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was coming has been matter for laugh- being sacrificed to the ambition of her ter for more than three hundred years. brother Charles, for she was attached Had her agonizing prayers for offspring to the Count Palatine. Becoming a been heard, what a change would have widow, she was compelled to give her been wrought in human destinies, even hand to that popular rascal, Francis I. had the child' lived to be no older of France, when her brother wished to than Edward VI.! The second son strengthen the treaty he made with his of Philip the Fair and Juana was Ferdi- “good brother” at Madrid, and which nand, named from his maternal grand- the Frenchman had arranged to disfather, Ferdinand the Catholic, king regard even before he signed it. The of Aragon. He was the founder of the second sister, Isabella, married ChrisGerman branch of the house of Aus- tian II., king of Denmark, when she tria, the younger branch, which has was but fourteen, and died at twentylong survived the elder branch, though four. Mary, the third sister, became now it exists only in the female line, the wife of Louis II., king of Hungary and really is the house of Lorraine. and Bohemia, and last of the YagelFerdinand became Ferdinand I., Em- lons. The fourth sister, Catherine, peror of Germany, and he did far more married John III., king of Portugal. than was done by his elder brother to It was the marriage of the third sister, keep up the character of his family for Mary, that, in connection with his own making much through marriage. In marriage, had the greatest effect on the 1522, when but nineteen, he married fortunes of her brother Ferdinand, as his Anne Yagellon, princess of Hungary wife was the sister of Louis 11., Mary's and Bohemia, – a marriage that might husband. Louis was defeated by the not have proved very important, but Turks at the battle of Mohacz, in 1526, that death came in and made it so, and lost his life while flying from the and also the births that came from it, field. Ferdinand claimed the crowns as will presently appear. Charles and of Bohemia and Hungary, as Louis left Ferdinand had four sisters, and they no children, and he was chosen king all four made great marriages, three of in both countries; and though he diswhich were very useful to the Austrian owned all other rights to the Bohehouse. The eldest of these ladies, El- mian throne than that of the election, eanora, was married to Emanuel, king it is certain he never would have been of Portugal, - a man old enough to be elected by either nation had he not her father, with some years to spare,

married the sister of Louis, and had mation. Fortunately, he failed to become Emperor,

not Louis married his sister. All these and during a portion of his tíme the imperial throne

marriages, and other events that carwas occupied by the best of all the Hapsburg sovereigns, – the wise, the tolerant, the humane, and

ried the power of the house of Austria the upright Maximilian II., who was the last man to the greatest height, took place only in Europe likely to give him any aid in the prose- thirty-three years after the death of cution of his vast tyrannical schemes. Besides, there was a sort of coolness between the two branch

Frederick III., and some of his cones of the great family, that was not without its effect temporaries may have lived to witness on the world's politics. Seldom has it happened them all. that a more important event has occurred than the election of Ferdinand as King of the Romans.

The marriages of the house of Ausare not to measure what might have been done by tria since the sixteenth century have Philip II. as Emperor, by what was done by Charles

not been so important as they were in V.; for Charles was a statesman, a politician, and, down to his latter years, when his health was utterly

that century, but they have not been gore, he was no fanatic; but Philip was a fanatic

without influence on events, in exceponly, and a fierce one too, with a power of concen. tional cases.

The marriage of Marie tration such as his father never possessed.

Antoinette and the French prince who the contest between the Catholics and the Protestants was a far more serious onc in Philip's time than

became Louis XVI. was fruitful of reit had been in that of Charles, which alone would sults; and the marriage of Napoleon have sufficed to make bis occupation of the imperial

1. and Marie Louise, by causing the throne, had he occupied it, a matter of the last importance.

French emperor to rely on Austrian



aid in 1813, had memorable conse- Germany, Leopold I.; and, considerquences. Louis XIII. and Louis XIV. ing that both were intensely Catholic, married Austrian princesses of the his application ought to have been faSpanish branch; and the marriage of vorably received; but the reigning EmLouis XIV. and Maria Theresa led peror had little difficulty in showing to the founding of that Bourbon line that it was not in his power, as assurwhich reigns over Spain, though the edly it was not for his interest, to help main line has ceased to reign in the exiled king, — who was an exile France. The greatness of the house only because of his attachment to that of Austria in the seventeenth century ancient Church through which alone, is visible only in Germany, after the as Leopold believed, salvation could be death of Philip IV. of Spain. The secured. He went with the heretical German Hapsburgs had a powerful William III. England, indeed, has been influence in the seventeenth century, the bulwark of the German Hapsburgs playing then great parts, but often find- on many occasions, and has saved ing themselves in danger of extinction them on more than one occasion from before their Spanish cousins had run overthrow; and she did her best to out.*

