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first time into official relations with the committed to his charge a ring, bidding British government, by accepting the him deliver it to Rajah Brooke as a office of confidential agent in Borneo. dying memento, and to tell him that We have already alluded to his warm he died faithful to his pledges to the love of his native country. As early as Queen; then, setting fire to a keg of 1841, he had expressed a willingness to powder, he blew himself with his family sacrifice his large outlays, and to relin- into the air. quish all his rights and interests to the These tidings filled Mr. Brooke with crown, if a guaranty could be given that grief and indignation. Every passion piracy would be checked and the native of his fiery and energetic nature was races protected in all their proper rights aroused. He repaired on board the and privileges. He accepted gladly, British feet, which, upon receipt of this therefore, a post which promised to in- news, had put into Sarawak. Without crease his power to benefit his people, delay the feet sailed for Bruni. An and entered upon its duties with vigor. immediate explanation was demanded Immediately upon his appointment, he of the Sultan. The reply was a volley was requested to make investigations from the forts which commanded the as to the existence of a harbor fit for river. Without ceremony the ships the shelter and victualling of ships returned the fire. In a brief time these bound from Hong-Kong to Singapore. strongholds were stormed, and Bruni He reported that Labuan, a small island itself was at the mercy of the enemy. north of Borneo, was in every way suit- The Sultan fled to the swamps. Sailable ; that it was about equidistant ing out of Borneo River, the fleet swept from the two parts; that it had a fine along the whole northern coast, taking harbor, or rather roadstead ; that it was in rapid succession the forts of the Illahealthy; that it abounded in coal of the num pirates who had instigated the best quality; that, finally, the Sultan murders at Bruni, and inflicting upon stood pledged to convey it upon rea- them a signal chastisement. sonable terms.

By this time the Sultan wearied of But before legal papers could be jungles and sighed for his palace. He drawn, the whole policy of the court of wrote a cringing letter, promising amendBruni had changed. The Sultan was a ment, agreeing to ratify all his former monarch with “the head of an idiot engagements, and as a sign of his true and the heart of a pirate.” Al his sym- penitence was ready even to pay royal pathies were with violence and robbery. honors to the memory of the men whom Under the influence of others, he had he had slain. There was no further agreed to use his power against piracy, difficulty in respect to the cession of and had even been brought to say, in Labuan, and it was taken possession of, fawning phrase, that "he wanted the December 24, 1846, – Mr. Brooke being English near to him.” But he sud- appointed governor. It is said that the denly repented of his good purposes. possession of this island goes far to In a fit of Oriental fickleness he caused make England mistress of the Chinese Muda Hassim and all who favored the Sea, - a statement easily to be credited English alliance to be put to death, by any one conversant with English despatched a messenger secretly to ad- policy. At any rate, he who observes minister poison to Mr. Brooke, and en- how, at apparently insignificant statered into even closer friendship than tions, -- on little islands, on a marshy before with the piratical tribes. A con- peninsula, - mere dots on the map, fidential servant of Pangeran Budru- England has established her commerdeen, the brother of Muda Hassim, cial depots, — at Hong-Kong in the with difficulty escaped, and fled to Sara- north, at Labuan in the centre, and wak. He related that his master had at Singapore in the south, — will gain bravely resisted, but, overpowered by new respect for the sagacity which in the numbers and desperately wounded, bad councils of the mother country always lurks behind the red-tapism of which and work. He has been termed a we hear so much.

