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sic, as a relief from writing poetry, But enough; a volume of such memoyet when death happens we are all randa would be far short of what such taken by surprise, just as if we thought a man deserves when he is finally transGod had overlooked his aged servant, lated. Faithful among the faithless, or made him an exception to the greatmay we not hope that his grandeur inflexible law of our being; or as if a and strength of purpose, and downwhisper had reached us, saying, “If I right, fearless honesty, will have their will that he tarry till I come, what is appropriate reward, both here and herethat to thee?"

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FF the southeastern extremity of sides, the absence of all just and sta

Asia, and separated from it by ble government has reduced society the Chinese Sea, lies a cluster of great to a state of chaos. And to all this islands, comprising that portion of must be added piracy, from time imOceanica commonly called Malaysia. memorial sweeping the sea and ravOf these islands Borneo is the most aging the land. Under such circumextensive, and, if you call Australia a stances, if there were little opportunicontinent, it is by far the largest island ty for commerce, there was none for in the world. Situated on the equa- scientific investigations ; and only by tor, stretching from 7° of north to 4° the enterprises of commerce or the of south latitude, and from 108° to 119° researches of science do we know of of east longitude, its extreme length is new and distant countries. 800 miles, its breadth 700, and it con- Many races inhabit Borneo; but the tains 320,000 square miles,

Malays and Sea and Land Dyaks greatseven times as great as that of the pop- ly preponderate. The Malays, who ulous State of New York.

came from continental Asia, are the But though its size and importance conquering and governing race. In are so great, though it was discovered their native condition they are indoby the Portuguese as early as 1518, lent, treacherous, and given to piracy. though several European nations have The very name Malay has come to at various times had settlements on stand for cruelty and revenge.

But its coasts, though it is rich in all the well governed, they prove to be much products of a tropical clime, and in like other people, susceptible to kindbase and precious metals, diamonds ness, capable of affection, amiable, fond and stones, and though its climate, to excess of their children, and courcontrary to what might have been ex- teous to strangers. The Sea Dyaks are pected, is in many localities salubri- piratical tribes, dwelling on the coasts ous even to an American or European or borders of rivers, and subsisting constitution, yet until recently almost by rapine and violence. The Land nothing was known by the world of Dyaks are the descendants of the its surface, its products, or its inhab- primitive inhabitants. They are itants.

mild, industrious race, and remarkably The causes of this ignorance are ob- honest. One hideous custom, that of vious. The very shape of Borneo is preserving the heads of their fallen unfavorable to discovery. A lumpish enemies as ghastly tokens of victory, mass, like Africa and Australia, the has invested the name of Dyak with ocean has nowhere pierced it with a reputation of cruelty which is not dethose deep bays and gulfs in which served. This singular practice, origicommerce delights to find a shelter nating, it is said, in a superstitious deand a home. And though it has navi- sire to propitiate the Evil Spirit by gable rivers, their course is through bloody offerings, has in process of time the almost impenetrable verdure of become connected with all their ideas the tropics, and they reach the sea of manly prowess.

The young girl amid unwholesome jungles. The coast, receives with proud satisfaction from moreover, is in most places marshy her lover the gift of a gory head, as and unhealthy, for the distance of the noblest proof both of his affection twenty or thirty miles inland ; while and his heroism. This custom is wothe interior is filled with vast forests ven, too, into the early traditions of and great mountain ranges, almost the race. The Sakarrans tell us that trackless to any but native feet. Be their first mother, who dwells now in


heaven near the evening star, asked the commands of their nominal superior of her wooer a worthy gift; and that but a scanty obedience. For two cenwhen he presented her a deer she re- turies Borneo Proper has been steadily jected it with contempt; when he of- settling into anarchy and barbarism. fered her a mias, the great orang. With a government both feeble and outang of Borneo, she turned her back despotic, it was torn by intestine wars, upon it ; but when in desperation he crushed within by oppression and ravwent out and slew a man, brought aged without by piracy, until commerce back his head, and threw it at her and agriculture, the twin pillars of the feet, she smiled upon him, and said state, were equally threatened, and not that was indeed a gift worthy of her. one element of ruin seemed to be wantThis legend shows, at any rate, how ing. What evidence of decay could be fixed is this habit, not alone in the more striking than the simple fact that passions of the people, but also in their Bruni, its capital, which in the sixteenth traditional regard. Yet, strange as it century was crowded with a population may seem, they are an attractive race. of more than two hundred thousand A missionary's wife who has known souls, had in 1840 scarcely fourteen them well declares that they are gen- thousand inhabitants ? tle and kindly, simple as children, disposed to love and reverence all who To one corner of this wasting emare wiser and more civilized than them- pire came, twenty-five years ago, a selves. Ida Pfeiffer concludes that the young Englishman. Simply a gentleDyaks pleased her best, not only among man, he had no governmental alliances the races of Borneo, but among all the to help him, and no advantages of any races of the earth with which she has sort for founding empire, except such come in contact. And a cultivated as sprang from the possession of a Englishman, with wealth and social sagacious mind, an undaunted temper, position at command, has been so at- and a heart thoroughly in sympathy tracted to them, that he has lavished with the oppressed. Alone he has both his fortune and his best years in built up a flourishing state, introduthe work of their elevation.