They were the rivals of the aid even the Spanish branch in its last French kings of that century, and Louis years, and then exerted herself to secure XIV. was talked of as a candidate for that branch's possessions for its relathe imperial throne. The course of tions at Vienna. It was English miliEnglish politics had a very favorable tary genius that saved the Emperor effect on the fortunes of the Haps- Leopold I. from destruction.t When burgs, the same conduct that gave most of Continental Europe showed supremacy to Protestantism and con- itself hostile to the Austrian house stitutionalism in Great Britain work- after the death of Charles VI., Enging most favorably in behalf of that land was the fast friend of Maria family which, for ten generations, has Theresa, his daughter, and aided her to been identified with everything that is get over difficulties that seemed about bigoted and intolerant in religion and to overwhelm her; and it was the fault politics. James II., after his fall, im- rather of Austria than of England that plored assistance from the Emperor of the two countries did not act together in the Seven Years' War, when Eng- any of the Allies to be, except England was, as it were, forced into the land and Prussia. The effect of this Prussian alliance, and helped Frederick pertinacity, and of her decisive part in win his astonishing victories. Austria 1813, was to secure for her a degree came out of that memorable contest of consideration altogether disproporwithout having accomplished the pur- tioned to her real power. Men took pose for which she entered it; but she her for what she appeared to be, not had displayed great power during its as she was. In truth, very little was course, and in the last half of the reign known of her condition, and the few of the empress-queen, her reputation who were aware of her weakness were stood very high. Joseph II., though interested in keeping their knowledge he declared that he had failed in every- to themselves. The grand effort which thing, impressed himself very power- she made in 1809, single-handed alfully on the European mind, and was most, to break the power of Napoleon, counted a great sovereign. No com- was everywhere looked upon as somemon man could have entertained the thing alike herculean and heroical, and projects that crowded his teeming mind, as such it is spoken of in all those hisand which came to little in most in- torical works from which most readers stances because they were in advance obtain knowledge of the early years of of the time.

* The main line of the German Hapsburgs ended in 1619, with the death of the Emperor Matthias. He was succeeded by Ferdinand II., grandson of Ferdinand I., and son of that Archduke Charles who was sometimes spoken of in connection with the possible marriage of Elizabeth of England. Out of Ferdinand Il.'s elevation grew a new union of the entire fainily of Hapsburg. During the long ascendency of the Cardinal-Duke of Lerma in the Spanish councils, temp. Philip III., the breach betwcen the two branches, which had been more apparent than real, and yet not unimportant, was made complete by the minister's action, the policy he pursued being such as was highly displeasing to the German Hapsburgs, who had relapsed into bigotry. Philip III. set up pretensions to Hungary and Bohemia, as grandson of Maximilian II. Ferdinand, who was not yet cither emperor or king, got rid of Philip's pretensions by promising to resign to him the Austrian possessions in Swabia. This led to the fall of Lerma, and to the reunion of the two branches of the Austrian house, but for which it is probable Ferdinand II might have been beaten in the early day of the Thirty Years' War. It was to Spanish aid that Ferdinand owed his early triumphs in that contest; and many years later, in 1634, the great victory of Nordlingen was gained for the Imperialists by the presence of ten thousand Spanish infantry

in their army, - that infantry which was still the first military body in Europe, not then having met with the disaster of Rocroy, which, however, was near at hand. This was a kind of Indian-summer revival of Spanish power, and at the beginning of the new alliance between Madrid and Vienna, "there appeared,” says Rankė, “ a prospect of founding a compact Spanish hereditary dominion, which should directly link together Milan with the Netherlands, and so give the Spanish policy a necessary preponderance in the affairs of Europe.” Richelieu spoilt this fine prospect just as it seemed about to become a reality, and the Spanish Hapsburgs gradually sank into insignificance, and their line disappeared in 1790, on the death of Charles II., the most contemptible creature that ever wore a crown, and scarcely man enough to be a respectable idiot. Such was the termination of the great Austro-Burgundian dynasty that was founded by Charles V., - at one time as majestic as "the broad and winding Rhine," but again, like the Rhine, running fast to insignificance.

