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this investigation, in which Major Cou- the Campos on horseback with Captain tinho was as much interested as myself. Faria, the commander of our steamer, We determined to select Monte Alegre and one or two other friends from as the centre of our exploration, the Monte Alegre, who joined our party, serra in that region being higher than while I went by canoe. The canoe elsewhere. As I was detained by in- journey is somewhat longer. A two disposition at Manaos, for some days, hours' ride across the Campos brings at the time we had appointed for the you to the foot of the mountain, whereexcursion, Major Coutinho preceded me, as the trip by boat takes more than and had already made one trip to the twice that time. But I preferred going serra, with some very interesting re- by water, as it gave me an opportunity sults, when I joined him, and we made of seeing the vast variety of animals a second journey together.

haunting the river- banks and lakes. Monte Alegre lies on a side arm of As this was almost the only occasion the Amazons, a little off from its main in all my journey when I passed a day

This side arm, called the Rio in the pure enjoyment of nature, withGurupatuba, is simply a channel run- out the labor of collecting, — which in ning parallel with the Amazons, and this hot climate, where specimens recutting through from a higher to a quire such immediate and constant atlower point. Its dimensions are, how- tention, is very great, - I am tempted ever, greatly exaggerated in all the to interrupt our geology for a moment, maps thus far published, where it is to give an account of it. I learned usually made to appear as a consider- how rich a single day may be in this able northern tributary of the Amazons. wonderful tropical world, if one's eyes The town stands on an elevated terrace, are only open to the wealth of aniseparated from the main stream by the mal and vegetable life. Indeed, a few Rio Gurupatuba, and by an extensive hours so spent in the field, in simply flat, consisting of numerous lakes di- watching animals and plants, teaches vided from each other by low alluvial more of the distribution of life than a land, and mostly connected by narrow month of closet study; for under such channels. To the west of the town, this circumstances all things are seen in terrace sinks abruptly to a wide sandy their true relations. Unhappily, it is plain called the Campos, covered with not easy to present the picture as a low forest growth, and bordered on whole, for all our written descriptions its farther limit by the picturesque are more or less dependent on nomenserra of Erreré. The form of this clature, and the local names are hardly mountain is so abrupt, its rise from the known out of the districts where they plain so bold and sudden, that it seems belong, while systematic names are famore than twice its real height. Judg- miliar to few. ing by the eye, and comparing it with the I started before daylight; but, as the mountains I had last seen, — the Cor- dawn began to redden the sky, large covado, the Gavia and Tijuca range in flocks of ducks, and of the small the neighborhood of Rio, - I had sup- Amazonian geese, might be seen flying posed it to be three or four thousand towards the lakes. Here and there a feet high, and was greatly astonished cormorant sat alone on the branch of when

barometric observations a dead tree, or a kingfisher poised himshowed it to be somewhat less than self over the water, watching for his nine hundred feet in its most elevated prey. Numerous gulls were gathered point. This, however, agrees with in large companies on the trees along Martins's measurement of the Almei- the river-shore ; alligators lay on its rim hills, which he says are eight surface, diving with a sudden plash at hundred feet in height:

the approach of our canoe ; and occaMajor Coutinho and I reached the sionally a porpoise emerged from the serra by different roads; he crossing water, showing himself for a moment




