkaloids (q.v) present in strych nog nux vomica along with strychnine, etc. It is not so abundant as the strychnine, nor is it so poisonous. It is mainly characterized by giving a blood-red color with concentrated commercial nitric acid, and, indeed, the red color always yielded by dux vomica, and occasionally by strychnine when treated with nitric acid, is due to the presence of brucine.
BRUCITE, a native magnesic hydrate, found in serpentine in New Jersey, and in the chrome mines in Texas. Syn. MgH,0,.
BRÜCKENAU, a village of Bavaria, on the Sinn, 36 m. n.e. of Würzburg. It is famous in connection with the baths of B., which are picturesquely situated in a beauti.. ful part of the valley of the Sinn, about 2 m. w. from the village. The grounds are tastefully laid out in gardens, and charming walks traverse the surrounding woods. The place is a favorite summer-resort of the Bavarian court. B. has paper-mills. Pop. 2000,
BRUCKER, JOHANN JAKOB, a German theologian and historian, 1696–1770. He was educated at Jena, where he took the degree of A.m. in 1718, and the next year pub. lished Tentamen Introductionis in Historiam de Ideis. In 1723 came De Vita et Scriptis Cl. Etringeri, and in 1731 he was chosen a member of the Berlin academy of sciences, Thence he went to Augsburg as pastor of the church of St. Ulric, where he published dissertations on the history of philosophy, and still later a history of philosophy in diaJogue form. In 1741 came the first volume of his great work on the critical history of philosophy, completed in 1714, a work that had an immense success. He wrote many other works on philosophical subjects, and superintended and corrected an edition of Luther's translation of the New Testament, but did not live to complete it.
BRÜGES (Ger. Brügge), a city of Belgium, capital of the province of West Flanders, is situated in a fertile plain about 8 m. from the sea, with which it is connected by the three canals from Ghent, L'Ecluse, and Ostend, the latter admitting the largest sea-going ships. Lat. 51° 12' n., long. 3° 14' e. B. derives its name from its many bridges, all opening in the middle to admit of the passage of vessels. The ramparts surrounding the city are an agreeable promenade. The streets have a venerable and picturesque appearance, but they are greatly deserted, the population of the city being now scarcely a quarter of what it was during the middle ages. Among the most interesting buildings are the town-hall, with a lofty tower and a celebrated set of 48 bells; a Gothic senate. house, built about the close of the 14th c.; a court of justice, containing a famous carved chimney-piece of the date 1559; the church of Notre Dame, with its spire 450 ft. high, its many valuable paintings, and a statue of the Virgin (said to be by Michael Angelo), for which Horace Walpole offered 30,000 florins, and its splendid monuments of Charles the Bold and his daughter Mary, wife of the emperor Maximilian; the cathedral of St. Sauveur, not remarkable for its exterior, but containing paintings by eminent masters; St. John's hospital, with celebrated pictures by Memling, etc. The academy of painting contains several fine pictures by J. van Eyck. B. has manufactures of woolen, linen, cotton, lace, leather, cordage, and tobacco; and distilleries, sugar and salt refineries, and ship-building yards. Railways connect B. with Ostend, Ghent, and other cities of Belgium and the continent. Pop. '82, 44,796, of whom nearly a third are paupers. B. is a very ancient city. Here, it is said, St. Chrysolus preached the gospel as early as the 3d century. In the 7th c., B. was the capital of the surrounding district called Flanders, and before the conquest of England by the Normans, its commercial importance was established. In the beginning of the 13th c., it was the central mart of the Hanseatic league; and in the following century it may be said to have become the metropolis of the world's commerce. Commercial agents from 17 different kingdoms resided here, and no less than 20 ministers from foreign courts had mansions within its walls. Its population at this time amounted to upwards of 200,000. In 1488, the citizens rose in insurrection against the archduke Maximilian, and with the harsh measures of repression which ensued, commenced the commercial decline of Brüges. Many of the traders and manufacturers, driven forth from their own country, settled in England, and from this time may be dated the beginning of English manufacturing superiority. In the 16th c., however, the tapestry of B. was still celebrated throughout Europe, arid the famous Gobelin tapestry of Paris is said to owe its origin to a manufacturer of Brüges. The city was taken by the French in 1794, and soon after incorporated with the French empire; but in 1815 it became a part of the kingdom of the United Netherlands, and in 1830 of the Belgian monarchy.
