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BROWN, JOHN, 1736–1803; merchant of Providence, R. I. ; the leader of the men who destroyed the Gaspee, an English sloop-of-war, June 17, 1712. He was arrested and put in irons, but escaped. He was a member of congress from Rhode Island, and a patron of Brown university.

BROWN, JOHN, 1744-80; graduate of Yale, and king's attorney in New York. In 1775, he was an emissary in Canada to provoke the people against the English government. He was with Allen at the capture of Ticonderoga, and at Quebec when Wolfe was killed. He was killed by Indians while on the way to help Schuyler in the Mohawk valley campaign.

BROWN, JOHN, 1757-1837; b. Va.; soldier in the revolutionary army. He was a student at Princeton and at William and Mary college; and after residing in Kentucky for a few years, returned to Virginia, and represented that state in congress, 1787–93. From 1793 to 1805, he was United States senator from Virginia.


BROWN, JOHN, D.D., grandson of John Brown, of Haddington, was b. 12th July, 1784, near Whitburn, Linlithgowshire. He studied at Edinburgh university, and afterwards at the theological hall of the secession church in Selkirk. In 1806, he was ordained to the pastorate of a church in Biggar, a small town in Lanarkshire, where he labored for 15 years, employing his leisure hours in those studies which subsequently enabled him to take a high rank as a biblical expositor. In 1822, he was transferred to Rose street church, Edinburgh, and in 1829 to Broughton place church in the same city. In 1834, he was appointed professor of pastoral and exegetical theology in connection with the associate synod. He died 13th Oct., 1858. As a preacher, Dr. B. was among the first of his time. For clearness of scriptural exposition, chaste and powerful language, and majestic ardor and earnestness of manner, he had no equal in his denomination, and no superior in Scotland. The attractiveness of his delivery was heightened by a countenance singularly noble, tender, and sweet. Among his works are The Laio of Christ respecting Civil Obedience; The Resurrection of Life; and his important and scholarly Expository Discourses on the Epistles of Peter, on the Epistle to the Galatians, and on the Epistle to the Romans. See Dr. Cairns} Memoir (1860). --JOHN BROWN, M.D., LL.D., son of the above, b. 1810, has attained a distinguished place among the medical practitioners of Edinburgh. He has also abundantly inherited the paternal genius, though in him it has taken a literary rather than a theological direction. In 1858, he published Hora Subsecire, a volume of essays, most of which had previously appeared in periodicals. One of these, Rab and his Friends, has been since published separately, and has obtained a remarkable popularity. It excels in quaint fancy, rich delicate pathos, and abrupt but felicitous diction. A civil list pension of £100 was allotted to Dr. B. in 1876.

BROWN, Captain John, the leader of the Harper's Ferry (U. S.) insurrection (1859), designed to incite the slaves of the southern states of America to rebellion, was descended from a Puritan carpenter, one of the Mayflower emigrants, and was b. at Torrington, Conn., in the year 1800. He intended to enter the ministry, but had to abandon his studies on account of weak sight, and subsequently became a wool-dealer. In 1854, having imbibed an intense hatred of slavery, he went to Kansas, in order to vote, and, if need were, fight, against the establishment of slavery in that territory. In many of the conflicts which ensued between the pro-slavery party from Missouri and the free settlers, B. played a prominent part, and in one of these he had a son killed, a circumstance which deepened his hostility against the southern party. After the agitation in Kansas was settled by a general vote, B. traveled through the northern and eastern states, declaiming against slavery, and endeavoring to organize an armed attack upon it. In Oct., 1859, at the head of 17 white men and 5 blacks, he commenced active hostilities by a descent upon Harper's Ferry, a town of some 5000 inhabitants, at the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah, and possessed of an arsenal containing from 100,000 to 200.000 stand of arms. The arsenal was easily captured, and 40 or 50 of the principal inhabitants were made prisoners; but instead of retreating at once to the mountains with arms and hostages, as his original design had been-meaning to exchange the hostages for slaves-B. lingered on in the town until the evening, by which time 1500 militiamen had arrived. Next day, an attack was made on his position, which, after some loss of life, was carried. B. was captured, and shortly after was tried for treason, and executed. He is described as a singularly brave and honest man.