mere adventurer. He has been ac

cused of avarice, of wringing from the After an absence of nine years, Rajah natives great sums, and receiving from Brooke revisited England in the year England large salaries as Consul at 1847. He was the hero of the hour. Borneo and as Governor of Labuan. Every honor was showered upon him. It has been asserted that he has been He was invited to visit Windsor Castle, guilty of wholesale slaughter of the received the freedom of London, and innocent, interfering with tribal wars then or soon after was knighted. Ow- under the pretence of extirpating piing to his representations of the readi- racy. None of these charges have been ness of the Dyaks to receive instruc- sustained. On the contrary, it has been tion, a meeting was held in London, at conclusively shown that he has sunk which funds were obtained to build a more than £ 20,000 of his private forchurch and school-houses. Two mis- tune in this enterprise. The piracy, so sionaries and their families were sent mildly called intertribal war, is undoubtto Sarawak. The buildings were erect- edly robbery, both on the sea and on ed long since, and these Christian means the land, and conducted with all fitting are in full activity. Brooke's language accompaniments of cruelty and bloodupon the proper qualifications of a shed. This persecution has not been missionary exhibits in a striking light borne by its object with much patience, his straightforward resolution and en- and, indeed, like Rob Roy's Highlandlarged liberality. “ Above all things, I er, “he does not seem to be famous for beg of you to save us from such a one that gude gift.” “I am no tame lion to as some of the committee desire to see be cowed by a pack of hounds. These at Sarawak. Zealots, and intolerants, intertribal wars are such as the wolf and enthusiasts, who begin the task of wages against the lamb. I should like tuition by a torrent of abuse against all to ask the most peaceable man in Engthat their pupils hold sacred, shall not land what he would do if a horde of come to Sarawak. Whilst our endeav- bandits frequently burst forth from ors to convert the natives are conduct Brest and Cherbourg, ravaging the ed with charity, I am a warm friend of shores of the Channel, and carrying the mission. But whenever there is a women and children into captivity, with departure from the only visible means the heads of their decapitated busGod has placed at our disposal, — time, bands and fathers ? Would he preach? reason, patience, - and the Christian Would he preach when he saw his faith is to be heralded in its introduc- daughter dishonored and his son murtion by disturbances and heart-burnings dered? And then would he proclaim and bloodshed, I want it not; and you his shame and cowardice among men ? are quite at liberty to say, that I would What do some gentlemen expect? rather that the mission were with. They particularly desire to suppress drawn."

piracy. Do they really imagine that pi

racy is to be suppressed by argument About the year 1850, Mr. Brooke and preaching ?” became the object of a virulent at- Mr. Brooke's enemies have three tack, continued several years, both in times pressed their accusations before the public prints and in Parliament. the House of Commons, and three Prompted originally by the petty mal- times have been defeated by overice of those whose tool for the ad- whelming majorities, — the last vote vancement of their personal schemes being 230 to 19. Finally, to end the he had refused to become, this at- controversy, a royal commission was tack was taken up by a few persons appointed to visit the scene of these of influence, who seem to have mis- transactions, and upon the spot to understood utterly both his character decide their merits. The report of


this commission has not reached us, deaths by violence were of almost daily if indeed it has ever been made pub

Twelve years later, a resilic; but the practical results of it are dent could boast that for three years certain. Mr. Brooke has severed his only one person had lost his life by official connection with the British gov- other than natural causes. How would ernment by a resignation of the offices American cities appear in comparison which he held under it; while he re- with this poor Dyak and heathen metains his sovereignty at Sarawak, with tropolis ? Well does Rajah Brooke the undiminished love of his subjects proudly ask, “ Could such success and an unimpaired influence over the spring from a narrow and sordid polnative tribes. There seems to be no icy?” Mrs. McDougall, the missiondoubt that the intelligent public opin- ary's wife, says: “We have now a beauion of England fully sustains him. And tiful church at Sarawak, and the bell it is safe to predict that with that opin- calls us there to worship every mornion the final verdict of history will co- ing at six, and at five every evening. incide. That, placed in circumstan- Neither is there anything in this quiet, ces of great difficulty, he may have happy place to prevent our thus living taken steps not to be squared with the in God's presence.” nicest morality, is possible; for that is Mrs. McDougall adds a story which what must be said of every man who shows the estimation in which the nahas borne the burden of great public tives hold their Rajah. “Pa Jenna paid responsibility. Neither is it surprising me a visit at Sarawak. The Rajah was that a man of such boldness of speech then in England. But Pa Jenna, comand such almost Cromwellian vigor in ing into my sitting-room, immediately action should have enemies; that is a espied his picture hanging against the necessity. But that he has been a true wall. I was much struck with the exand sagacious friend of the natives, and pression of respect which both the face that his career has been for the in- and attitude of this untutored savage crease of human happiness, are facts as assumed as he stood before the picture. certain as any can be.

