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perial generals, - when Wallenstein Austria has risen superior to the effects was directing his army of condottieri, of the direst misfortunes, and she may with which he had saved the Austrian do so again. And her triumphs, prohouse, against that house, when ceeding out of failures, have not been Kara Mustapha, at the head of two won over common men or in ordinary hundred thousand Turks, aided by the contests. She has rarely had to deal Hungarians, and encouraged by the with mean antagonists, and her sinI'renclı, laid siege to Vienna, and sent gular victories have been enhanced in his light cavalry to the banks of the value by the high grade of her enemies. Inn, and came wellnigh succeeding Francis I., Sultan Solyman, Gustavus in his undertaking, and would have Adolphus, Wallenstein, Richelieu, Loudone so but for the coming in of John is XIV., Napoleon I., and Kossuth are Sobieski and his Poles, when the conspicuous in the list of her enemies. French and Bavarians, in 1704, had They were all great men, — deriving brought the Empire to the brink of de- greatness some of them from their struction, so that it could be saved on- intellectual powers, others from their ly through the combined exertions of positions as sovereigns, and yet others such men as Eugène and Marlborough, from both their positions and their pow

when almost all Continental Europe ers of mind. Yet she got the better of that was possessed of power directed them all,* and some of them fell miserathat power against the Imperial house immediately after the death of Charles * As it is generally assumed that Richelieu got

the better of the Empire in that contest which he VI., last male member of the line of

waged with it, perhaps some readers may think we Hapsburg, — when Napoleon 1. de- have gone too far in saying he was one of those stroyed an Austrian army at Ulm, and antagonists of whom the Austrian family got the

better; but all depends upon the point of view. took Vienna, and beat to pieces the

Richelieu died when the war was at its height, and Austro-Russian army at Austerlitz, did not live to see the success of his immcdiate poliwhen the same Emperor took Vienna cy; but what he did was only an incident in a long

contest. The old rivalry of the house of Valois and the second time, in 1809, after a series

the house of Austria was continued after the former of brilliant victories, wonderful even in was succeeded by the house of Bourbon. Richelicu his most wonderful history, and won did but carry out the policy on which Henry IV. had

determined ; and when the two branches of the Aus. the victory of Wagram, and allowed

trian family had united their powers, and it seemed the Austrian monarchy to exist only that the effect of their reunion would be to place because he thought of marrying a

Europe at their command, the great Cardinal-Duke

had no choice but to follow the ancient course of daughter of its head, — when Hunga

France. But the contest on which he entered, rians, Italians, Germans, and others of though in one sense fatal to his enemy, was not deits subjects were in arms against it, in cided in his time, nor till he had been in his grave 1848 – 49,- - when Montebello and Pa

more than sixty years. He died just before the be.

ginning of the reign of Louis XIV., and that moniestro were followed by Magenta and arch took up and continued the contest which RicheSolferino, – the condition of the house lieu may be said to have renewed. For an unusually

long period the Bourbons were successful, though of Austria was nearly as low as it is

without fully accomplishing their purpose.

From to-day, and on some of these occasions

the battle of Rocroy, in 1643, to the battle of Blenprobably it was even more reduced heim, in 1704, France was the first nation of Europe, than it is at present.

Men were ready

and the Bourbons could boast of having humiliated

the Hapsburgs. They obtained the crowns of Spain in 1529, in 1552, in 1619, in 1632, in and the Indies; and the Spanish crowns are yet worn 1683, in 1704, in 1741, in 1805, in 1809, by a descendant of Louis le Grand, while another in 1849, and in 1859 to say, as now

family reigns in France. But Spain and her de

pendencies apart, all was changed by the result at they say, that the last hour of the for- Blenheim, The Austrian house was there saved, tunate dynasty was about to strike on and re-established ; and it was there that the policy

of Richelieu had its final decision. The France of the clock of Time, forgetting all its

the old monarchy never recovered from the disasters carlier escapes from the last conse- its armies met with in the War of the Spanish Sucquences of defeat, recollection of which cession; and when Louis XV. consented to the mar

riage of his grandson to an Austrian princess, he would have enabled them to form bet

virtually admitted that the old rival of his family ter judgments. On a dozen occasions

