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New American Cyclopædia, for which ling, returned to his book or his pahe wrote the articles on Alexander the

per. Great, the Alexanders of Russia, Aris- Shortly after this he took up his abode tocracy, Attila, the Borgias, Bunsen, in Washington, where he soon became and a few others. It was at this time one of the notables of the city, frequentalso that he wrote his books, " Russia ing some of the best houses, and almost as it is,” and “ America and Europe." certain to be seen of an evening at In preparing for publication his articles Willard's, the political exchange of the and his books, he had the invaluable capital, where his singular appearance assistance of Mr. Ripley, who gratui- and emphatic conversation seldom failed tously bestowed upon them an immense to attract a large share of attention. amount of labor, for which he was very The proceeds of the books he had pubill requited by the Count, who quar- lished, never very large, had by this relled both with him and Dana, and time been used up; and he was consefor a time wantonly and most unjustly quently very poor, for which, however, abused them both in his peculiar lavish he cared little. But some of the Senaway.

tors, who liked and pitied the roughFor two or three years longer I lost spoken, but warm-hearted and honest sight of him, during which period he old man, persuaded Mr. Seward to apled a somewhat wandering life, visiting point him to some post in the State the South, and residing alternately in Department created for the occasion. Washington, Newport, Geneseo, and His nominal duty was to explore the Brattleborough. The last time I saw Continental newspapers for matter inhim in New York was at the Athenæ- teresting to the American government, um Club one evening in December, and to furnish the Secretary of State, 1860, just after South Carolina had se- when called upon, with opinions upon ceded. A dispute was raging in the diplomatic questions. As he once stated smoking-room, between Unionists on it to me in his terse way, it was “to one side and Copperheads on the other read the German newspapers, and keep as to the comparative character of the Seward from making a fool of himself.” North and South. Gurowski, who was The first part of this duty, he said, was reading in an adjoining room, was at- easy enough, but the latter part rather tracted by the noise, and came in, but difficult. He kept the office longer than at first said nothing, standing in silence I expected, knowing his temper and on the outside of the circle. At last a habit of grumbling; but even Mr. SewSouth-Carolinian who was present ap- ard's patience was at length exhausted, pealed to him, saying, “Count, you and he was dismissed for long-continhave been in the South, let us have ued disrespectful remarks concerning your opinion ; you at least ought to be his official superior. impartial.” Gurowski thrust his head Some time in 1862 I met Gurowski forward, as he was accustomed to do in Washington, at the rooms of Senawhen about to say anything emphatic, tor Sumner, which he was in the habit and replied in his most energetic man- of visiting almost every evening. I ner: "I have been a great deal in the had not seen him for a long time, and South as well as in the North, and he greeted me very cordially; but I know both sections equally well, and I soon perceived that his habit of dogmatell you, gentlemen, that there is more tism had increased terribly, and that he intelligence, more refinement, more cul- was more impatient than ever of contivation, more virtue, and more good tradiction. He began to talk in a high manners in one New England village tone about McClellan, the Army of the than in all the South together.” This Potomac, and the probable duration of decision put an end to the discus- the Rebellion. His views for the most sion. The South - Carolinian retreat- part seemed sound enough, but were so ed in dudgeon, and Gurowski, chuck- offensively expressed that, partly in im

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patience and partly for amusement, I as I judge from his Diary, he undersoon began to contradict him roundly stood the President better, and did full on every point. He became furious, justice to his noble qualities. and for nearly an hour stormed and I was particularly curious to know stamped about the room, in the centre what he thought of Seward, whom he of which sat Mr. Sumner in his great had good opportunities of seeing at that chair, taking no part in the discus- time, as he was still in the service of sion, but making occasional ineffectual the State Department. He pronounced attempts to pacify Gurowski, who at him shallow and insincere, and ludilength rushed out of the room in a rage crously ignorant of European affairs. too deep for even his torrent of words The diplomatists of Europe, he said, to express. After his departure, Mr. were all making fun of his despatches, Sumner remarked that he reminded and looked upon him as only a clever him of the whale in Barnum's Museum, charlatan. which kept going round and round in This proved to be my last conversaits narrow tank, blowing with all its tion with Gurowski. I met him once might whenever it came to the surface, again, however, at Washington, in the which struck me at the time as a singu- spring of 1863. I was passing up Fiflarly apt comparison.

