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thinks, in the eternal world, where of the Nevilles became remarkable for years of social intercourse will prove high principle and good sense ; and less than cobwebs, these their joint acts this they owe to Mercy Vint, and to of mercy will be links of a bright, Sir George's courage in marrying her. strong chain, to bind their souls in

This Mercy was granddaughter to one everlasting amity.

of Cromwell's ironsides, and brought It was a remarkable circumstance, her rare personal merit into their house, that the one child of Lady Neville's and also the best blood of the old Puriunhappy marriage died, but her nine tans, than which there is no blood in children by Sir George all grew to Europe more rich in male courage, fegoodly men and women. That branch male chastity, and all the virtues.



HE late Count Gurowski came to sufficient to determine his social and his

vember, 1849, and resided at first in it was soon learned that he was the New York. He made his appearance head of a distinguished noble family of at Boston, I think, in the latter part of Poland ; that he was born in 1805, and 1850, and, being well introduced by let- had taken part in the great insurrection ters from men of note in Paris, was re- of 1831 against the Russians, for which ceived with attention in the highest cir- he had been condemned to death, while cles of society. Among his friends at his estates were confiscated and asthis period were Prescott, Ticknor, signed to a younger brother, who had Longfellow, Lowell, Parker, Sumner, remained loyal to the Czar. It was Felton, and Everett, — the last named known also that at Paris, where he had of whom was then President of Harvard found refuge, he had been a special University. The eccentric appearance favorite of Lafayette and of the leading and character of the Count, of course, republicans, and an active member of excited curiosity and gave rise to many the Polish Revolutionary Committee, idle rumors, the most popular of which till, in 1835, he published La Vérité sur declared him to be a Russian spy, la Russie, in which work he maintained though what there was to spy in this that the interests of Poland and of all country, where everything is published the other Slavic countries would be proin the newspapers, or what the Czar moted by absorption into the Russian expected to learn from such an agent, Empire and union under the Russian nobody undertook to explain. The Czar. This book drew upon him the phrase was a convenient one, and, like indignant denunciation of his countrymany others equally senseless, was men, who regarded it as a betrayal of currently adopted cause it seemed their cause, and led to the revocation to explain the incomprehensible ; and of his sentence of death, and to an certainly, to the multitude, no invitation to enter the service of Nichowas ever less intelligible than Gu- las. He accordingly went to St. Perowski.

tersburg in 1836, where his sister had To those, however, who cared for long resided, personally attached to the precise information, the French and Empress and in high favor at the imGerman periodicals of the day, in which perial court. He was employed at first his name frequently figured, furnished in the private chancery of the Emperor,


and afterwards in the Department of himself was a widower, with a son in Public Instruction, in which he suggest the Russian navy and a daughter mared and introduced various measures ried in Switzerland ; and that some comtending to Russianize Poland by means promise had been made about his conof schools and other public institutions. fiscated estates by which his “loyal ” He seems for some years to have been brother had agreed to pay him a slenin favor, and on the high road to power der annual allowance, which was not and distinction. In 1844, however, he always punctually remitted. fled from St. Petersburg secretly, and Such was the substance of what was took refuge at the court of Berlin. He known, or at least of what I knew and was pursued, and his extradition de- can now recall, of Gurowski, soon after manded of the Prussian government.

his arrival in Boston, sixteen years What his offence was I have never ago. He came to Massachusetts, I learned, but can readily suppose that think, with some expectation of becomit was only a too free use of his tongue, ing connected with Harvard Universiwhich was at all times uncontrollable, ty as a lecturer or professor, and took and was always involving him in dif- up his residence in Cambridge in lodgficulties wherever he resided. He was ings in a house on Main Street, nearly quite as likely to contradict and snub opposite the College Library. In Januthe Czar as readily as he would the ary, 1851, he gave, at President Evmeanest peasant, and, for that matter, erett's house, a course of lectures upon even more readily. His flight from Roman Jurisprudence, of which I have Russia caused a good deal of discus- preserved the following syllabus, printsion in the Continental newspapers, and ed by him in explanation of his purit is certain that for some reason or pose. other strong and pertinacious efforts were made by the Russian government