BROWN, John (ante), b. Conn., May 9, 1800 ; d. Dec. 2, 1859 ; an abolitionist, celebrated as the originator of the insurrection at Harper's ferry. He was intended for the ministry, but was compelled to give up study on account of inflammation in his eyes. With his family he removed to Ohio, where he worked as a tanner, and engaged in the wool trade, in which he failed. He then went to Essex co., N. Y., and began as a farmer, but in 1854 followed his four sons, who had settled in Kansas, and were sub. jected to much persecution on account of their opposition to slavery. When the free. state men organized to repel the Missourians who were besieging Lawrence, Brown and his sons were among the foremost on the free-state side; and a little later they made a remarkable defense against vastly superior numbers near Ossa wattomie. After many rough adventures in the Kansas troubles, B. formed the project of an insurrection in the south among the slaves as the surest means of securing their liberation. He drilled

a small force in Iowa in the winter of 1857, and the next spring, in Canada, drew up & new provisional constitution for the states, under which

he was selected as commanderin-chief, one of his sons, and Richard Realf and John Kagi, being civil officers. The next important event was the rescue by B. of certain slaves in Missouri who had been sold and were to be taken to Texas, one of the owners of the property being slain in the conflict. Again he went to Canada, returning to the United States in the summer. His attempt to capture the arsenal at Harper's ferry was made on Sunday night, Oct. 16th, 1859. The arsenal was easily seized, several citizens were taken into custody, conspicuous houses were searched for arms, and few of the citizens knew what was going on until mid-forenoon, when they began to rally; some scattered firing followed, one colored man was killed (by Brown's men), the mayor was slightly hurt, and so was one of Brown's sons. There was no sign of a rising of negroes, and before noon Brown and his men were in the arsenal, virtually prisoners. A feeling of rage prevailed so strongly, that a man who came from the arsenal with a flag of truce was instantly killed, and one prisoner was put to death. At night Brown had three unwounded whites and a few useless negroes for his army; one of his sons lay dead, and another was badly wounded. In the morning a force of United States marines arrived, and Brown, fighting desperately to the last, was taken prisoner, being wounded once with a sword, and twice with the bayonet. All of the invaders were indicted for conspiring to incite insurrection, and for murder and treason. After a trial of three days, in which Brown was unable, on account of his wounds, to stand up; he was found guilty, and sentenced to death on the scaffold within 48 hours. He died calmly on the 2d of Dec., 1859. It may safely be assumed that his cxecution hastened the downfall of slavery in the United States. B. was a man of stern and uncompromising moral principle; and though open to the charge of fanaticism, and regarded as justly and necessarily condemned to death under the law, he seems to be increasingly viewed as a martyr and a hero, offering himself in a blind and unconscious sacrifice as an obstacle in the path of a gigantic social and political wrong.

BROWN, JOHN NEWTON, D.D., 1803-68; b. Conn.; a Baptist clergyman who published an Encyclopædia of Religious Knowledge, and Memorials of Baptist Martyrs.

BROWN, John Young. See page 880.
BROWN, JOSEP, E. See page 880.

BROWN, NICHOLAS, 1769-1841; b. R. I.; the chief patron of Brown university, which in 1804 changed its name in his honor from Rhode Island college. In early life he was a member of the house of Brown & Ives, successful merchants. The gifts of Brown to the university reached more than $100,000. He also gave $30,000 to establish an insane asylum in Providence, besides large sums to the athenæum, and to churches, etc.

BROWN, ROBERT, an English clergyman, founder of the sect of Brownists, b. in 1549, the son of Anthony Brown, esq., of Folthorp, Rutlandshire, was educated at Cambridge, and was at first a preacher at Bennet church, then a schoolmaster in Southwark, and a lecturer at Islington. In 1580, he began to attack the order and discipline of the established church, and soon after formed a distinct church on democratic principles at Norwich. Committed by Dr. Freake, bishop of that see, to the custody of the sheriff, he was released from prison through the influence of the lord-treasurer, Cecil, to whom he was nearly related. Having, in 1582, published a controversial work, entitled The Life and Manners of True Christians, with, prefixed, A Treatise of Reformation without Tarrying for Any, he was again arrested, but, through the lord-treasurer's intercession, again liberated. He afterwards formed several con. gregational churches; but, with many of his followers, was obliged to take refuge in Holland. In 1589, he returned to England, reconciled himself to the established church, and became rector of a church near Oundle, Northamptonshire. Of a very violent temper, he was, when 80 years old, sent to Northampton jail, for an assault on a constable, and died in prison in 1630. The Brownists continued, notwithstanding the defection of their leader, to subsist as a separate sect for some time both in Holland (among the English there) and in England. In the former country, they were at last absorbed in, or reconciled to, the Presbyterian church in 1701, in the latter, they may be said to have given birth to the Independents (q.v.), who rose into great importance in the 17th century.