BRUGG, or Bruck, a village of Switzerland, in the canton of Aargau, on the right bank of the Aar, and near the mouth of the Reuss, about 9 m. n.e. of Aarau. It is interesting as occupying a part of the site of the ancient Vindonissa, the strongest fortress, as well as the most important settlement of the Romans in Helvetia; and also as the cradle of the house of Hapsburg, to whom, in early times, it belonged. The remains of the castle of Hapsburg, founded by count Radbod of Altenburg in 1020, are still to be seen on a wooded height, about 2 m. from the village. Nearer, is the abbey of Königsfelden, founded in 1310 by the wife and daughter of the emperor Albert, who, two years before, was murdered on the spot by his nephew and others, for which a terrible revenge was taken on the relatives of the murderers. In the vaults beneath the abbey are interred many of the members of the Austrian royal family. High conical-roofed towers guard the exit and entrance to B., which has a pop. of about 1500. Zimmerman was a native of this place.
BRUGMANS, SEBALDUS JUSTINUS, 1763-1819; a Dutch naturalist and physician, professor of philosophy and physical sciences at Franeker, Holland, where he founded a museum of comparative anatomy. He organized and became chief director of the sanitary institutions of Holland. He improved the condition of military hospitals, and by his effort the 20,000 soldiers wounded at Waterloo were properly cared for. In 1815, he was at the head of the sanitary service of the army and navy. Many of his papers on medical science and natural history have been published.
* BRUGSCH, HEINRICH KARL, PH. D., b. 1827; a German Egyptologist, and director of the Egyptian museum in Berlin. He made two visits to Egypt for archæological purposes, and was a member of the Prussian embassy to Persia in 1860. In 1864, he founded at Leipsic a periodical devoted to Egyptian archæology. At Gottingen he was professor in 1868–70, when he became director of an Egyptological school at Cairo. He has published several important works on Egyptian subjects, one especially interesting, on the Biblical story of the crossing of the Red sea, advancing a theory quite different from that long accepted as to the place of that event. He assigns the crossing by the Israelites and the ingulfing of the Egyptians to the vast morass near the shore of the Mediterranean, and occasionally inundated by its waves driven by a strong wind. His evidences of this show ingenuity and learning, but have not commanded the general assent of scholars. See Supp., page 881.
BRÜHL, a t. of Rhenish Prussia, about 9 m. s.s.w. of Cologne, on the railway to Bonn. It is surrounded by old walls, and has a splendid château, erected in the early
part of the 18th c. by the elector Clement Augustus of Bavaria. There is also an ancient Franciscan convent, now converted into a seminary for Roman Catholic schoolmasters. After his banishment from France in 1651, cardinal Mazarin took up his residence in Brühl. Pop. 4000.
BRUHL, HEINRICH, Count von Brühl, prime-minister of Augustus III., king of Poland, and elector of Saxony, deserves a place in history as a signal example of an unworthy minister and venal statesman. He was born in 1700, at Weissenfels, and in early life entered, as a page, into the service of the duchess of Sachsen-Weissenfels. His winning address and tact gained for him rapid promotion through several offices of state, until, in 1747, he became prime-minister to that idle and unpatriotic ruler, Augustus III. Never was a ruler more slavishly obeyed by a statesman. B. would follow the prince, as he strolled about smoking, without speaking a word for a whole day; or, when his majesty lazily inquired: “ Brühl, have you any money for me?" “Yes, sire,” would be the constant reply; but in order to be able to give this answer as frequently as it was demanded, B. drained the coffers of the state, and burdened the country with debt. He, however, contrived to enrich himself, and to accumulate honors and titles. By Elizabeth of Russia, he was invested with the order of St. Andrew, and by Charles VI. of Austria, he was made a count of the empire. He kept 200 servants, paid his body-guard better than Augustus did his, furnished the costliest table, possessed the finest wardrobe, and, in short, maintained the most splendid establishment in the kingdom. “Of all statesmen,” said Frederick II., “ Brühl has collected the greatest quantity of fine clothes, watches, lace, boots, shoes, and slippers !" The effect of B.'s reckless robbery of the national finances to gratify the dissolute Augustus and himself, made itself felt at the outbreak of the seven years' war, when the country could only furnish 17,000 men to oppose Frederick of Prussia, who surprised and captured the whole Saxon army in its camp at Pirna. Augustus and B. fled to Warsaw. When peace was concluded, they returned to Dresden, where Augustus died on the 5th Oct., 1763, and was followed by his worthless parasite, 28th October. B.'s palace is still one of the principal buildings in Dresden, and his library of 62,000 vols. forms a chief part of the royal library, Dresden.