“ COUNT DE GUROWSKI proposes to to have him delivered up. The Czar give Six Lectures upon the Roman Juhad at that time great influence over risprudence, or the Civil Law according the court of Berlin; and Gurowski was to the following syllabus : at length privately requested by the “ As the history of the Roman Law Prussian government, in a friendly way, is likewise the history of the principle to relieve them of embarrassment by of the Right (das Recht) as it exists in withdrawing from the kingdom. He the consciousness of men, and of its accordingly went to Heidelberg and outward manifestation as a law in an afterwards to Munich, and for two organized society; a philosophical outyears subsequently was a Lecturer on line of this principle-and of its manifesPolitical Economy at the University of tations will precede. Berne, in Switzerland.

At a later pe

“ The philosophical and historical riod he visited Italy, and for a year progress of the notion or conception of previous to his arrival in this country the Right, through the various moments had resided in Paris. Besides his or data of jurisprudential formation by first work on Panslavism, already men- the Romans. Explanation of the printioned, he had published several oth- cipal elements and facts, out of which ers in French and German, which was framed successively the Roman law. had attracted considerable attention by “Such are, for instance, the Ramnian, the force and boldness of their ideas, the Sabinian, or Quiritian ; their influand the wide range of erudition dis- ence on the character of the legislation played in them. Finally, it became and jurisprudence. known to those who cared to inquire, “The peculiarity and the legal meanthat one of his brothers, Ignatius Gu- ing of the jus quiritium. Explanation rowski, was married to an infanta of of some of its legal rites, as those conSpain, whom I believe he had persuad- cerning matrimony, jus mancipi, in jure ed to elope with him; that Gurowski cessio, etc.


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“ The primitive jus civile derived nor do I see why they should care. from the jus quiritium. Point out the But even if the subject had been interprincipal social element on which, and esting in itself, Gurowski's imperfect through which, the jus privatum, con- pronunciation of our language at that nected with the jus civile, was devel- time would have insured his failure as oped.

a lecturer. He had a copious stock of “ The primitive difference between English words at command; but as he both these two kinds of jus.

had learned the language almost wholly “Other elements of the Roman Civil from books, his accent was so strongly Law. The jus gentium, its nature and foreign that few persons could underorigin. How it was conceived by the stand him at first, except those of quick Romans, and low it acted on the Ro- apprehension and some knowledge of man community. Its agency, enlight- the French and German idioms which ening and softening influence on the he habitually used. Roman character, and on the severity The favor with which Gurowski had of the primitive jus civile.

been received in the high circles of “The nature, the agency of the præto- Boston society soon evaporated, as his rian or edictorial right and jurispru- faults of temper and of manner, and his dence.

rough criticisms on men and affairs, “A condensed sketch of the Roman began to be felt. Massachusetts was civil process. The principal formalities then in the midst of the great conservaand rules according to the jus quiriti- tive and proslavery reaction of 1850, um, jus civile, and the edicta prætorum. and Gurowski's dogmatic radicalism Difference between the magistrate and was not calculated to recommend him the judge.

to the ruling influences in politics, lit“ The scientific development of the erature, or society. He denounced with above-mentioned data in the formation vehemence, and without stint or qualiof the Roman Law, or the period be- fication, slavery and its Northern suptween Augustus and Alex. Severus. porters. Nothing could silence him, Epoch of the imperial jurisconsults; nobody could put him down. It was in its character.

vain to appeal to Mr. Webster, then at “Decline. The codification of the Ro- the height of his reputation as a Unionman Law, or the formation of the Jus- saver and great constitutional expoundtinian Code. Sketch of it during the “What do I care for Mr. Webmediæval and modern periods.