and then disappearing again. Some by innumerable lianas and creeping times we startled a herd of capivara, vines, in the midst of which the flowers resting on the water's edge; and once of the Bignonia, with its open, trumpetwe saw a sloth, sitting upon the branch shaped corolla, were conspicuous. The of an Imbauba (Cecropia) tree, rolled capim was bright with the blossoms of up in its peculiar attitude, the very the mallow growing in its midst, and picture of indolence, with its head sunk was often edged with the broad-leaved between its arms. Much of the river- Aninga, a large aquatic Arum. shore consisted of low alluvial land, Through such a forest, where the and was covered with that peculiar and animal life was no less rich and varied beautiful grass known as Capim; this than the vegetation, our boat glided grass makes an excellent pasturage for slowly for hours. The number and cattle, and the abundance of it in this variety of birds struck me with astonregion renders the district of Monte ishment. The coarse sedgy grasses on Alegre very favorable for agricultural either side were full of water birds, one purposes. Here and there, where the of the most common of which was a red clay soil rose above the level of the small chestnut-brown wading bird, the water, a palm-thatched cabin stood on Jaçana (Parra), whose toes are immensethe low bluff, with a few trees about it. ly long in proportion to its size, enaSuch a house was usually the centre of bling it to run upon the surface of the a cattle farm, and large herds might be aquatic vegetation, as if it were solid seen grazing in the adjoining fields. ground. It was in the month of JanuAlong the river-banks, where the coun- ary, their breeding season, and at every try is chiefly open, with extensive low turn of the boat we started them up marshy grounds, the only palm to be in pairs. Their flat, open nests generseen is the Maraja. After keeping ally contained five flesh-colored eggs, along the Rio Gurupatuba for some streaked in zigzag with dark brown distance, we turned to the right into a lines. The other waders were a snownarrow stream, which has the character white heron, another ash - colored, of an Igarapé in its lower course, though. smaller species, and a large white higher up it drains the country between stork. The ash-colored herons were the serra of Erreré and that of Tajury, always in pairs, the white one always and assumes the appearance of a small single, standing quiet and alone on the river. It is named after the serra, and edge of the water, or half hidden in the is known as the Rio Erreré. This green capim. The trees and bushes stream, narrow and picturesque, and were full of small warbler-like birds, often so overgrown with capim that the which it would be difficult to characcanoe pursued its course with difficulty, terize separately. To the ordinary obpassed through a magnificent forest of server they might seem like the small the beautiful fan-palm, called here the birds of our woods; but there was one Miriti (Mauritia flexuosa). This forest species among them which attracted my stretched for miles, overshadowing, as attention by its numbers, and also bea kind of underbrush, many smaller cause it builds the most extraordinary trees and innumerable shrubs, some of nest, considering the size of the bird itwhich bore bright, conspicuous flowers. self, that I have ever seen. It is known It seemed to me a strange spectacle, among the country people by two -a forest of monocotyledonous trees names, as the Pedreiro or the Forneiro, with a dicotyledonous undergrowth; the both names referring, as will be seen, inferior plants thus towering above and to the nature of its habitation. This sheltering the superior ones. Among singular nest is built of clay, and is as the lower trees were many Leguminosa, hard as stone (pedra), while it has the - one of the most striking, called Fa- form of the round mandioca oven va, having a colossal pod. The whole (forno) in which the country people premass of vegetation was woven together pare their farinha, or flour, made from


the mandioca root. It is about a foot

did not fly away.

But of all the groups in diameter, and stands edgewise upon of birds, the most striking as compared a branch, or in the crotch of a tree. with corresponding groups in the temAmong the smaller birds, I noticed perate zone, and the one which rebright Tanagers, and also a species re- minded me the most directly of the fact sembling the Canary. Besides these, that every region has its peculiar anithere were the wagtails, the black and mal world, was that of the gallinaceous white widow finches, the hang-nests, or birds. The most frequent is the CiJapé, as they are called here, with their

gana, to be seen in groups of fifteen or pendent bag - like dwellings, and the twenty, perched upon trees overhanging familiar • Bem ti vi.” Humming birds, the water, and feeding upon berries. which we are always apt to associate At night they roost in pairs, but in the with tropical vegetation, were very daytime are always in larger compascarce. I saw but a few specimens. nies. In their appearance they have Thrushes and doves were more fre- something of the character of both the quent, and I noticed also three or four pheasant and peacock, and yet do not kinds of woodpeckers. Of these latter closely resemble either. It is a curious there were countless numbers along fact, that, with the exception of some our canoe path, flying overhead in small partridge-like gallinaceous birds, dense crowds, and, at times, drowning all the representatives of this family in every other sound in their high, noisy Brazil, and especially in the Valley of chatter.

the Amazons, belong to types which do These made a deep impression upon not exist in other parts of the world.