BRUISE, or CONTUSION, signifies an injury inflicted by a blow or sudden pressure, in which the skin is not wounded, and no bone is broken or dislocated. Both terms, and especially the latter, are employed in surgery to include all such injuries in their widest range, from a black eye to a thoroughly crushed mass of muscle. In the slighter forms of this injury, as in ordinary simple bruises, there is no tearing, but only a concussion of the textures, the utmost damage done being the rupture of a few small bloodvessels, which occasions the discoloration that is always observed in these cases. In more severe contusions, the subjacent structures-muscles, connective tissue, vessels, ete.--are more or less ruptured, and in extreme cases, are thoroughly crushed, and usually become gangrenous. The quantity of blood that is extravasated mainly depends upon the size and number of the ruptured blood vessels, but partly also on the nature of the textures of the injured part. Thus, a lax tissue, as that of the eyelids, favors the escape of blood into the surrounding parts. Moreover, the constitution of the patient has some influence, and many persons, especially (according to Mr. Paget, in his article
“Contusions” in Holmes's System of Surgery, vol. i.) pallid, fatty, soft-skinned women, though suffering from no apparent disease, are subject to extravasations, and consequently to discolorations, very disproportionate to the injuries that cause them.
The most characteristic signs of a recent contusion are more or less shock (q.v.), pain, swelling, and discoloration of the surface from effused blood (commonly known as ecchymosis, q.v.). There is nothing special in the character of the shock, but it is worthy of notice that it is most severely felt in injuries of special parts—as the testes, the breasts, and the larger joints, which are often followed by remarkable general depression, faintness, loss of muscular power, and nausea. The immediate pain following the blow is succeeded by a feeling of numbness, which, after a varying time, unless the part is killed, gives place to a heavy, aching pain. Although some depression may usually be observed immediately after the infliction of the blow, swelling of the parts rapidly follows, as may be well seen in the case of a child receiving a blow on the head, or of the wale that rises after the lash of a whip. In lax parts, such as the eyelids, the swelling is often considerable, and may remain for a week or more; but in other parts, it usually subsides in two or three days. The discoloration of the skin consequent on blows is of a more or less purple tint, varying from black to crimson or pink. “Blackness," says Mr. Paget (op. cit.), " usually indicating intense injury, is probably due to the extravasation of a large portion of entire blood; crimson or pink tints, to the prevalence of a blood-stained fluid; blue, to the degrees in which blackness is veiled by the cuticle and skin, as the color of blood in veins is; and perhaps some of the shades of pink to the partial aëration of the blood by the penetration of air through the epidermis. After a variable time, proportionate to the severity of the injury, these colors fade out, passing most commonly through gradually lightening shades of brownish olive, green, and yellow." The cause of these changes of color are not clearly known; as, bo ver, the changes are not observed in bruises of parts removed from air and light, they are probably due to oxidation and actinic agency. When a severe B. tends to a natural
cure, and there is no inflammation or sloughing, the effused blood is generally absorbed, the liquid portion rapidly disappearing, while the blood-cells are more slowly removed. In some cases, it is probable that the effused blood becomes organized into vascular connective tissue, which takes part in the repair of the injured tissue. We need not follow the course of a B. in which active inflammation with suppuration ensues, or in which sloughing takes place, as these complications must be treated according to the ordinary rules of those affections. There are, however, one or two ill consequences following partial recovery, which require notice. Thus, in some organs, as the breast, abscess may ensue long after a blow; or a sensitive indurated lump may remain; or (more commonly) there may be long-continued pain, without change of texture; or, lastly, cancer may ensue. Blows on superficial bones, as those of the skull, are not unfrequently followed by very painful thickening of the periosteum; and a muscle violently struck may be paralyzed, and rapidly waste away; and constitutional diseases, such as gout and rheumatism, are well known to localize themselves with special severity in parts that have once been seriously bruised.