teenth Street, by the Treasury DepartI met Gurowski the next evening at ment, and reached one of the crossthe Tribune rooms, near Willard's, streets just as a large troop of cavalry and found him still irritated and dis- came along. The street was ankle-deep posed to “blow.” I checked him, how with mud, only the narrow crossing beever, told him I had had enough of non- ing passable, and I hurried to get over sense, and wanted him to talk soberly; before the cavalry came up. Midway and, taking his arm, walked with him on the crossing I encountered Gurowto his lodgings, where, while he dressed ski, wrapped in a long black cloak and for a party, which he always did with a huge felt hat, rather the worse for great care, I made him tell me his opin- wear. He threw open his arms to stop ion about men and affairs. He was un- me, and, without any preliminary phrase, usually moderate and rational, and de- launched into an invective on Horace scribed the “situation," as the news- Greeley. In an instant the troop was papers call it, with force and penetra- upon us, and we were surrounded by tion. The army, he thought, was ev- trampling and rearing horses, and solerything that could be desired, if it diers shouting to us to get out of the only had an efficient commander and way. Gurowski, utterly heedless of all a competent staff. I asked what he around him, raised his voice above the thought of Lincoln. “He is a beast.' tumult, and roared that Horace Greeley

This was all he would say of him. I was “an ass, a traitor, and a coward.” knew, of course, that he meant bête in It was no time to hold a parley on that the French sense, and not in the offen- question, and, breaking from him, I sive English sense of the word. The made for the opposite sidewalk, then, truth was, that Gurowski had little rel- turning, saw Gurowski for the last time, ish for humor, and the drollery which enveloped in a cloud of horsemen, formed so prominent a part of Lincoln's through which he was composedly external character was unintelligible making his way at his usual meditaand offensive to him. At a later period, tive pace.

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the most cruel of all blows to ter's impolitic and ignominious abanthe respectability of the faction which donment of dignity and decency in his rejoices in his name. Hardly had the addresses to the people he attempted political Pecksniffs and Turveydrops alternately to bully and cajole. That contrived so to manage the Johnson a man thus self-exposed as unworthy Convention at Philadelphia that it vio- of high trust should have had the face lated few of the proprieties of intrigue to expect that intelligent constituencies and none of the decencies of dishon- would send to Congress men pledged esty, than the commander-in-chief of to support his policy and his measures, the combination took the field in per- appeared for the time to be as pitiable son, with the intention of carrying the a spectacle of human delusion as it was country by assault.

