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aristocrats are the most prudent and thought that his party could be suscautious of men. The governments pected of approving the conduct of they form and control wash and wear Captain John Brown at Harper's Ferwell, and bid defiance to what Bacon ry. Down to the spring-time of 1860, calls “ the waves and weathers of it required, on the part of the American time."

slaveholding interest, only a moderate There is some truth in this. Aris- display of that prudence which is said tocracies are cautious and prudent, and

to be the chief virtue of an aristocindisposed to risk present advantage racy, to secure all they possessed, in the hope of future gain. Therefore which was all the country had to give, aristocratical polities often attain to and to prepare the way for such . great age, and the nations that know gains as it might be found necessary to them attain slowly to great and firmly- make, as the American nation should placed power. Rome and Venice and increase in strength. But this pruEngland are striking examples of these dence the slaveholders would not distruths. Yet it is not the less true that play. They' annoyed and insulted the aristocracies sometimes do behave with people of the Free States. They broke a rashness that cannot be paralleled up the Democratic party, which was from the histories of democracies and well disposed to do their work. They despotisms. It has been the fortune pursued such a course as compelled of this age to see two examples of this the great majority of the American rashness, such as no other age ever people to take up arms against them, witnessed or

ever could have wit-, and to abolish slavery by an act of war. nessed. The first of these was pre- The effect was the fall of a body of sented in the action, in 1860 - 61, of men who certainly were very powerful, the American aristocracy. The second and who were believed to be very wise was that of the Austrian aristocracy, in their generation. It was impossible in 1866. The American aristocracy - to attack them as long as they were the late slavocracy

was the most true to their own interests, and they powerful body in the world; so power- could fall only through being attacked. ful, that it was safe against everything They made war on the nation, and the but itself. It had been gradually built nation was forced to defend herself, and up, until it was as towering as its destroyed them. It is the most wonderfoundations were deep and broad. Not ful case of suicide known to mankind. only was it unassailed, but there was The Austrian aristocracy behaved alno disposition in any influential quar- most as unwisely as the American arister to assail it. The few persons who tocracy. As the Republic of the United did attack it, from a distance, pro- States is a union of States, which in duced scarcely more effect adverse reality was governed by the slaveholdto its ascendency, than was produced ers down to 1861, so is the Austrian by the labors of the first Christians Empire a collection of countries, govagainst the Capitoline Jupiter in the erned by a few great families, at the days of the Julian Cæsars. Abolition- head of which stand the imperial famists were annoyed and insulted even in ily, the House of Austria, or, as it the course of that political campaign is now generally called, the House of which ended in the election of Mr. Hapsburg-Lorraine. That aristocracy Lincoln to the Presidency; and not a might have prevented the occurrence few of the victors in that campaign of war last summer, by ceding Venetia were forward to declare, that between to Italy; and that it did not make such their party and the “ friends of the cession early in June, when we know slave" there was neither friendship it was ready to make it early in July, nor sympathy. One of the most emi- but plunged into a contest which, acnent of the Republicans of Massachu- cording to the apologists for its terrisetts declared that he felt hurt at the ble defeat, it was wholly unprepared to

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wage, speaks but poorly for its pru- ever be written in a manner propordence, though that is claimed to be tioned to its importance, a large part the virtue of aristocracies. The Aus- of the work would have to be given trian aristocrats behaved as senselessly to the marriages made by various in 1866 as the Prussian aristocrats in princes of the house of Austria ; for 1806, but with less excuse than the those marriages had prodigious effect latter had. By their action they caused on the condition of the best portions their country's degradation. From the of the human race, and in the sixteenth rank of a first-rate power that country century it seemed that they were about has been compelled to descend, not to bring, not only most of Europe, but so much through loss of territory and nearly all America, a large part of Asia, population as through loss of position. and not a little of Africa under the rule For centuries the house of Austria has of one family, and that family by no been very powerful in Europe, though means superior to that of Valois or the the Austrian empire can count but Plantagenets. The extraordinary luck sixty years. Rudolph of Hapsburg; of the house of Austria in turning the first member of his line who rose marriage into a source of profit was to great eminence, in the latter part early remarked; and in the latter part of the thirteenth century, founded the of the fifteenth century, long before house of Austria. While holding the the best of the Austrian matrimonial imperial throne, he obtained for his