With regard to treatment, simple and not very severe bruises require little treatment but the rest necessary for the avoidance of pain; but the removal of the swelling and discoloration may be hastened by the application of various local stimulants, which seem to act by accelerating the circulation through the bruised part, and promoting the absorption of the effused fluid. Friar's balsam, compound soap liniment, or poultices made with the roots of black bryony beaten to a pulp, are popular remedies of this class. Mr. Paget regards the tincture of arnica as the best application. Where the skin is thick, it may be gently rubbed over the bruised part in an undiluted state; where the skin is thinner, it should be mixed with an equal bulk of water; or, which is probably better, it may be constantly applied as a lotion if diluted with five or six parts of water. Pugilists, who are probably better acquainted with ordinary bruises than any other class of men, are in the habit of removing the swelling of the eyelids that often naturally occurs during a prize-fight, to such an extent as to close the eyes, by at once puncturing the eyelids at several points with a lancet; and their favorite remedy for a black-eye or other B. on the face is a fresh beef-steak applied locally, as a poultice. Bruises of a more severe nature, as when there is much breaking or crushing of the tissues, must, of course, at once be placed in the hands of a surgeon.— For further details on this subject, the reader is referred to Mr. Paget's excellent article, from which we have freely quoted. BRULÉ:
: co. Dak. See page 881. BRUMAIRE (Lat. bruma, winter), a division of the year in the republican calendar of France. It includes the time from Oct. 22 to Nov. 20. The celebrated 18th B., which witnessed the overthrow of the directory and the establishment of the sway of Napoleon, corresponds with Nov. 9, 1799, of the Gregorian calendar.
BRUMATH, or Brumot, a t. of Lower Alsace, on the Zorn; pop. '71, 5619. It has a castle and mineral wells, and is on the site of the ancient Brucomagus.
BRUMIDI, CONSTANTINE, 1805–80; a native of Rome, Italy, son of a Greek father and an Italian mother, widely known as a fresco painter. He was educated in the college of fine arts at Rome, and came to the United States in 1852. His first work, “The Crucifixion,” was in St. Stephen's church in New York. Thence he went to Philadelphia and to the city of Mexico, at both places employing himself in church decoration, În 1854 he arrived in Washington, and was at once employed on the bare walls and ceilings of the national capital, the rotunda of which contains many fine pieces from his hand, combining mythology, allegory, and history. There are cartoons of his yet to be put in place, but by other lands, including Oglethorpe and the Indians," **
The Battle of Lexington,” « Surrender of Cornwallis,” Decatur at Tripoli,' · The Death of Tecumseh," · Entrance of General Scott into Mexico," and "The Discovery of Gold.”
BRUMMEL, GEORGE BRYAN, 1778–1840 (better known as “Beau" Brummel); & man of wealth and fashion, who became an intimate companion of the prince of Wales, and was looked upon by the society of his day as the glass of fashion and the mold of form." He was the arbiter in all matters of fashion, and considered the very top of perfection in taste, especially in dress. As long as his fortune lasted or the prince of Wales would contribute, he kept up an elegant bachelor establishment in London; but finally he lost the favor of his royal friend, became poor, gambled recklessly, fled from his creditors, and died in France in a hospital for mendicants.
BRUNCK, RICHARD FRANçois PHILIPPE, one of the most ingenious critics and philologists of modern times, was born at Strasburg, Dec. 30, 1729. He was educated under the Jesuits in Paris; but abandoned his studies, and for some time was engaged as a military commissary during the seven years' war, A professor in Giessen, with whom B. happened to lodge while the army was in winter quarters, revived in him the love of classical studies. Returning to Strasburg, he devoted all his spare time to Greek, and soon distinguished himself as an able but adventurous critic and emendator. His belief that all inaccuracies in ancient Greek writings were introduced by copyists, often led B. astray; but, since the revival of learning, few critics have done more for the progress of Greek literature. His first work, Analecta Veterum Poëtarum Græcorum (1772–76), was followed by several editions of Anacreon (1778-86), and
editions of Apollonius Rhodius (1780) and Aristophanes (1781-83), Poëto Gnomici (1784), Virgil (1785), and Sophocles (1786–89). The last of these established a new era in the criticism of the tragic writers. The outbreak of the French revolution interrupted B.'s studies. He ardently attached himself to the popular side. During the reign of terror, he was imprisoned, but was liberated after the downfall of Robespierre. His means, however, had been so much reduced that he was compelled to sell his valuablo library. From this time, 1801, he turned his attention from Greek to Latin literature, and published. editions of Plautus and Terence. He died June 12, 1803.
BRUNDUSIUM. See BRINDISI.