had triumphed in the long strise. The quarrel was successor directed against the Dutch: Yet against this reliance on her luck the latter were the champions of libby Austria must be placed the wonder- erty ; but the opponents of the Spanful changes that have come over the ish Hapsburgs even in that war can world since those times when it was in hardly be called the people. They were the power of a government like the at least the animating and inspiritAustrian to exert a great influence on ing portion of them the old Dutch the course of events. Down to the municipal aristocracy, who on most octime of the French Revolution, Aus- casions were well supported by the peotrian contests were carried on against ple. Down to a time within living memnations, governments, and dynasties, ory, the German Hapsburgs contended and not against peoples. Even the only against their equals in blood and wars that grew out of the Reformation birth, if not always in power. In 1792 again renewed in the days of the Republic, main- by diverting the Hapsburgs from impracticable tained under the first French Empire, and had its schemes, and throwing them upon their hereditary last trial of arms under the second Empire, in possessions, Richelieu really helped them ; and in so 1859; but the old French monarchy gave up the sar his policy was a failure, as he sought to lessen the contest more than a century ago. Besides, we are power of the house of Austria, which in his time to distinguish between the German Empire and the ruled over Spain, as well as in Germany, Bohemia, house of Hapsburg that ruled from Vienna. The Hungary, and other countries. It is intimated by Peace of Westphalia (1648) left the Germanic Em- some European writers, that the Austrian fainily will perors in a contemptible state, but the effect of it once more turn its attention to the East, and, giving was highly favorable to these Emperors considered up all thought of regaining its place in Germany, as chicfs of the Hapsburg family. " Placed on the seek compensation where it was found in the seveneastern verge of Germany," says Mr. Bryce, “the teenth century, after the Peace of Westphalia. But Hapsburgs had added to their ancient lands in Aus- what was possible two hundred years ago might be tria proper and the Tyrol new German territories found impossible to-day. Russia had no existence far more extensive, and had thus become the chiefs as a European power in those days, whereas now of a separate and independent state. They endeay- she has one of the highest places in Europe, and a ored to reconcile its interests and those of the Em- very peculiar interest in not allowing Austria, or any pire, so long as it seemed possible to recover part of other nation, to obtain possession of countries like the old imperial prerogative. But when such hopes the Roumanian Principalities, the addition of which were dashed by the defeats of the Thirty Years' to his empire might afford compensation to Francis War, they hesitated no longer between an elective Joseph for all that he has lost in the south and the crown and the rule of their hereditary states, and

bly because of her enmity to them, were in no strict sense of a popular as Wallenstein and Napoleon. Freder- character, but were waged by the great ick the Great was in some sense an ex- of the earth, who found their account in ception, as he accomplished most of his being champions of progressive ideas, purposes at her expense; and yet it - the liberalism of those days. Alcannot with propriety be said that he most all the renowned anti-Austrian conquered her, or that, at the utmost, leaders of the Thirty Years' War were he was ever more than the equal of kings, nobles, aristocrats of every grade, Maria Theresa or Joseph II., with all most of whom, we may suppose, cared his undoubted intellectual superiority. as little for political freedom as the When we compare the Austria of 1813 Hapsburgs cared for it. Gustavus with the Austria of 1809, and see how Adolphus could be as arbitrary as Ferwonderfully fortune had worked in her dinand II., and some of his most arfavor under circumstances far from dent admirers are of opinion that he promising anything for her benefit, we fell none too soon for his own reputaare not surprised that Austrians should tion, though much too soon for the still be full of confidence, or that a few good of Europe, when he was slain on other men should share what seems to the glorious field of Lutzen. The most be in them a well-founded hope. A remarkable of all the wars waged by belief in good luck sometimes helps men the Austrian house against human to the enjoyment of good luck, and if rights was that which Philip II. and his men, why not nations ?

It is one of the infelicities of Austria's posicomforted themselves thenceforth in European poli- tion, that she cannot make a movement in any directics, not as the representatives of Germany, but tion without treading on the toes of some giant, or as heads of the great Austrian monarchy." (The on those of a dwarf protected by some giant who Holy Roman Empire, new edition, p. 355.) Thus, intends himself uitimately to devour him.


a new age began. The armies of Revo- slaves. The ground which the people lutionary France were even more demo- have gained in fifty years' course they cratic than our own in the Secession have no intention of giving up, rather war, and not even Napoleon's imperi- meaning to strengthen it and to extend it. alizing and demoralizing course could This is the reason why Austria cannot entirely change their character. De- very hopefully look for a revival of her mocracy and aristocracy, each all armed, power, as it so often revived after defeat were fairly pitted against each other, in in old days, and under an entirely difthat long list of actions which began at ferent state of things from that which Jemappes and terminated at Solferino. now exists.