His objective an exasperating example of human impoint was the grave of Douglas, which pudence. became by the time he arrived the Not the least extraordinary peculiargrave also of his own reputation and ity of these addresses from the stump the hopes of his partisans. His speech- was the immense protuberance they exes on the route were a volcanic out- hibited of the personal pronoun. In break of vulgarity, conceit, bombast, Mr. Johnson's speech, his “I” resemscurrility, ignorance, insolence, brutali- bles the geometer's description of infinty, and balderdash. Screams of laugh. ity, having its centre everywhere and ter, cries of disgust, flushings of shame, its circumference nowhere.” Among were the various responses of the na- the many kinds of egotism in which his tion he disgraced to the harangues of eloquence is prolific, it may be difficult this leader of American conserva- to fasten on the particular one which tism." Never before did the first is most detestable or most laughable; office in the gift of the people appear but it seems to us that when his arroso poor an object of human ambition, gance apes humility it is deserving as when Andrew Johnson made it an perhaps of an intenser degree of scorn eminence on which to exhibit inability or derision than when it riots in bravato behave and incapacity to reason. do. The most offensive part which he His low cunning conspired with his plays in public is that of the humble devouring egotism to make him throw individual,” bragging of the lowliness off all the restraints of official decorum, of his origin, hinting of the great merin the expectation that he would find its which could alone have lifted him duplicates of himself in the crowds he to his present exalted station, and repaddressed, and that mob diffused would resenting himself as so satiated with heartily sympathize with Mob imper- the sweets of unsought power as to sonated. Never was blustering dema- be indifferent to its honors. Ambition gogue led by a distempered sense of is not for him, for ambition aspires ; self-importance into a more fatal error. and what object has he to aspire to ? Not only was the great body of the From his contented mediocrity as alpeople mortified or indignant, but even derman of a village, the people have his “satraps and dependents,” even insisted on elevating him from one the shrewd politicians — accidents of pinnacle of greatness to another, until an Accident and shadows of a shade — they have at last made him President who had labored so hard at Philadel- of the United States. He might have phia to weave a cloak of plausibilities been Dictator had he pleased ; but what, to cover his usurpations, shivered with to a man wearied with authority and apprehension or tingled with shame as dignity, would dictatorship be worth? If he is proud of anything, it is of the ments a series of contradictions. Intailor's bench from which he started. deed, he seems to have a thoroughly He would have everybody to under- animalized intellect, destitute of the nostand that he is humble, – thoroughly tion of relations, with ideas which are humble. Is this caricature ? No. It but the form of determinations, and is impossible to caricature Andrew which derive their force, not from reaJohnson when he mounts his high son, but from will. With an individuhorse of humility and becomes a sort ality thus strong even to fierceness, but of cross between Uriah Heep and Jo- which has not been developed in the siah Bounderby of Coketown. Indeed, mental region, and which the least gust it is only by quoting Dickens's de- of passion intellectually upsets, he is scription of the latter personage that we incapable of looking at anything out of have anything which fairly matches the relations to himself, — of regarding it traits suggested by some statements from that neutral ground which is the in the President's speeches. “A big, condition of intelligent discussion beloud man,” says the humorist, “with tween opposing minds. In truth, he a stare and a metallic laugh. A man makes a virtue of being insensible to the made out of coarse material, which evidence of facts and the deductions of seemed to have been stretched to reason, proclaiming to all the world that make so much of him. A man with he has taken his position, that he will a great puffed head and forehead, never swerve from it, and that all stateswelled veins in his temples, and such ments and arguments intended to shake a strained skin to his face, that it his resolves are impertinences, indicatseemed to hold his eyes open and lifting that their authors are radicals and his eyebrows up. A man with a per- enemies of the country. He is never vading appearance on him of being in- weary of vaunting his firmness, and flated like a balloon, and ready to start. firmness he doubtless has, the firmness A man who could never sufficiently of at least a score of mules ; but events vaunt himself a self-made man. A have shown that it is a different kind man who was continually proclaiming, of firmness from that which keeps a through that brassy speaking-trumpet statesman firm to his principles, a poof a voice of his, his old ignorance and litical leader to his pledges, a gentlehis old poverty. A man who was the man to his word. Amid all changes of Bully of humility."

opinion, he has been conscious of unIf we turn from the moral and per- changed will, and the intellectual elesonal to the mental characteristics of ment forms so small a portion of his Mr. Johnson's speeches, we find that being, that, when he challenged “the his brain is to be classed with notable man, woman, or child to come forcases of arrested development. He ward” and convict him of inconstancy has strong forces in his nature, but in to his professions, he knew that, howtheir outlet through his mind they are ever it might be with the rest of mandissipated into a confusing clutter of kind, he would himself be unconvinced unrelated thoughts and inapplicable by any evidence which the said man, phrases. He seems to possess neither woman, or child might adduce. Again, the power nor the perception of cohe- when he was asked by one of his aurent thinking and logical arrangement. diences why he did not hang Jeff DaHe does not appear to be aware that vis, he retorted by exclaiming, “Why prepossessions are not proofs, that as- don't