BROWN, ROBERT, an eminent botanist, the son of an Episcopal clergyman, was b. at Montrose, Scotland, Dec. 21, 1773, and educated at Marischal college, Aberdeen. Having studied medicine at the university of Edinburgh, he became, in 1795, ensign and assistant-surgeon in a Scottish fencible regiment, with which he went to Ireland. Devoting himself to the study of botany, he resigned his commissions in 1800, and the following year was, on the recommendation of sir Joseph Banks, engaged as naturalist in the expedition sent out under capt. Flinders for the survey of the Australian coasts. On his return, in 1805, he brought home nearly 4000 species of Australian plants, a large proportion of which were new to science. Soon after, he was appointed librarian to the Linnean society. To the Transactions of the Edinburgh Wernerian society and those of the Linnæan society, he contributed memoirs on Asclepiadeæ and Proteaceæ, and published Prodromus Flora Novæ Hollandiæ et Insulæ Van Diemen's, vol. i. 1810, a supplement to this work appeared in 1830, relating to the Proteacea only. He also wrote the General Remarks, Geographical and Systematical, on the Botany of Terra Australis,

attached to the narrative of capt. Flinders' expedition, 1814. His adoption of the natural system of Jussieu, the French botanist, led to its general substitution in place of the Linnæan method. B.'s numerous memoirs in transactions of societies, and other contributions to botanical science, secured for universal approval the title conferred on him by Alexander von Humboldt of Bottanicorum facile Princeps. In 1810, B. received the charge of the library and splendid collections of sir Joseph Banks, which, in 1827, were transferred to the British museum, when he was appointed keeper of the botanical department in that establishment. In 1811, he was elected F.R.S.; in 1832, D.C.L. of Oxford; and in 1833 was elected one of the 18 foreign associates of the academy of sciences of the institute of France. In 1839, the royal society awarded him their Copley medal for his Discoveries during a Series of Years on the Subject of Vegetable Impregnation. He was president of the Linnæan society from 1849 to 1853. He died in London, June 10, 1858. A collected edition of B.'s works, in 5 vols. 8vo, has been published in Germany.

BROWN, SAMUEL, M.D., son of Samuel Brown (the founder of itinerating libraries, and grandson of the rev. John Brown of Haddington), was b. on the 23d Feb., 1817, and entered the university of Edinburgh in 1832. He took his degree as M.D. in 1839, and immediately surrendered himself to the magical fascination of chemistry. One idea possessed him to the close of his life-the possibility of reconstructing the whole science of atomics. He never, in spite of crushing failures in experiment, abandoned his early conviction that chemical elements, usually considered simple, might be transmuted into each other. In 1843, he delivered in Edinburgh four critical lectures on the atomic theory. During the same year, he became a candidate for the chair of chemistry in the university of that city; but having periled his claims on the experimental success of his fatal theory, and being again doomed to disappointment, he withdrew his application, and devoted himself with a kind of mournful austerity, and with more than the earnestness of a mediæval alchemist, to the solitary work of his laboratory. In 1850 appeared his Tragedy of Galileo, a volume which indicates, but does not embody, the finely imaginative and philosophical genius of its author. B. died of consumption 20th Sept., 1856. His fugitive essays were collected and published after his death; and, though for the most part too comprehensive in their intent, they enable the public to understand why he was held in admiration by men like Hamilton, Ferrier, De Quincey, Wilson, Carlyle, Hare, Jeffrey, and Chalmers.