ster,” he said on some occasion when “ Count Gurowski is authorized to the Fugitive Slave Law was under disrefer to Hon. Edward Everett, Prof. cussion in the high circles of Beacon Parsons, Prof. Parker, Wm. H. Pres- Street, and the dictum of the great excott, Esq., Hon. T. G. Cary, Charles pounder had been triumphantly apSumner, Esq., Hon. G. S. Hillard, Prof. pealed to. “I can read the ConstituFelton.

tion as well as Mr. Webster." "CAMBRIDGE, January 24, 1851."

surely, Count, you would not presume

to dispute Mr. Webster's opinion on The lectures were not successful, a question of constitutional law ? " being attended by only twenty or thirty “And why not?” replied Gurowski, in persons, who did not find them very high wrath, and in his loudest tones. interesting. The truth is, that few “I tell you I can read the Constitution Americans care anything for the Ro- as well as Mr. Webster, and I say that man law, or for the history of the prin- the Fugitive Slave Law is unconstituciple of the Right (das Recht); nor for tional, - is an outrage and an imposition the Ramnian, Sabinian, or Quiritian ju- of which you will all soon be ashamed. risprudence; nor whether the jus civile It is a disgrace to humanity and to was derived from the jus quiritium, or your republicanism, and Mr. Webster the jus quiritium from the jus civile, - should be hung for advocating it. He


“ But



is a humbug or an ass,” continued the was much troubled by the intense sunCount, his wrath growing fiercer as he shine ; but afterwards becoming used poured it out, — "an ass if he believes to it, he left off his veil, and in other such an infamous law to be constitu- respects conformed his costume to that tional; and if he does not believe it, he of the people. is a humbug and a scoundrel for advo- There were several gentlemen in the cating it.” Beacon Street, of course, reading-room whom we both knew, one was aghast at this outburst of blas- of whom introduced me to Gurowski, phemy; and the high circles thereof who received me very cordially, and imwere speedily closed against the plain- mediately began to talk with much anispoken radical who dared to question mation about Kossuth and Hungary, Mr. Webster's infallibility, and who concerning which I had recently pubmade, indeed, but small account of the lished something. He was exceedingly other idols worshipped in that locality. voluble, and seemed to have, even then,

It was at this time, in the spring of a remarkably copious stock of English 1951, that I became acquainted with words at command ; but his pronunciaGurowski. I was standing one day at tion, as before remarked, was very imthe door of the reading-room in Ly- perfect, and until I grew accustomed to ceum Hall in Cambridge, of which his accent I found it difficult to comcity I was then a resident, when I saw prehend him. This, however, made approaching through Harvard Square little difference to Gurowski. He a strange figure which I knew must be would talk to any one who would listhe Count, who had often been de- ten, without caring much whether he scribed to me, but whom till then I was understood or not. On this ochad never chanced to see. He was at casion he soon became engaged in a the time about forty-five years of age, discussion with one of the gentlemen of middle size, with a large head and present, a Professor in the University, big belly, and was partly wrapped in a who demurred to some of his statehuge and queerly-cut cloak of German ments about Hungary; and in a short material and make. On his head he time Gurowski was foaming with rage, wore a high, bell-shaped, broad-brim- and formally challenged the Professor med hat, from which depended a long to settle the dispute with swords or sky-blue veil, which he used to pro- pistols. This ingenious mode of detect his eyes from the sunshine. His ciding an historical controversy being waistcoat was of bright red flannel, and blandly declined, Gurowski, apparently as it reached to his hips and covered dumfounded at the idea of any gennearly the whole of his capacious front, tleman's refusing so reasonable a propit formed a startlingly conspicuous por- osition, abruptly retreated, asking me tion of his attire. In addition to the veil, to go with him, as he said he wished his eyes were protected by enormous to consult me; to which request I asblue goggles, with glasses on the sides sented very willingly, for my curiosity as well as in front. These extraordi- was a good deal excited by his strange nary precautions for the defence of his appearance and evidently peculiar charsight were made necessary by the fact acter. that he had lost an eye, not in a duel, He walked along in silence, and we as has been commonly reported, but by soon reached his lodgings, which were falling on an open penknife when he convenient and comfortable enough. was a boy of ten years old. The He had a parlor and bedroom on the wounded eye was totally ruined and second floor, well furnished, though in wasted away, and had been the seat of dire confusion, littered with books, palong and intense pain, in which, as is pers, clothing, and other articles, tossed usual in such cases, the other eye had about at random. He gave me a cigar, participated. During the first year or and, sitting down, began to talk quite two of his residence in this country he calmly and rationally about the affair