Indeed, in all regions, however Here we find neither pheasants, nor far away from his own home, in the cocks of the woods, nor grouse ; but in midst of a fauna and Aora entirely new their place abound the Mutun, the Jaçu, to him, the traveller is startled occa- the Jacami, and the Unicorn (Crax, Pesionally by the song of a bird or the nelope, Psophia, and Palamedea), all of sight of a flower so familiar that it which are so remote from the gallinatransports him at once to woods where ceous types found farther north, that every tree is like a friend to him. It they remind one quite as much of the seems as if something akin to what in bustard, and other ostrich-like birds, as

own mental experience we call of the hen and pheasant. They differ reminiscence or association existed in also from Northern gallinaceous birds the workings of nature ; for though the in the greater uniformity of the sexes, organic combinations are so distinct in none of them exhibiting those striking different climates and countries, they differences between the males and fenever wholly exclude each other. Ev- males which we see in the pheasants, ery zoological and botanical province the cocks of the woods, and in our retains some link which binds it to all barn-yard fowls. While birds abounded the rest, and makes it part of the gen- in such numbers, insects were rather eral harmony. The Arctic lichen is scarce. I saw but few and small butfound growing under the shadow of the terflies, and beetles were still more palm on the rocks of the tropical serra, rare. The most numerous insects were and the song of the thrush and the tap the dragon-flies, — some with crimson of thc woodpecker mingle with the bodies, black heads, and burnished sharp discordant cries of the parrot wings,-others with large green bodies, and paroquet.

crossed by blue bands. Of land shells I Birds of prey, also, were not wanting. saw but one creeping along the reeds; Among them was one about the size of and of water shells I gathered only a our kite, and called the Red Hawk, few small Ampullariæ. which was so tame that, even when our Having ascended the river to a point canoe passed immediately under the nearly on a line with the serra,

I low branch on which he was sitting, he landed, and struck across the Campos


on foot. Here I entered upon an en- the serra, I was again reminded how, tirely different region, – a dry, open under the most dissimilar circumplain, with scanty vegetation. The most stances, similar features recur everyprominent plants were clusters of cactus where in nature. I came suddenly upand curua palms, a kind of stemless, on a little creek, bordered with the low palm, with broad, elegant leaves usual vegetation of such shallow waterspringing vase-like from the ground. courses, and on its brink stood a sandIn these dry, sandy fields, rising grad- piper, which flew away at my approach, ually toward the serra, I observed in uttering its peculiar cry, so like what the deeper gullies formed by the heavy one hears at home that, had I not seen rains the laminated clays which are him, I should have recognized him by everywhere the foundation of the Ama- his voice. zonian strata. They here presented After an hour's walk under the again so much the character of ordinary scorching sun, I was glad to find myclay slates, that I thought I had at last self at the hamlet of Erreré, near the come upon some old geological forma- foot of the serra, where I rejoined my tion. Instead of this I only obtained companions. It was already noon, and fresh evidence that, by baking them, they had arrived some time before. the burning sun of the tropics may pro- They had, however, waited breakfast duce upon laminated clays of recent for me, to which we all brought a good origin the same effect as plutonic appetite. Breakfast over, we slung our agents have produced upon the ancient hammocks under the trees, and during clays, that is, it may change them into the heat of the day enjoyed the rest metamorphic slates. As I approached which we had so richly earned.