alliances were made, Matthias Corviown family Austria, Styria, Carinthia, nus, the greatest of Hungarian kings, and Carniola ; but it was not till sey- wrote a Latin epigram on the subject, eral generations after his death, and in which was even more remarkable as a the fifteenth century, that the imperial prediction than as a statement of fact; dignity became virtually, though not for it was as applicable to the marriage in terms, hereditary in the Hapsburg of Napoleon I. and Maria Louisa, and line. For several centuries, down to to that of Philip the Fair and Juana the the extinction of the office, there was Foolish, as it was to that of Maximilian no Emperor of Germany who was not and Mary.* It is from the Styrian line of that family. Every effort to divert of the Austrian house that all princes the office from that house ended in of that house who have reigned for failure. The consequence was, that four centuries and upward are dethe house of Austria became the first scended. Ernest, third son of that of reigning families ; and at one time Leopold who was defeated and slain it seemed about to grasp the scep- at the battle of Sempach by the Swiss, tre of the world. When the Empire became master of the duchies of Styceased to exist, the Austrian empire, ria, Carniola, and Carinthia. He was though of later creation than the French conpire of Napoleon I., had that ap- * The following is the epigram of Matthias Corvipearance of antique grandeur which has

“Bella gerant alii; tu felix nube ! su great an effect on men's minds. It

Nam quæ Mars aliis dat tibi rcgna Venus." vas looked upon as ancient because Which Mr. Stirling thus renders :tie imperial family really was ancient, “Tight those who will ; let well-starred Austria wed, and could trace itself back through al

And conquer kingdoms in the marriage-bed."

Some other hand has given the following tianslation, bost twelve hundred years, to the

or rather amplification, of thc cpigram :sixth century, though in places the

“Glad Austria wins by Hymen's silken chain tracing was of the most shadowy char- What other states in doubtful battles gain, acter. It profited from the greatness

And while fierce Mars enriches mcaner lands,

Receives possessions from fair Venus' hands." of the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth, sev

There would seem to be an end of these fortunate enteenth, and eighteenth centuries, marriages, no member of the Austrian imperial greatness which is among the most ex

fanily being now in condition to wed to much profit.

The Emperor Francis Joseph, who is yet a young traordinary things recorded in history.

man, took to wise a Bavarian lady, said to be of Should the history of royal marriages extraordinary beauty, in 1854; and he has a daugh

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a pious prince, and made a pilgrimage would have thought of going. This to Palestine, after the superstitious strong-handed as well as strong-mindfashion of his time. He was a quarrel- ed couple, who were both paired and some prince, and kept himself in a matched, must be taken as the real state of perpetual hot water with his founders of that house of Austria brother. He was an amorous and a which has been so conspicuous in the chivalrous prince, and, having lost his history of Christendom for almost four first wife, he got him a second after a centuries, though they and their deknightly fashion. Having heard much scendants built on the broad and solid of the material and mental charms of foundations established by Rudolph of the Princess Cymburga, a Polish lady Hapsburg and his earlier descendants, who had the blood of the Yagellons Some authorities say that Cymburya in her veins, he went to Cracow in brought into the Hapsburg family that disguise, found that report had not thick lip " the Austrian lip”. exaggerated her merits, and, prudently often mentioned in history; but othmaking himself known, proposed for ers call it the Burgundian lip, though her hand, and got it. But Cymburga the marriage between Maximilian (Cynwas not only very clever and very burga's grandson) and Mary of Burbeautiful : she was a muscular Chris- gundy (Charles the Bold's daughter) tian in crinoline, for hoops were did not take place till 1477 ; and the known in those days among the Poles, ducal Burgundian family was only a or might have been known to them, branch of the French royal line of and if they were, no doubt Cymburga, Valois. It was no addition to the like American ladies of to-day, had the beauty of the imperial family, no matsense and taste to use them. She ter to whom that family was indebted had such strength of fist that, when she for it. It is certain that it appeared had occasion to drive a nail into any- in the Emperor Frederick III., son of thing, she dispensed with a hammer; Ernest and Cymburga, and father of and she economized in nut-crackers, that Emperor who, when an archduke, as some independent people do in the married the Burgundian duchess, if item of pocket-handkerchiefs, by us- such Mary can be called; for Menzel, ing her fingers. One would think that who must have seen portraits of him, Ernest would have hesitated to woo and who knew his history well, speaks and wed a lady who was so capable of of him as “a slow, grave man, with a carrying matters with a high hand; but large, protruding under-lip." then he was a very strong man, and This Frederick was

singular charwas surnamed “The Iron," so that acter. He had the longest reign he could venture where no other man fifty-three years of all the German