BROWN, SAMUEL GILMAN, D.D., LL.D., b. Maine, 1813; graduated at Dartmouth college and Andover theological seminary; traveled in Europe; was professor in Dartmouth of oratory and intellectual philosophy; elected president of Hamilton college in 1867, and resigned the position in 1880. Dr. B. published a Life of Rufus Choate ; Biography of Self-Taught Men; etc. He d. 1885.

BROWN, SAMUEL R., D.D., 1810-80; b. Conn. His mother was the author of the familiar hymn, I love to steal a while away. The family removed in early childhood to Monson, Mass. Dr. B., as an American missionary, founded the first Protestant Christian school in China, at which Yung Wing, former member of the embassy from China to the United States, and chief of the educational commission which had 120 Chinese youths in New England schools and colleges, was educated. Graduated from Yale in 1832, Dr. Brown sailed for China, 1838, and was manager of the Morrison Chinese school for boys, at Canton, 1838–47. He was in the United States, 1847-59; and in 1859, was stationed at Yokohama, Japan, as one of the first missionaries. He is translator of the Bible into Japanese, and of several Japanese books; author of Colloquial Japanese, a grammar; Prendergasts Mastery System, adapted to the study of English or Japanese; and of many articles on Chinese and Japanese subjects. He returned to this country in feeble health, in 1879, and died in Monson, Mass.

BROWN, THOMAS, 1663–1704; recognized by Addison as “of facetious memory.” He was a farmer's son, and entered at Oxford, but was obliged, for his wild conduct, to leave college. In London, after trying teaching, he wrote poems, letters, etc., for his bread. His works are witty, but coarse, and often indelicate. He would lose his friend sooner than his joke.

BROWN, THOMAS, a Scottish metaphysician, son of the Rev. Samuel Brown, was b. in 1778, at the manse of Kirkmabreck, Kirkcudbrightshire. After being some time at school in England, he went to Edinburgh in 1792, and for several years attended the lectures of Playfair, Black, Robison, and Dugald Stewart. He began the study of law, but shortly abandoned it for medicine; and having taken his diploma of M.D., in 1803, he became (1806) the partner of Dr. Gregory in his large practice. But his strong bent was for literature and philosophical speculation. At the age of 18. he had published a refutation of Darwin's Zoonomia; was a member of an academy of physics, or society for “the investigation of the laws of nature,” formed in 1797, and embracing the names of Erskine, Brougham. Leyden, Jeffrey, Smith, and others; and contributed at the outset to the Edinburgh Reviero. In 1804, appeared his essay on Cause and Effect, in which he holds that there is nothing in a cause but the fact of immediate and invariable antecedence to the change called its effect. Dugald Stewart, professor of moral philosophy in the university, being obliged, from bad health, to retire in 1810, got Dr. B. appointed



assistant and successor, which office he continued to discharge till his death, in 1820. He was popular as a professor; and his Lectures, published after his death, have gone through a great many editions, though of late they have somewhat fallen out of notice. He also wrote a good deal of poetry, which is now forgotten. Dr. B. attempted to overturn the psychological system of his predecessors, Reid and Stewart, and to substitute a new and simplified scheme of mental phenomena. The greater part of this new philosophy was the production of his first session as professor, the writing of each lecture being begun on the evening previous to its delivery. A philosophic system thus improvised could not but be crude and inconsistent, however acute and imaginative its author might be. B.'s chief contribution to psychology is the establishment of a sixth or muscular sense.

BROWN, ULYSSES MAXIMILIAN; 1705–57; after studying at Limerick, Rome, and Prague, he entered the Austrian army, serving with distinction in Corsica and Italy, and rising rapidly in rank. In 1739, he was field-marshal lieut., and one of the aulic council. He was field-marshal in the seven years' war, repulsed the Prussians at Lowositz, and was mortally wounded in the great battle of Prague.