t If the house of Austria was not in the greatest danger it ever experienced in 1704, its members and officers could affect to feel all but absolutely desperate. The following letter, written in queer GermanFrench, by the Imperial Minister near the English court, Count John Wenceslaus Wratislaw, to Queen Anne, conveys an almost ludicrous idea of the fright

this century; but now we know from During the tremendous struggle that other sources, and particularly from the proceeded from the French Revolution, Diary of Gentz, that she never was in Austria was almost always in the fore- worse state than she knew in the days ground, and next to England showed of Eckmühl, Essling, and Wagram. greatest powers of endurance in com- Reading what Gentz wrote in the ten bating the new order of things. Six weeks that followed Wagram, we feel times she made war on France, and as if we were reading of the twenty though in four of these wars she was days that followed Sadowa. But of this beaten, she had the fortune to decide nobody outside of the empire seems the event of the fifth, — that of 1814-15; to have known or suspected anything; and in 1815 she was as active against and the number of persons in the emNapoleon as circumstances permitted pire who knew it, or suspected it, was

not large. Even Napoleon, who was under which the Austrian chiess suffered: - “Ma

on the ground, and who had the coundame, Le soussigné envoyé extraordinaire de sa Majesté Impériale ayant représenté de vive voix

try more at his control than it was at en diverses occasions aux ministres de votre Ma- that of Francis II., seems to have been jesté la dure extremité dans laquelle se trouve

entirely ignorant of the true state of l'Empire, par l'introduction d'une armée nombreuse

affairs. He could have “crumpled up” de François dans la Bavière, laquelle jointe à la revolte de la Hongrie met les païs héréditaires de Austria with ease, and have made half sa Majesté Impériale dans une confusion incroyable, a dozen kingdoms or grand duchies de sorte que si l'on n'apporte pas un remède prompt et proportionné au danger présent, dont on est me

of the spoils he had seized, — and yet nacé, on a à craindre une revolution entière, et une he talked to General Bubna, and to destruction totale de l'Allemagne." Luckily for others of the Austrian negotiators, as Austria, Marlborough was a man of as much moral

if he considered Austria the greatest as physical courage, and he took the responsibility of leading his army into Germany, -a decision that, nation in Europe, and sure swiftly to perhaps, no other commander of that time would recover from the consequences of the have been equal to, -and by the junction of his

blows he had dealt her. He actually forces with those of Eugène was enabled to fight and win the battle of Blenheim (Blindheim), which spoke of the ability she would secure put an end to the ascendency of France. Emperor to decide the future fate of Europe, and Leopold was positively grateful for the services therein was a prophet of his own ruin. Marlborough rendered him, and treated him differently from the manner in which he had treated Sobi- It is possible that there may have been eski for doing him quite as great a favor. He wrote some affectation in what he said, but him a letter with his own hand, gave him a lordship in fee, and made him, by the title of Mindelhcim, a

there was as much sincerity, for there Prince of the Holy Roman Empire.

is a great deal in the history of his career that shows he had a high opin- that, having been beaten down by ion of Austrian power. When Europe Prussia, it never will be able to rise was settled, after his fall, Austria ac- again. This is the reaction against quired the right to stand between Eng- the sentiment that prevailed so generland and Russia, as their equal; and ally at the beginning of last summer, down to 1848 she was the superior of just before the first blood was drawn in both France and Prussia. The events that war which proved so disastrous to of 1848-49 did not essentially lessen her Austria. In America, as in England, prestige, and she had a commanding not only was it assumed that the Ausplace during the Russian war. Even trians had the better cause, but that the her defeats in the Italian war did not better chances of success were clearly lead to any serious loss of considera- with them. Black and yellow would tion, and against them was set the distance black and white, and the twostriking fact that the victorious French headed eagle would tear and rend the had halted before the Quadrilateral, and single-headed eagle, thus affording anactually had begged for peace from the other proof that two heads are better vanquished.