Emperors, and it may be said that he ter, who was born in 1856, the same year with the founded the house of Hapsburg, conFrench Prince Imperial, whom she might marry, that the two are children. Besides, marriages between

sidering it as an imperial line. Yet French princes and Austrian princesses have turned he is almost invariably spoken of conout so badly on two memorable occasions, within less

temptuously. Menzel says that no than a century, that even the statesmen of Vienna and Paris might well be excused if they were to

Emperor had reigned so long and done think a third alliance quite impossible.

so little. Mr. Bryce declares that unapparent to the Austrian throne is but eight years der him the Empire sank to its lowest old. The Emperor's next brother, Ferdinand Maximilian, - well known in this country as Emperor of

point. Even Archdeacon Coxe, who the Mexicans, - made a good marriage, his wife be- held his memory in respect, and did ing a daughter of the late Leopold I., King of the his best to make out a good character Belgians. She has labored with zeal to found an

for him, has to admit “ that he was a imperial dynasty in Mexico, but the task is beyond human strength. The imperial system fell in Mexi- prince of a languid and inactive characco on the same day that Richmond fell into the ter," and to make other damaging adhands of General Grant, The fortunes of the Aus

missions that detract from the exceltrian prince and those of Mr. Davis were bound up together, and together they fell.

lence of the elaborate portrait he has


The heir

drawn of him. There was something Spanish branch of the house of Ausfantastical in his favorite pursuits, tria, with all her immense American, astrology, alchemy, antiquities, alpha- African, and Asiatic colonial possesbet-making, and the like, — which the sions. For years, Philip II. was more men of an iron age viewed with a powerful in France than any one of her contempt that probably had much to sovereigns could pretend to be. Freddo with giving him that character erick's prediction, therefore, came to which he has in history, contemporary pass almost literally, and was less an opinion of a ruler generally being ac- exaggeration than St. Luke's assertion cepted, and enduring. “A species of that a decree went forth from Cæsar anagram," says the English historian Augustus that all the world should be of his family, “ consisting of the five taxed. As Augustus was lord of nearly vowels, he adopted as indicative of the all the world that a man like St. Luke future greatness of the house of Aus- could consider civilized and worth govtria, imprinted it on all his books, erning, so might an Austrian writer carved it on all his buildings, and en- of the sixteenth century declare that graved it on all his plate. This riddle the Hapsburgs ruled over wellnigh all occupied the grave heads of his learned the world that could be looked upon contemporaries, and gave rise to many as belonging to the Christian.commonridiculous conjectures, till the important wealth, including not a little that had secret was disclosed after his death by been stolen from the heathen by Chrisan interpretation written in his own tians. hand, in which the vowels form the in- It was by marriage that the Hapsitials of a sentence in Latin and Ger- burgs became so great in so short a man, signifying, “The house of Austria time. Frederick III. married Eleanor, is to govern the whole world.' ? * Not- a Portuguese princess, whose mother withstanding the archidiaconal sneer, was of the royal house of Castille. Frederick III.'s anagram came quite Portugal is not even of second rank as near the truth as any uninspired now, and the Braganças are not in the prophecy that can be mentioned. In first rank of royal families. But in the little more than sixty years after the fifteenth century Portugal stood relaEmperor's death, the house of Austria tively and positively very high, and the ruled over Germany, the Netherlands, house of Avis was above the house Naples, Sicily, the Milanese, Hungary, of Austria, though a king of Portugal Bohemia, the Spains, England and was necessarily inferior to the head of Ireland (in virtue of Philip II.'s mar- the Holy Roman Empire. This marriage with Mary I., queen-regnant of riage did not advance the fortunes of England), the greater part of America, the Austrian family, though it confrom the extreme north to the extreme nected them with three other great south, portions of Northern Africa, families, the reigning houses of Porthe Philippines, and some minor pos- tugal, Castille, and England, the Prinsessions; and it really ruled, though cess Eleanor having Plantagenet blood. indirectly, most of that part of Italy, But the son of Frederick and Eleaoutside of the territory of Venice, that nor, afterward the Emperor Maximilian had nominally an independent exist I.,* married Mary of Burgundy in 1477, Before Holland's independence

* Mr. Bryce credits Maximilian I. with the foundwas fully established, but after the con

ing of the Austrian monarchy. “Or that monarnection with England had ceased, Por- chy," he observes, “and of the power of the house tugal passed under the dominion of the of Hapsburg, Maximilian was, even more than