BROWN, WILLIAM, founder of the free public library at Liverpool, b. at Ballymena, Ireland, in 1784; was educated at Catterick, near Richmond, Yorkshire; and in his 16th year accompanied his parents to the United States. Employed in the counting-house of his father, who was engaged in the linen trade in Baltimore, in a few years he was admitted a partner. Returning to England in 1809, he established a branch of the business at Liverpool, and laid the foundation of one of the largest mercantile firms in the world. Embarking in the American trade, he became an extensive importer of cotton, and by his rare energy, quick business habits, and sterling integrity, soon became distinguished for the magnitude of his dealings. A liberal reformer, he took a prominent part in local and public affairs, and unceasingly promoted the education of the people. In 1844, he contested s. Lancashire upon the anti-corn-law league interest without success, but was returned to parliament for that division of the country in 1846, and was subsequently three times re-elected. A series of letters in defense of free-trade, which, in 1850, he contributed to the Pennsylvanian (Boston newspaper), attracted much Attention. He was also an able advocate for the adoption of a decimal coinage. In 1857, he munificently subscribed £30,000 for the establishment of a free public library At Liverpool, and the noble building erected for the purpose owes its existence entirely to his generosity. He died in 1864.

BROWN, WILLIAM LAWRENCE, 1755–1830; minister of the English church at Utrecht, and successor of his father and uncle. He was also professor of moral phi. losophy and ecclesiastical history in the university, to which was added a professorship of the law of nature. After the French revolution he escaped to England, and at a later period became principal of Marischal college, Aberdeen. In 1800, he was chaplain to the king, and in 1804 dean of the chapel royal. His best known works are Essay on the Natural Equality of Man; On the Eristence of the Supreme Creator; and on the existing religions with regard to their moral tendency.

BROWN COAL, a mineral substance of vegetable origin, like common coal, but differ. ing from it in its more distinctly fibrous or woody formation, which is sometimes so perfect that the original structure of the wood can be discerned by the microscope, whilst its external form is also not unfrequently preserved. In this state, it is often called wood coal; and it sometimes occurs so little mineralized, that it may be used for the purposes of wood, as at Vitry, on the banks of the Seine, where the wood-work of a house has been made of it. From this to the most perfectly mineralized state, it occurs in all different stages. It is often brown or brownish-black, more rarely gray. It burns without swelling or running, with a weaker flame than coal; emits in burning a smell like that of peat, and leaves an ash more resembling that of wood than of coal. Whereever it occurs in sufficient abundance, it is used for fuel, although very inferior to common coal. Bovey coal, so called from Bovey Tracey, in Devonshire, where extensive beds of it occur, and where it has long been wrought, is B. C., and often exhibits the woody structure very beautifully. B. C. occurs in a number of other places in Britain, and more abundantly near Paris, and in Liguria and Hanover, where it forms thick beds in alluvial deposits. The surturbrand (q.v.) of Iceland is regarded as a variety of it. Jet (q.v.), is also sometimes regarded as a variety of brown coal. Although bearing the name coal, B. C. is rather a kind of lignite (q.v.) tlran of coal.

BROWNE, CHARLES Farrar, an American humorist, better known as “ARTEMUS WARD," was b. in Waterford, Me., in 1836, and graduated from the free village school into a printing-office—the American boy's college. As a printer's boy, he worked in all the principal towns in New England, until settled at Boston, where he began to write comic stories and essays. A roving, disposition carried him to the west, and he was engaged as local editor in Toledo, and later in Cleveland, Ohio, where his letters from “Artemus Ward, showman,” a pretended exhibitor of wax figures and wild beasts, first attracted general attention. In 1860, he became a contributor to Vanity Fair, a New York comic weekly paper; and being invited to lecture, soon became very popular and attractive. As a lecturer, in 1863, he visited California, making the overland trip, visiting Salt Lake City, the Mormon capital, and drawing crowds in every town he visited. In 1864, he opened his illustrated lectures on California and Utah in New York, with immense success; and in 1866, was induced to visit England, where he became a contributor to Punch, and gave his lecture on the Mormons in the metropolis, at the Egyptian hall, Piccadilly. But while convulsing crowded audiences with laughter, he was wasting with pulmonary disease. Early in 1867, he went to Guernsey for a milder air, but with no benefit; and was about to embark for America, when he died at Southampton, Mar. 6, 1867. He was tall, slender, with striking features, and a most amiable character, which attracted and attached to him many friends. By his will, after providing for his mother, leaving legacies to his friends, and his library to the best boy in the school of his native village, he left the bulk of his property in trust to Horace Greeley to provide an asylum for printers. · His collected writings, which have had a wide circulation in America and England, are Artemus Ward His Book; Artemu8 Ward among the Mormons; Artemus Ward among the Fenians; and a posthumous collection and biography entitled Artemus Ward in England.