The so

cing commercial activity and the habcial condition of the Dyaks has been its of civilized life where only oppressufficiently wretched. Subjected to the sion and misery were, and has achieved Malays, they have been forced to work an enterprise which seems to belong in the mines without pay, while they rather to the days of chivalry than to were liable at any moment to be a plodding, utilitarian age, - an enterrobbed of their homes, and even of prise which, in romance and success, their wives and children. “ We do but not in carnage, calls to mind the not live like men,” said one of them, deeds of the great Spanish captains with great pathos. “We are like mon- in the New World. keys, hunted from place to place. We James Brooke, the second and only have no houses, and we dare not light surviving son of Thomas Brooke, a gena fire lest the smoke draw our enemies tleman who had acquired a fortune in upon us."

the service of the East India Company, Running along the whole northern was born in India, April 29, 1833. At coast of Borneo, eight hundred miles, an early age he entered the employ of and inland perhaps two hundred, is the same company to whose interests found Borneo Proper, one of the three his father had given his best days. In great Mohammedan kingdoms into 1826, as a cadet, he accompanied the which the island was divided as early British army to the Burmese war, was as the sixteenth century. This state dangerously wounded, received a furis governed, or rather misgoverned, lough, and came to England. To reby a sultan, and, under him, by rajahs store his health and gratify his curiand pangerans, - officials who give to osity he spent the year 1827 in travel

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ling on the Continent. His furlough be usefully applied to rouse the zeal of having nearly expired, he embarked for slumbering philanthropy." India, but was wrecked on the voyage, The feelings thus awakened were and could not report for duty in proper not of a transient character. His

This was one of those ap- dreams henceforth were to visit these parently fortuitous circumstances which islands, see them for himself, study so often change the whole aspect of a their natural history, understand their man's life. At any rate, it was the social condition, and ascertain what turning-point in Mr. Brooke's career. avenues could be opened for trade, Finding that his misfortune had cost and what steps taken to redeem the him his position, and that he could not oppressed native races. recover it without tedious formalities, he left the service. Uncontrolled mas- In 1835 the death of his father, leavter of himself, and endowed with sa- ing him master of an independent forgacity and courage of no ordinary tune, enabled him to realize his dreams. stamp, he was ready for any undertak- He was a member of the Royal Yacht ing which his adventurous spirit or his Club, as well as owner and commander love of research might dictate. In fact, of a yacht, a position which admitted it was during this interval of leisure him in foreign ports to all the privithat he embarked for China, and on his leges of an English naval officer. In passage saw for the first time the East- this little vessel he resolved to underern Archipelago. He was painfully in- take an adventurous voyage of discovterested in the condition of Borneo

He approached his enterprise and Celebes, those great islands, sink- with a wary forethought. “I was coning apparently into hopeless decay. vinced,” he says, “that it was necesHis sympathies were awakened by the sary to form men to my purpose, and sufferings of the helpless natives, and by a line of steady and kind conduct to his indignation was aroused by the out- raise up a personal regard for myself rages of an unbridled piracy. His feels and an attachment to the vessel.” He ings can be best gathered from his own cruised three years in the Mediterralanguage. “These unhappy countries nean, carefully selecting and training afford a striking proof how the fair- his crew. He studied thoroughly the est and richest lands under the sun whole subject of the Eastern Archimay become degraded by a continu- pelago, and acquainted himself as perous course of oppression and misrule. fectly as possible with the minutiæ of Whilst extravagant dreams of the pro- seamanship and with every useful art. gressive advancement of the human And when his preparations were all race are entertained, a large tract of complete, on the 16th of Decemthe globe has been gradually relapsing ber, 1838, he set sail for Singapore, in into barbarism. Whilst the folly of the yacht Royalist, a vessel of one fashion requires an acquaintance with hundred and forty-two tons, manned by the deserts of Africa, and a most ardent twenty men and officers, with an armathirst for a knowledge of the customs ment of six six-pounders and a full of Timbuctoo, — whilst the trumpet supply of small arms of all sorts. Such tongue of many an orator excites thou- were the mighty resources wherewith sands to the rational and charitable ob- he began an enterprise which has endject of converting the Jews or of re- ed in raising him to the government claiming the Gypsies, – not a single of a petty kingdom, and to almost sovprospectus is spread abroad, not a sin- ereign influence over the whole empire gle voice is raised in Exeter Hall, to of Borneo Proper. relieve the darkness of this paganism The reader has already had glimpses and the horrors of this slave-trade. of the feelings which prompted this exUnder these circumstances I have con- pedition. In a communication to the sidered that individual exertions may “Geographical Register” he more fully


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