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ones at that. How Owen must have lay, in disjecta membra, before the gloated over that treasure-trove ! Capastonished eyes of the first learned pala- tain Kyd's buried booty would have ontologist who gazed, in wondering de- been worse trash to him than Iago's light, on its strange proportions. As it stolen purse, beside this unearthed derears its ungainly form some eighteen posit of an antediluvian age. Its missfeet above us, Madam, you may gather ing caudal vertebræ would outweigh some idea of what it was in its native now, in his anatomical scales, all the hidforests, I don't know how many hun- den gains of the whole race of pirates, dreds of thousands of years ago. You past, present, and to come. Think of need not snuggle up to me so, Tommy. those bones with all the original musThe creature is not alive, unless it is en- cle upon them! Why, they would outjoying Sydney Smith's idea of comfort, weigh all the worthy members of the and, having taken off its flesh, is airing Boston Society of Natural History toitself in its bones. Megatherium was a gether, unless they are uncommonly very proper name for it, if not a very obese. Where could Noah have stowed common one ; for large animal it was, a pair of such enormous beasts, supposbeyond any dispute, and could scarcely ing that they existed as late as when have been much of a pet with the hu- the ark was launched ? Sloth, indeed ! man beings of old, unless “there were I am inclined to think the five or six giants in those days,” and enormous tons of flesh these bones must have carried round might reasonably permit the and wonder to what manner of creature bearer to rank, on a priori reasons, they belonged? Or that, perched upon among the most confirmed of sluggards, the shelves of some museum in the even if Owen and Agassiz and Wyman year 500000, they may be treasures of had not so decided on strictly scientific, an unknown past to the Owens and anatomical grounds.

Wymans of that day? My dear Madam, does it ever occur to You wish I would not talk so? you, when you wonderingly gaze on the Well, Madam, let us leave this mausostrange relics around this hall, — these leum of the past, and come forth into stony skeletons, these silent remnants of the life of 1866; and let us see whether extinct races, that you are face to face all the disjecta membra of extinct being with rock-buried creatures, who lived are ranged around the walls of this clasand sported and mated, who basked in sic hall, or whether we may not find the sunlight and breathed in the air of something akin near our own snug and this world, hundreds of thousands of comfortable homes. I think I know years before you were thought of? who some hardened hearts which have ossirested in the shade of the trees which fied around the soft emotions which in made the coal that warms you to-day ? earlier years played therein. And, bless who trod the soft mud which now you, Madam, I meet every day, in my builds in solid strength the dwellings down-town walks, some strange animatwhich shelter you? who darted through ed fossils, more repellent than any I ever the deep waters that foamed over a bed beheld in the Natural History cabinet. now raised into snow-capped moun- These bear the unfamiliar look which tains ? who frolicked on a shore now belongs to a fabulous age, and rest, piled with miles of massive rock? whose silent and unobtrusive, in their halfbones were petrifactions untold ages be- opened cerements. The others wear a fore the race was born which built the very familiar form, which belongs to Pyramids? Do you really understand our day, yet they are the exponents of how far back into antiquity these grim a dead life which animated the buried fossils bear you? Can you really con- bones of barbarism. The innocent Meceive of Nature, our dear, kind, gentle gatheria and Ichthyosauri crawled and mother, in those early throes of her ma- paddled and died in their day; but ternity which brought forth Megathe- these living fossils have the vital forms ria and Ichthyosauri, — when the “firm of the life above ground, while they bear and rock-built earth” was tilted into

within the psychical peculiarities of exmountain ranges, wrinkled by earth- tinct beings. They creep about on the quakes, and ploughed by mighty hills of shores of time with the outward shapes moving ice? And yet in those distant of their fellows, and, when buried in its days, which have left their ripple-marks rising waves, will leave undistinguishand rain-drops in the weighty stone, able remains in their common tomb; there was life, warm, breathing, sen- and future explorers will never trace tient life, which, dying, traced its own therein the evanescent peculiarities in epitaph on its massive tomb. Shake- which the two were so unlike. speare, Cæsar, Brahma, Noah, Adam, Bones! Why, the whole earth is a lived but yesterday compared with these big bundle of them. They are not oncreatures, whose stone-bound bones ly in graveyards, where “mossy marwere buried in the sands that drifted bles rest”; they are strewn, "unknelled, on the shores of this world centuries uncoffined, and unknown,” over the before the first man drew into his nos- whole surface of the globe, and lie emtrils the breath of life. Does the thought bosomed in the gulfs of the great, restever occur to you, that, ages hence, some less ocean. Who knows what untamed enthusiastic student of nature may puz

savage rests beneath us here? Don't zle his brains over the bones of some start, my dear Madam. I have no such humble individuals as you and I, doubt that, when Tommy plays bo


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