A power has come into The Austrian army, like the Austrian existence such as she has never been government, is the most aristocratic accustomed to deal with, and of which institution of the kind in the world, and her statesmen have no knowledge. An as such it was well ranged against the Austrian statesman is scarcely more adFrench army, the only great armed dem- vanced than a Frenchman of the time ocratic force Europe had ever seen of Louis Quatorze ; and we verily betill the present year. Democracy had lieve that Louvois or Torcy would be the better in most of the engagements quite as much at home in European that took place, though it had ever to politics at this moment as Mensdorff or fight hard for it, the Austrians rarely Belcredi. Had they been well informed behaving otherwise than well in war. as to the condition of the times, they The Prussian army that did such great never would have so acted as to bring things last summer was conscribed from about the late war. It was their selithe people to an extent that has no par- ance on the ability of mere governallel since the French Republic formed ments to settle every question in disits armies; and it broke down the aris- pute, that caused them to plunge into a tocratical force of Austria as effectively conflict with Prussia and Italy, when as Cromwell's Ironsieles, — who were their master's empire was bankrupt, enlisted and disciplined yeomen, and when more or less of discontent exbroke through, cut down, and rode isted in almost every part of that emover the high-born Cavaliers of Eng- pire. Statesmen who knew the age, land. Now what Austria's army en- and who were aware of the change that countered when it met the French and has come over Europe in half a century, Prussian armies, the Austrian govern- would have told the Emperor that to ment has to encounter in the manage- rely on "something turning up,” after ment of affairs. In the old diplomatic the ancient Austrian custom, would not school, Austria could hold her own answer in 1866, and that peoples as with any foe, or friend either, -- the well as princes had much to do with latter the more difficult matter of the the ordering of every nation's policy; two. There seldom have been abler and with every people Austria is unmen in their way than Kaunitz and popular. It is not difficult now to unMetternich, but they would be utterly derstand that Francis Joseph had a useless were they to come back and

profound reliance on Napoleon III., take charge of Austrian diplomacy, so that he believed the Frenchman would changed is the world's state. And their prevent his being driven to the wall, successors are of their school, with abili- and that Prussia would be the greatest ties far inferior to theirs. The people sufferer by the war, as she would be have now to be consulted, even when forced to part with the Rhine provinces. treaties are arranged and political com- His mistake with respect to France was binations made. Such a parcelling out not a great one, as the French saw the of countries as was so easily effected at triumph of Prussia with much bitterVienna in 1815 would no more be pos- ness of feeling, and gladly would have sible now, than it would be to get up joined the Austrians; but the mistake a crusade, or to revive the traffic in he made in regard to Germany was very great, and shows that he and his ad- joined her, and insisted on having a visers knew nothing of Germanic feel- part in the very business that offended ing. If they could thus err on a point the Germans as much as it disgusted that was plain to every intelligent for- foreigners. Thus a state of things was eigner, how can we expect them to brought about which made a German exhibit more intelligence and more war inevitable, while Austria was desense with respect to the new state of prived of all aid from abroad. Engthings proceeding from the event of land's sympathies were with Austria, the war? If they could not compre- as against Prussia ; and yet England hend matters of fact at the beginning had been shabbily treated by Austria of last June, why should we conclude in respect to the duchies, and it was that they will be Solomons hereafter ? impossible for her either to forget or Brought face to face with a new state forgive such treatment. France had of things, they so proceeded as to con- less cause to be offended; but Napovince all impartial observers that they leon III. could not have approved of were wellnigh as ignorant of what had action which seemed to be taken in been going on among men, as the disregard of his high position in EuSeven Sleepers were when roused from rope, and was calculated to advance their long slumber. But for this, un- the ends of Prussia, - the power least less we assume that they were fools, respected by the French, — and which not only would they not have admitted finally made of that power the destroywar to be possible, but they never er of the settlement of 1815,* a part would have allowed the coming about the Emperor had intended for himof such a state of things as led to the self. Having acted thus unwisely, and dispute with Prussia. The entire ac- having no support from Russia, Austion of the Austrian government with tria should have avoided war in 1866, reference to the affairs of Germany, for at any cost; and it was in her power several years, was admirably calculated to avoid it down to the time that she to lead to what has taken place this made the German Diet so proceed as year. That government, had it been to furnish Prussia with an excellent wise, never would have acted with Prussia in the matter of the Danish