He raised his handkerchief from his His best defence is his works. In head, and, saluting the picture with a 1842, when he took the government of bow, such as a Roman Catholic would Sarawak, it was a feeble province, torn make to his patron saint's altar, whisby dissension, crushed by slavery, and pered to himself, “Our great Rajah.?” ravaged by lawless violence. Now it is And this man was a reclaimed pirate. a peaceful, prosperous commonwealth. This reverential love of the natives In 1842, its capital, Kuching, was a is the one thing which does not admit wretched village, whose houses were of a doubt. The proofs are constant miserable mud huts or tents of leaves, and irresistible. Some years since a and containing but fifteen hundred in- lady with a few attendants was pushing habitants. Now it numbers fifteen her boat up a Bornean river, many thousand, an increase almost rival- leagues away from Sarawak, when she ling that of our Western cities. In 1842, encountered a wild Dyak tribe on a no boat put to sea without terror. As warlike expedition. The sight of more a result, the amount of trade was con- than a hundred half - naked savages, temptible. Now Sarawak has enter- crowning a little knoll which jutted prising native merchants, owning ves- into the river a half-dozen rods in adsels of two hundred tons, having regu- vance of her boat, dancing frantically lar transactions with Singapore and all like maniacs, brandishing their long the neighboring ports. This trade, as knives, and yelling all the while like early as 1853, employed twenty-five demons, was not cheering. Yet at the thousand tons of shipping, and the ex- sight of the Sarawak flag raised at the ports for the year were valued at more bow of the boat, every demonstration than a million of dollars. In 1842, of hostility ceased.

She was


powered by their noisy welcome, and live. Under a peaceful rule, this race received from them the kindest atten- had greatly multiplied at Sarawak. tion. A dozen years ago, at the very Some branches of industry had indeed time that the accusations of cruelty and almost fallen into their hands. Eswholesale slaughter of innocent peo- pecially in all mining operations was ple were most recklessly made, a party their help a positive necessity. For of Englishmen, and among them the the Dyak, though industrious enough adopted son of the Rajah, went on an on his little plantation, will not work, exploring expedition to the extreme except on compulsion, in the mines. northeast corner of Borneo, more than These places are bitter to him with six hundred miles from Sarawak. While the memory of forced labor and unrethey were seated one evening around quited misery. Besides, he believes their fire, the whole air resounded that the bowels of the earth are filled with the cries, “Tuan Brooke! Tuan with demons, and no amount of pay Brooke!” and presently the natives gives him courage to face these. As drew near and expressed their joy at a result, the conduct of the mines was seeing a son of the great Rajah, and left to the Chinese, and they were unwondering that he who had so blessed wisely permitted to work them in large the southern Dyaks did not extend his companies of several hundred, under protection to their northern brethren. their own overseers. This gave them One anecdote more. During the Chi

During the Chi- the advantages of a compact organizanese insurrection, of which we shall tion : to a dangerous degree they besoon speak, a Malay chief, fighting came a state within the state. desperately against the insurgents, was When the war in China broke out, mortally wounded, only lingering long the Chinese residents at Sarawak, symenough to be assured of the Rajah's pathizing with their countrymen, were victory, and to exclaim with his dying naturally greatly excited ; and when breath, “I would rather be in hell with tidings came that the English fleet had the English, than in heaven with my been repulsed from before the Canton own countrymen.”

forts, they were emboldened to take

the desperate step of attempting to The loyalty of the native population put to death or to drive out of the was thoroughly tested in the year 1857. country Rajah Brooke and the rest of It was the time of the second British the English people, that they themwar against China. Now the Chinese selves might take possession of it.