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at the reading-room. His excitement ences, and despised their professors, had entirely subsided, and he seemed whose pursuits seemed to him frivoto be sorry for his rudeness to the Pro- lous. He was jealous of Agassiz, and fessor, for whom he had a high regard, of the fame and influence he had atand who had been invariably kind to tained in this country, and was in the him. I spoke to him pretty roundly habit of spitefully asserting that the on the impropriety of his conduct, and Professor spoke bad French, and was the folly of which he had been guilty a mere icthyologist, who would not in offering a challenge, a proceeding dare in Europe to set up as an aupeculiarly repugnant to American, or thority in so many sciences as he did at least to New England notions, and here. Even the amiable Professor which only made him ridiculous. There Guyot, the most unassuming man in was something so frank and childlike the world, who then lived in Camin his character, that, though I had bridge, was also an object of this palknown him but an hour, we seemed try jealousy. “How finely Guyot humalready intimate, and from that time to bugs you Americans with his slops," the day of his death I never had any Gurowski said to me one day. I rehesitation in speaking to him about plied that “slops was a very unworanything as freely as if he were my thy and offensive word to apply to the brother.

productions of a man like Guyot, who He took my scolding in good part, certainly was of very respectable standand was evidently ashamed of his con- ing in his department of physical geogduct, though too proud to say so. He raphy. “O bah! bah! you do not unwanted to know, however, what he had derstand," exclaimed Gurowski. “I best do about the matter. I advised do not mean the slops of the kitchen, him to do nothing, but to let the affair but the slops of the continent, the drop, and never make any allusion to slops and indentations which he talks it; and I believe he followed my ad- so much about.” Slopes was, of course, vice. At all events, he was soon again the word he meant to use; and the inon good terms with the gentleman he cident may serve as a good illustration had challenged.

of the curious infelicities of English I spent several hours with Gurowski with which his conversation teemed. on this occasion, and, as we both at But the truth is that Gurowski spared that time had ample leisure, we soon nobody, or scarcely anybody, in his pergrew intimate, and fell into the habit sonal criticisms. Of all his vast range of passing a large part of the day to- of acquaintance in New England, Felgether. For a long period I was ac- ton, Longfellow, and Lowell were the customed to visit him every day at his only persons of note of whom he spoke lodgings, generally in the morning, with uniform respect. It was really while he came almost every afternoon painsulto see how uiterly his vast to my house. He had a good deal of knowledge and his great powers of wit, but little humor, and did not rel- mind were rendered worthless by a ish badinage. His chief delight was childishness of temper and a habit of in serious discussions on questions of contradiction which made it almost politics, history, or theology, on which impossible for him to speak of anyhe would talk all day with immense body with moderation and justice. He erudition and a wonderful flow of “the had also a sort of infernal delight in best broken English that ever was detecting the weak points of his acspoken.” He was well read in Egypt- quaintances, which he did with fearful ology and in mediæval history, and quickness and penetration. The slighthad a wide general knowledge of the est hint was sufficient. He saw at a sciences, without special familiarity with glance the frail spot, and directed his any except jurisprudence. He dis- spear against it. Failings the most dained the details of the natural sci- secret, peculiarities the most subtle,

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