BRUNE, GUILLAUME MARIE ANNE, a French marshal of the first empire, was b. at Brives-la-Gaillarde, 13th Mar., 1763. His education brought him at an early period into connection with the men of the revolution. Along with Danton, he helped to establish the Cordeliers' club. After the conquest of Belgium, he was sent as civil commissary to that country, but his warlike aspirations soon induced him to enter the military service. In 1797, he became brigadier under Napoleon in the army of Italy, and distinguished himself at Arcola and Rivoli, where he was made gen, of division and leader of the advance-guard. Sent by the directory to Switzerland in 1798, he executed his orders with brilliant success. In 1799, he was appointed to the command of the army of Holland, where he achieved the reputation of being one of the best generals of his age. He vanquished the Anglo-Russians at Bergen on the 19th of Sept., 1799, and on the 19th of Oct.; forced the duke of York, commander-in-chief of the combined armies, to capitulate at Alkmaar, under humiliating circumstances. In 1803, he was named ambassador to the Ottoman porte, and was received by Selim III. with great distinction. In 1804, he obtained the dignity of marshal, and in 1805 returned to France. Two years afterwards, B. became governor-general of the Hanseatic towns, and was charged with the conquest of Pomerania; but circumstances having occurred which unnecessarily excited the distrust of Napoleon, he was recalled, and his future services dispensed with. After the fall of the emperor, he declared for the Bourbons, but his offers were rejected, and in consequence he joined Napoleon after his return from Elba. He was now made a peer, but the battle of Waterloo completely destroyed his prospects. He again made his submission, but was barbarously assassinated at Avignon, 2d Aug., 1815, by the populace, who were infuriated against him on account of certain crimes laid to his charge, of which, however, he seems to have been entirely guiltless.
BRUNEHAUT, or BRUNEHILDE, 534–613; daughter of Athanagild, king of the Visigoths and wife of Sigebert, king of Austrasia. Her sister Galsunda, the wife of Chilperic, king of Neustria and the brother of Sigebert, had been abandoned and murdered by Chilperic at the demand of his mistress, Fredegonda, who became queen. Brunéhaut induced her husband (Sigebert) to invade Neustria, where, while besieging Tournay, he was slain by emissaries of Fredegonda, and Brunehaut was taken prisoner by Chilperic. At Rouen she persuaded one of Chilperic's sons to marry her, and, with the help of the bishop of the place, she escaped to Austrasia, which was then ruled by Childebert; but she recovered her authority. After the death of Childebert she provoked war between her grandsons, heirs to the throne, in which one was killed, and she was about to take the throne when a son of Fredegonda, Clothaire II., interposed and captured her easily, as her army refused to fight. She was for three days exposed to torture and insult, and then tied to the tail of a wild horse and dragged to death, after which the body was burned and the ashes scattered to the air.
BRUNE ISLAND lies off the s. part of the e. coast of Tasmania, from which it is separated by D'Entrecasteaux bay. It has a length of 32 m., with a breadth varying from 1 to 6 m.; and its e. or outside coast is indented by a bay, which takes its name from the Adventure, one of Cook's two vessels during his second voyage.
BRUNEL, ISAMBARD KINGDOM, an eminent engineer, son of Sir Mark Isambard, b. at Portsmouth, England, in 1806, was educated at the college of Henri Quatre, Caen, in France. He commenced practical engineering in 1826, under his father at the Thames tunnel, and in the progress of that great work was often exposed to danger from the water breaking in and flooding the excavations, having more than once to save his life by swimming. He assisted in his father's experiments for making carbonic acid gas a motive power, and was designer and civil engineer of the Great Western, the first steamship built to cross the Atlantic; and of the Great Britain, the first ocean screw-steamer. The Great Eastern, the largest vessel ever built in the world, was erected under his sole direction. In 1833, B. was appointed chief-engineer to the Great Western railway, and designed and constructed the whole of the tunnels, bridges, viaducts, and arches on this line, and extension branches. Among other docks at English seaports, in the improvement and construction of which he was engaged, may be mentioned the Bute docks at Cardiff, and the old North dock at Sunderland. In 1812, he was employed by government to construct the Hungerford suspension bridge across the Thames at Charing Cross, London. In 1850-53, he constructed the works of the Tuscan portion of the Sardinian railway. Made a fellow of the royal society in 1830, he was chosen on the council in 1844. He was also vice-president of the institution of civil engineers, and of the society of arts; a fellow of the astronomical, geological, and geographical societies, and chevalier of the legion of honor. He died suddenly, Sept., 1859.