* Prussia, the most thoroughly anti-Gallican of all

the parties to the Treaty of Vienna, completed the duchies. It would have insisted on

work of overthrowing the “detested " arrangements the fulfilment of the arrangement that

made by the framers of that treaty. The federal

act creating the Germanic Confederation was incor. was made years before, in which case

porated in the work of the Congress of Vienna, and it would have been supported by the was guaranteed by eight European powers, whole power of France and England, France, England, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, Austria


Spain, and Portugal. Prussia destroyed the Confedand not improbably by that of Russia ;

eration without troubling herself about the wishes and and against so great an array of force, opinions of the other seven parties to the arrangePrussia, even if backed by the opinion

ment of 1815. That all those parties to that arrange

ment were not always indifferent to their guaranty of Germany, never would have thought

appears from the opposition made by Russia, France, of contending, — and some of the Ger- and England to Prince Schwarzenburg's proposition,

that Austria 'should be allowed man governments would have sided

introduce all her

non-Germanic territories into the Confederation, with the allies, and would have behaved

that is to say, that the Austrian Empire, which then much more efficiently than they did in included the Lombardo-Venetian kingdom, should the late war. Prussia would have been become a part of Germany, which it would soon

have ruled, as well as overruled, while it would have isolated, as France was in 1840 ; and

extended its dominion over all Italy. Had Schwarthat party which was opposed to Bis- zenburg's project succeeded, the course of European marck's policy would have obtained events during the last sixteen years must have been control of her councils, the effect of

entirely changed, or Austria would have been made

too strong to be harined by the French in Italy, or which would have been to preserve by the Prussians in Germany and Bohemia. Russia peace, the very thing that was most was specially adverse to that project; and the Treaty

Innecessary to Austria's welfare.

of Vienna was forcibly appealed to by her govern

ment in opposing it. The time had not then come stead of opposing Prussia, Austria for making waste-paper of the arrangements of 1815.

reason for setting her well- prepared not to the extent that is supposed; for armies in motion against the ill-pre- she is not strong enough at this time pared forces of her foe. Noting the to be a powerful ally of Russia as folly of Austria, and observing that the against Turkey, or of England in supFrench government, if M. de Lavalette's port of Turkey. She has parted with circular can be depended upon as an her old importance; for there is no expression of its sentiments, is all for further hiding from the world that her peace, we can see no opening for that system is vicious, and that nothing renewal of warfare in Europe which could be gained from an alliance with the defeated party is said to desire, as her, while any country with which she an ally of France, in the expectation that should be associated would have to she might recover the place she so extend to her much support. She may lately lost. The reopening of the East- rise again, but how, or in what manern Question, of which much is said, ner, it is not in any man's power to might afford some hope to Austria, but say.

RECONSTRUCTION. ?7Enig THE assembling of the Second Ses

the national councils who deliberate

with daggers and vote with revolvers, may very properly be made the occa- and who do not even conceal their sion of a few earnest words on the al- deadly hate of the country that conready much-worn topic of reconstruc- quered them; or whether, on the other tion.

hand, we shall, as the rightful reward Seldom has any legislative body been of victory over treason, have a solid the subject of a solicitude more intense, nation, entirely delivered from all conor of aspirations more sincere and ar- tradictions and social antagonisms, dent. There are the best of reasons based upon loyalty, liberty, and equalfor this profound interest. Questions ity, must be determined one way or the of vast moment, left undecided by the other by the present session of Conlast session of Congress, must be man- gress. The last session really did nothfully grappled with by this. No politi- ing which can be considered final as cal skirmishing will avail. The occa- to these questions. The Civil Rights sion demands statesmanship.

Bill and the Freedmen's Bureau Bill Whether the tremendous war so he- and the proposed constitutional amendroically fought and so victoriously end- ments, with the amendment already ed shall pass into history a miserable adopted and recognized as the law of failure, barren of permanent results, the land, do not reach the difficulty, and a scandalous and shocking waste of cannot, unless the whole structure of blood and treasure, -a strife for em- the government is changed from a govpire, as Earl Russell characterized it, ernment by States to something like a of no value to liberty or civilization, despotic central government, with powan attempt to re-establish a Union by er to control even the municipal regu. force, which must be the merest mock- lations of States, and to make them ery of a Union, - an effort to bring conform to its own despotic will. While under Federal authority States into there remains such an idea as the right which no loyal man from the North of each State to control its own local may safely enter, and to bring men into affairs, - an idea, by the way, more VOL. XVIII. - NO. 110.


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