than one. Now, all is changed. In We know how deceptive were all England, opinion is setting almost as appearances in regard to Austrian strongly Prussiaward as it did in strength ; but it was in the power of 1815, though the Prussians and the Austrian statesmen to convert what Prussian government have made no was simply apparent into a solid real- apologies for those ungracious acts ity. Had they been wise men, they against Englishmen which it was the would, during the long peace that fol- fashion to cite as evidence of the dislowed 1815, have made of Austria a like borne to the islanders by the counstate as powerful in fact as the world trymen of Bismarck. Captain Heehaw, believed her to be. Nothing could of the Coldstreams, who thought have been easier, as her undeveloped really, ’pon honor — that the Prussians resources ever have been vast; but would not be able to look half their they did nothing of the kind, their sole number of Austrians in the face, has aim being to get over the present, with- wheeled about, converted by the fast out any regard for the future. Her- flashes of the needle-gun ; and the galmayr says of Thugut, who was chief lant Captain, who would fight like an Austrian minister in the closing years Achilles should opportunity offer, is of the last century, that “his policy a fair type of his fellows. There is knew neither virtue nor vice, only ex- a complete change of front. The Engpedients”; and these words describe lish are countermarching and will thie policy of Metternich completely, take up their former ground, -- if they and, with perhaps a little modification, have not already taken it, - that on they describe that of all his successors. which they stood when their ParliaSo that when the Prussian war came, ment thanked Blücher and his PrusAustria was in the same state that she sians for helping Wellington and his was in 1809, — seemingly very strong, Britons strike down Napoleon and the actually very weak; and she fell in a French. Prussia now means a united month, with a great ruin, much to the Germany, to be ruled by the house of astonishment of almost all men. But Hohenzollern, whose head is an old the difference between 18c9 and 1866 is king of threescore and ten years, and this, that the light let into Austria who must, in the regular course of through chinks made by the Prussian things, soon be displaced by a bold bayonet will prevent the game of decep- young prince, whose brows are thickly tion from being renewed.

covered with laurels gathered on the It is assumed by most persons, field of Sadowa, and whose wife is the that the house of Austria has at last eldest child of Queen Victoria. Why reached the turn of its fortunes, and should not Protestant England rejoice with Protestant Prussia, and see her standing " with England, vice France successes with gladness? Sure enough; discarded, it will be because she is not and English joy over the prodigious disposed to an English alliance, or bePrussian triumph of last summer ought cause her fortunes shall have undergone to be the most natural thing in the a change, and rendered her unworthy of world. But we cannot forget what was being courted. That ancient connection the color of English opinion down to of England and Austria, dating from the time when it was demonstrated by the time that the Bourbons became the logic of cannon that the Prussian dangerous to Europe, and which was cause was perfectly pure, and that it so often alluded to in the time of the was to fly in the face of Providence to Italian war, and in the days that imquestion its excellence. If ever a man mediately preceded the German conwas hated in England, Count Bismarck fict, is thought little of by Englishhad the honor of being thus hated. men, who prefer to think of Pitt's conAnd it was an honor; for next to the nection with Frederick when the latter love of a great people, their hatred is was threatened with annihilation by the best evidence of a man's greatness. Austria. Prussia has not only beaten Napoleon in 1807 was not more detest- the Austrian armies ; she has coned by Englishmen than Bismarck in quered English prejudices, — much the 1866. The obnoxious Prussian states- more difficult task of the two. man was not even respected, for he The Austrians must be amused by had done nothing to command the re- the change that has come over the spect of enemies.

From the tone in English mind; but with their sense which he was talked of, it was plain of the satire which that change may that the English considered him to be be said to embody, there is possibly a mischievous, malicious, elfish sort of mingled the reflection that their case, creature, who could not do anything bad as it is, is not so bad as to deprive that would deserve to be considered them of hope. Looking back over the great, but who did his utmost to make history of the house of Austria, there himself and his country the nuisances is much in it to allow the belief that of Europe. Books have been made possibly it may again rise to the highfrom English journals to show how ex- est place in Europe. That house has traordinarily they berated this coun- often fallen quite as low as we have try during the Secession war, because seen it fall, and yet it has not passed Americans were so brutally perverse away, but has renewed its life and and so selfishly silly as not to submit strength, and has taken high part in their country's throat to the Southern effecting the punishment, and even the sabre for the benefit of Britain, which destruction, of those who might have condescends to think that our national destroyed it. When Matthias Corexistence is something not altogether vinus held Vienna, — when that city compatible with her safety. But a col- was besieged by the great Solyman, lection made from the same journals whose troops marched as far to the of articles assailing Prussia in general, west as Ratisbon, — when Charles V. and Count Bismarck in particular, would fled before Maurice of Saxony, “lest be even richer than anything that has he might one fine morning be seized in been collected to show English sympa- his bed,” — when Andrew Thonradtel thy with gentlemen who were fighting took Ferdinand II. by the buttons of valiantly to establish that “better kind his doublet, and said, “Nandel, give of civilization” which is based on slav- in, thou must sign ” (a paper containing ery. All is now changed toward Prus- the articles of the union of the Austrisia, as most has been changed toward an Estates with the Bohemians, which us for twenty months, ever since the Ferdinand refused to sign, and never fall of Richmond. If Prussia should signed), — when Gustavus Adolphus not soon establish a “cordial under

was beating or baffling all the Im

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