BROWNE, EDWARD HAROLD, D.D., an English bishop, b. 1811; educated at Cambridge, and holding various professorships until in 1864 he was consecrated bishop of Ely. He has published An Exposition of the Thirty-nine Articles; Aids to Faith, etc.


BROWNE, ISAAC HAWKINS, an English poet, 1705–60; educated at Cambridge; then engaging in the law. He was twice chosen to parliament; but his reputation rests exclusively upon his poems, such as Design and Beauty, and The Pipe of Tobacco, in which he imitates Cibber, Pope, Young, Swift, and others, all of whom were living when it was published. De Animæ Immortalitate, a close imitation of Lucretius, was bis most important work.

BROWNE, JOHN Ross, b. 1817; an emigrant from Ireland to the United States when a child. He learned shorthand writing, and became a reporter in the United States senate. Having a desire to travel, he went first on a whale-ship, and on his return published a book of observations in Zanzibar. He next went on government business to California in 1819. Two years later he went as correspondent of a newspaper to Europe, traveling through Italy, Sicily, and Palestine, and giving an account in Yusef. After further service in the north-western territories and on the Pacific coast, he went to Algeria, Iceland, Poland, and Russia, and published The Land of Thor, and An American Family in Germany. In 1869, he published an elaborate report on the Resources of the Pacific Sope. He was minister to China for a short time, appointed in 1868, but recalled two years later. He died in 1875.

BROWNE, Sir Thomas, antiquary and physician, was b. in London, 1605. His father, a merchant, left him an ample fortune, and he was educated at Winchester and Oxford. He began the study of medicine, then traveled over France and Italy, and after taking the degree of M.D. at Leyden, returned and settled (1636) at Norwich, where he contin. ued to practice as a physician. He was knighted in 1671 by Charles II., and died 1682. His chief works are: Religio Medici (1642): Inquiries into Vulgar and Common Errors (1646); and a Discourse on Sepulchral Urns (1648). He wrote also The Garden of Cyrus, or the Quincunxial Lozenge; besides a variety of tracts, published after his death. His writings are highly prized by many for their genial fancy, pleasing quaintness of style, and varied erudition.

BROWNE, THOMAS M. See page 880.

BROWNE, WILLIAM, an English poet, b. 1590, of whose life little is known, save that he was in Exeter college, Oxford, and was a tutor to an earl of Caernarvon. He was of the school of Spenser, and author of Britannia's Pastorals, and The Shepherd's Pipe. He d. about 1645.

BROWNE, WILLIAM GEORGE, 1768-1813; an English traveler, educated at Oxford. He visited Egypt and Sinai in 1793, and tried to go through Abyssinia. In 1800, and later, he traveled in Greece, Asia Minor, and Sicily. In 1812, he proposed to visit Samarcand, and survey unexplored Central Asia. After leaving Teheran in 1813 he was no more heard from, save that the party were attacked by banditti and plundered and Browne was murdered. Thevenot, the French traveler, found and buried what he supposed were his bones.

BROWNELL, HENRY HOWARD, 1820–72; b. Rhode Island; educated at Trinity college, Hartford, and intended for the bar, but devoted himself to teaching and authorship. In 1847, he issued a volume of poems, after which came The People's Handbook of Ancient and Modern History; The Discoverers, Pioneers, and Settlers of North and South America, etc. Near the close of the civil war he was acting ensign on admiral Farragut's staff, and after the war accompanied the admiral to Europe. In 1866 he issued in a volume War Lyrics and other Poems.

BROWNELL, THOMAS CHURCH, D.D., LL.D., 1779-1865; b. Mass.; graduated at Union college in 1804, where he was tutor and professor of chemistry and mineralogy. In 1810, he traveled in England and Ireland; and in 1816 was ordained a minister of the Protestant Episcopal church. In 1818 he was assistant minister of Trinity church in New York city, and in 1819 made bishop of Connecticut. It was under his care that Washington (now Trinity) college was founded, he being the first president. He was the author of The Family Prayer Book, and author and compiler of Religion of the Heart and Life.

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