Rudolph his ancestor, the founder. Uniting in his * We give the imperial anagram:

person those wide domains through Germany which

had been dispersed among the collateral branches of Erdreich

his house, and claiming by his marriage with Mary





of Burgundy most of the territories of Charles the Orbierreich

Bold, he was a prince greater than any who had


sat on the Teutonic throne since the death of supreme in Europe, and over much of the rest of the case in that respect. Philip the Fair

which "gave a lift” to his race that weakness of kings, and of many of the enabled it to increase in importance at sovereign people too, When living in a very rapid rate. Mary was in pos- Spain he had many amorous advensession of most of the immense domin- tures; and his wife, who had brought ions of her father, which he had in- him so great a fortune that she thought tended to convert into a kingdom, had she had an especial claim on his fidelhe lived to complete his purpose. His ity, became exceedingly jealous, and, success would have had great effect on being a dague en jarretière lady, as bethe after history of Europe, for he would came one who was born to reign over have reigned over the finest of coun- Andalucia, killed her faithless husband, tries, and his dominions would have - not by stabbing him, but by giving extended from the North Sea to Prov. him poison. This was in 1506, when ence, - and over Provence so power

husband and wife were but twenty-eight ful a sovereign would have had no dif- and twenty-four years old, and had been ficulty in extending his power, — which but ten years married. There were two done, his dominions would have been sons and four daughters born of this touched by the Mediterranean. Louis marriage, all of whom made imporXI. of France got hold of some of tant marriages. The eldest son was Mary's inheritance; but the greater the man whom Mr. Stirling calls “the part thereof she conveyed to Maxi- greatest monarch of the memorable sixmilian. She died young, leaving a son teenth century," — Charles V., Emperor and a daughter. The son was Philip of Germany, and the Spanish Charles I. the Fair, who in 1496 married Juana, He founded the Spanish branch of the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, house of Austria, the elder branch.* king of Aragon, and queen of Castille, He married Isabella of Portugal, and and heiress of the Spanish monarchy, their son was Philip II., who added which had come to great glory through Portugal to the possessions of the the conquest of Granada, and to won- Austrian family, and one of whose derful influence through the discovery wives was Mary Tudor, queen of Engof the New World, - events that took land, the Bloody Mary of fire-and-fagot place in the same year, and but a short memory; and Philip gladly would have time before the marriage of the Aus placed Mary's sister Elizabeth in his trian archduke and the Peninsular half - vacant bed. The marriage of princess. This marriage, useful and Philip and Mary was barren, and poor brilliant as it was to the house of Aus- Mary's belief that a “ blessed baby” tria, turned out bitterly bad to the par- * The division of the house of Austria into two ties to it, - and it is not an isolated branches, which alone "prevented it from becoming

world, took place in 1521. After the death of their was a very handsome fellow, as became

grandfather, Charles and Ferdinand possessed the his designation, or rather whence his Austrian territories in common, but in 1521 they

made a division thereof. Ferdinand obtained Ausdesignation came ; but on the princi

tria, Carinthia, Carniola, and Styria, and, in 1522, ple that "handsome is that handsome the Tyrol, and other provinces. In 1531 he was does,” he was one of the ugliest of chosen King of the Romans, which made him the

successor of Charles as Emperor. How Charles men, He was guilty of gallantry, the

came, not merely to consent to his election, but to

urge it, and to effect it in spite of opposition, when Frederick II. But it was as Archduke of Aus- he had a son in his fourth year, is very strange. tria, Count of Tyrol, Duke of Styria and Carinthia, The reasons commonly given for his course are by feudal superior of lands in Swabia, Alsace, and no means suficient to account for it. Many years Switzerland, that he was great, not as Roman Em- later he tried to undo his work, in order to obtain

For just as from him the Austrian monarchy the imperial dignity for his son ; but Ferdinand begins, so with him the Holy Einpire in its old held on to what he possessed, with true Austrian meaning ends." (The Holy Roman Empire, pp. tenacity. Had Charles kept the imperial crown for 343, 344.) Mr. Bryce's work is one of the most val- his son, as he might have done, Philip's imperial posiuable contributions to historical literature that have tion must have sufñced to give him control of the civappeared in this century, and great expectations are lized world. He would have made himself master entertained from the future labors of one so liberally of both France and England, and must have rendered endowed with the historic faculty.

the Reaction completely triumphant over the Refor


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