you ask me why I have not hanged sertions are not arguments, that the Thad Stevens and Wendell Phillips ? proper method to answer an objection They are as much traitors as Davis." is not to repeat the proposition against And we are almost charitable enough to which the objection was directed, that suppose that he saw no difference bethe proper method of unfolding a sub- tween the moral or legal treason of the ject is not to make the successive state- man who for four years had waged open war against the government of the moderate temper of such a pattern conUnited States, and the men who for servative as the President of the Unitone year had sharply criticised the acts ed States. The contrast prompts ideas and utterances of Andrew Johnson. so irresistibly ludicrous, that to keep It is not to be expected that nice dis- one's risibilities under austere control tinctions will be made by a magistrate while instituting it argues a self-comwho is in the habit of denying indis- mand almost miraculous. putable facts with the fury of a pugilist Andrew Johnson, however, such as who has received a personal affront, and he is in heart, intellect, will, and speech, of announcing demonstrated fallacies is the recognized leader of his party, with the imperturbable serenity of a and demands that the great mass of philosopher proclaiming the fundamen- bis partisans shall serve him, not meretal laws of human belief. His brain is ly by prostration of body, but by prosentirely ridden by his will, and of all tration of mind. It is the hard duty of the public men in the country its offi- his more intimate associates to transcial head is the one whose opinion car- late his broken utterances from Andyries with it the least intellectual weight. Johnsonese into constitutional phrase, It is to the credit of our institutions and to give these versions some show of our statesmen that the man least quali- logical arrangement, and to carry out, as fied by largeness of mind and modera- best they may, their own objects, while tion of temper to exercise uncontrolled professing boundless devotion to his. power should be the man who aspired By a sophistical process of developing to usurp it. The constitutional instinct his rude notions, they often lead him to in the blood, and the constitutional conclusions which he had not foreseen, principle in the brain, of our real states- but which they induce him to make his men, preserve them from the folly and own, not by a fruitless effort to quicken guilt of setting themselves up as imita- his mind into following the steps of their tive Cæsars and Napoleons, the mo- reasoning, but by stimulating his pasment they are trusted with a little dele- sions to the point of adopting its regated power.

sults. They thus become parasites in Still we are told, that, with all his order that they may become powers, defects, Andrew Johnson is to be hon- and their interests make them particuored and supported as a “conserva- larly ruthless in their dealings with tive” President engaged in a contest their master's consistency. Their rewith a “radical” Congress! It hap- lation to him, if they would bluntly expens, however, that the two persons press it, might be indicated in this who specially represent Congress in brief formula : “We will adore you in this struggle are Senators Trumbull order that you may obey us.” and Fessenden. Senator Trumbull is The trouble with these politicians is, the author of the two important meas- that they cannot tie the President's ures which the President vetoed; Sena- tongue as they tied the tongues of the tor Fessenden is the chairman and or- eminent personages they invited from gan of the Committee of Fifteen which all portions of the country to keep silent the President anathematizes. Now we at their great Convention at Philadeldesire to do justice to the gravity of phia. That Convention was a masterface which the partisans of Mr. John- piece of cunning political management; son preserve in announcing their most but its Address and Resolutions were absurd propositions, and especially do hardly laid at Mr. Johnson's feet, when, we commend their command of counte- in his exultation, he blurted out that nance while it is their privilege to con- unfortunate remark about "a body trast the wild notions and violent speech called, or which assumed to be, the of such lawless radicals as the Sena- Congress of the United States,” which, tor from Illinois and the Senator from it appears, “ we have seen hanging on Maine, with the balanced judgment and the verge of the government.” Now all

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