one sense th most cosmopoli- About dusk on a February night, six tan of races. Wherever bread is to be hundred of them gathered under their won, or gold amassed, there they go, chiefs, armed themselves, went thus becoming scattered all through board cargo-boats, and began to float Southeastern Asia and the adjoining down the river towards the capital. islands. In one aspect they are a great At midnight they attacked the Rajah's blessing. They are a most laborious house. Its inmates were forced to flee and thrifty race, of almost incalculable to the jungles. The Rajah rose from benefit in the development of the ma- a sick - bed, ran to the banks of the terial resources of a country. But in stream, dove under one of the Chinese some respects they are also an element boats, swam the river, and took refuge of danger. They never identify them with the Malays. Several of his counselves with the country in which they trymen were murdered. His own house, dwell. They simply come to get a liv- filled with the priceless collections of a ing out of it. They band themselves lifetime, together with a costly library, in secret societies or other exclusive was burned. organizations, and seem to get no real It was a gloomy morning which suclove for the land which gives them ceeded the night of this catastrophe. bread, or the people among whom they Though he did not doubt for a moment



the ultimate suppression of the rebel- population, a forlorn and wearied remlion, what ruin might not be wrought nant of two thousand took refuge in the in the few days or weeks which should Dutch part of the island. This lamenelapse before that event! And where, table destruction was the result neither now that he had been driven from his of the order nor the permission of the capital, he should find a base of oper- Rajah. It was accomplished by the unations to which he might gather the reasoning fury of an outraged people. scattered native forces, was the per- In a few days the formidable insurrecplexing question of the hour, — when, tion was ended. The places of the injoyiul sight, he beheld a merchant surgents were filled as rapidly as they steamer sailing up the river ! He had been vacated. Scarcely a trace hailed her, went on board, and with a was left of the ravages of the rebellion ; sufficient force steamed up to Sarawak. and it accomplished nothing, save to With his appearance the last vestige of convince all doubters that the governhope for the insurrection disappeared. ment of the province rested, as all

Meanwhile stirring events had taken stable government must rest, on the place. At first the natives were good-will of the subject. stunned. They were roused at dead At the height of the insurrection a of night, to find the Chinese in pos- striking incident occurred. While their session of the town, their Rajah's house brethren were being hurled in utter in flames, the Rajah missing, while the confusion across the Dutch borders, rumor was that he had been killed. several hundred Chinese fled from those For a time they wandered about list- very Dutch territories and sought reflessly, vacantly staring each other in uge in Sarawak. Though harassed by the face, and it seemed as though they care, the Rajah did not neglect their were about to submit without a strug- appeal, but sent trustworthy men, who gle. In the midst of this gloom and piloted them safely through the inuncertainty, up spoke a Malay trader, censed Dyaks, who on their part by no whose veins, despite his peaceful oc- means appreciated the virtue of such cupation, were full of the old pirate a step, but thought rather that every blood : “Are we going to submit to be who wore a tail” ought to be governed by these Chinese, or are we put to death, though they bowed to the going to be faithful to our Rajah ? I better judgment of their chief. am no talker, but I will never be governed by any but him, and to-night I The latest accounts represent the commence war to the knife with his province as continuing in a state of enemies.” This broke the spell. Both unabated prosperity. Its bounds, by Malays and Dyaks, in city and coun- more recent cessions, have been so try alike, rose en masse, and after a se- largely increased, that its shore line is vere fight, prolonged till the reappear- now three hundred miles long, and the ance of Mr. Brooke, drove the Chinese whole population of the state two hunto the forests, and pursued them with dred and fifty thousand. The haunts unrelenting fury. Many of the insur- of the Sarebus and Sakarran pirates gents perished by the sword. Níany are included in the new limits; and niore wandered about till they died of these once-dreaded freebooters have starvation. Some threw themselves learned the habits of honest industry. down in their tracks, expiring from fa- Indeed, during the days of the insurtigue and utter wretchedness. Some rection the state found no more faithful liung themselves to escape their misery. or courageous defenders than they, alIn despair and exasperation, they even though their old corsair blood was visturned their arms against each other. ible in the relentless tenacity with which Of the six hundred who made the origi. they tracked the flying foe. Sir James nal attack, sixty escaped. Of the four Brooke, with increasing years, has rcthousand who composed the Chinese tired somewhat from the active care of VOL. XVIII. — NO. 110.


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