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for the methods which the ancients must chres, although for elegance of form have used. It was observed that in the and for taste they are far from equalling ornaments of gold all the parts in relief them. were by the ancients superimposed ; “ Not long since, when, examining that is to say, prepared separately and with a lens the Etruscan jewels of then placed in position by means of our own collection, I discerned in the soldering or some chemical process, zones of the tiny grains (which are charand not raised by stamping, casting,

acteristic of the work of these patient or chiselling. From this arises, per- artists) certain defects, such as those haps, the something spontaneous, the which are made in enamel by the meltfreedom and artistic neglect which is ing of the gold. These observations seen in the works of the ancients, which suggested to me to try a new process, appear all made by hands guided by in order to reproduce this exceedingly thought, while the moderns impress, I fine grain-work, believed hitherto imwoul say, a certain perfect exactness possible to be even distantly imitated by on the things produced by them, which modern gold-workers. I immediately reveals the work of mechanical imple- commenced the new experiments, and ments, and shows a want of the creative the results were sufficiently satisfactory thought of the artist. Here, then, they to enable me to say, at present, that the sought to find means to compose and problem is nearly solved which for alsolder together so many pieces of gold most twenty years has defied us." of different forms, and of such minute- And even now Castellani's best grainness, that, as we have said, it goes to work is far from equalling in delicacy the very extreme.

and perfection of workmanship some “We made innumerable experiments, of the antiques in his own collection. and put in operation successively all the Our Scarabæus has got into magchemical agents, many metallic alloys, nificent company, and modern taste and the most powerful fluxes. We finds that he deserved it; and certainly, searched the writings of Pliny, of The- me judice, nothing can be more purely ophilus, and of Cellini; the works of artistic than a fine Scarabæus, and the the Indian gold-workers and those of fascination that comes over whoever Genoa and of Malta were studied with has ventured to dabble in that kind of all care ; in short, there was forgotten wares is as dangerous as the chances no one of those sources whence we of play. Be content with a single one! might hope for some hint. Finally, If you once get into comparison, you whence least we expected it came some have abandoned yourself to the witchreal assistance.

ery of the unknown and unattainable “Hidden in the highest mountains perfection. of the Apennine range is a little town Engraved gems or simple intaglios called St. Angelo in Vado, where are in pietra dura seem to belong to Greek made gold and silver ornaments, with art rather than Etruscan. The style of which the fair mountaineers decorate finishing the stone was more in accordthemselves. Here it appears that they ance with the simple and elegant ideal preserve, at least in part, the oldest of the Greek intellect. The intaglio traditions of the art of working in gold was all to the Greek artist, and anyand silver; and these workmen, .. thing more was labor worse than wasted. shut, so to speak, from all contact with His intaglio ceased to be ornamentamodern things, make crowns of filigree tion, and passed into the category of strung with gilded pearls and ear-rings ideal work. And there are intaglii of of that peculiar form which is called Greek workmanship which are as lovethe navicella,' by such methods as ly as it is possible to conceive anything, perhaps the antique were made, so that - all the spirit and perfect proportion these jewels resemble not a little those of the antique sculpture concentrated found in the Greek and Etruscan sepul- in an oval, an inch by three quarters of an inch, executed with a delicacy which ies, – poor Scarabæi retouched to fine defies the naked eye to measure it! ones, still bearing the marks of antiq

A critical study of gems is an affair uity, and others whose under surface, of years; yet, so far as all principles of being originally left blank, is engraved design are concerned or characteristics by the hired workmen of the modern of art, we may always consider the in- Roman antiquaries, by whom they are taglii with the sculpture of the same sold as guaranteed antiques. This is epoch. The spirit and manner and per- the most common and dangerous cheat, fections are the same. The first are, and one which the easy conscience of of course, the Greek; and a fine exam- the Italian merchant regards as perple is rarely found, - heads only, of fectly justifiable ; for has not the stone Dioscorides or any equally famous all the aroma of antiquity ? A little artist, being valued at from $ 400 to shade darker in iniquity is the selling of $800, and even $ 1200 in the case of stones entirely recut from broken larger the Ariadne. The next in value are ones, so that, though the stone remains Etruscan,'very fine examples being near- identical, the workman puts a new face ly as much esteemed as Greek, while on it; and even this the antiquary the best Roman is, like Roman sculp- will sell you as a veritable antique. ture, but a far-off emulation in design, Then there is the unmitigated swindle though often admirable in execution and of the pure imitation, oftentimes so perfinish. Very fine examples of either fect that the most experienced judges are not largely current, being taken up are deceived. There is in fact no absoby collectors and consigned at once to lute certainty in the matter. There are public or private cabinets ; but now antiques of which no doubt can be and then one turns up, or is turned up entertained, with characteristics utterly by an unenterprising share-holder of inimitable ; but there are others as the Campagna of Rome, or by some certainly antique which have none of excavator or vineyard-digger in Sicily, these, but, taken without reference to Magna Græcia, or Greece proper, and, their placer, are not to be distinguished if it gets into commerce, finds its way with absolute certainty. I remember generally to Rome, the centre of ex- a necklace in the Campana museum, change for classical antiquities. The which, in a large number of unmistakaScarabæi are mostly found in the ble Scarabæi, had one for which I would Etruscan tombs, and occasionally out- not have paid two scudi on the Piazza side the walls of the Etruscan cities, Navona, so like the modern imitations swept out, may be, with the antique did it look. The only reliable criterion dust. But there are Roman imitations, for the majority of cases is the spirit made doubtless for some aristocratic of the design in the intaglio. Castelladescendant of the mythic Etrurian ni says: “ Antique Etruscan, Greek, or kings, like Mæcenas, proud of that Roman Scarabæi are at present very remote if subjugated ancestry, and rare, and their high price tempts the looking wistfully backward to the Ar- moderns to counterfeit them. And to cadia of which his family traditions such a perfection have they carried only preserved the record. The Ro- their business that it is with difficulty man lapidaries were not nice workmen, the best-trained eye can discover the and their imitations are most palpable. fraud. It is not the stone, not the

Then, in the fifteenth century, came polish, nor even the incision, but a other and better lapidaries, and of bet- peculiar smoothness and morbidezza, ter taste, many of whose Scarabæi are which distinguishes the antique ; and of great value, though still not difficult which only they who for many years to distinguish from the Etruscan, when have studied such kinds of work, or we study the design. The modern de- who, either in the way of trade or othermand for them has produced innumer- wise, have seen and handled many of able impositions in the shape of cop. the gems, are able to perceive."

A friend in Rome came to me one for it. I took it to A. and offered it to day with a request that I would go him for six ; but he refused it, thinking with him to see a Scarabæus which he it to be a paste. I took it away again, had taken a fancy to, and had engaged and, having had it tested as a stone, to buy if it were 'counted genuine by offered it to him for twenty.

After exgood judges. It was a superb stone, a amining it and keeping it a few days, he cleep carnelian, nearly opaque, exqui- offered me twelve. I said no, - eighsitely elaborated, and with an intaglio teen. He said no. I said sixteen, and which I doubt not was Greek. It was he offered me fourteen, which I took. the most beautiful one I had ever seen, The fact is,” said he, “no one is able and I gave my opinion, such as it to say for certain if a stone is antique was, in favor of its antiquity. It was or not. A. has the best judgment in purchased, and afterwards shown to a Rome, but you see how he is deceived.” well-known dealer, by whom it was pro- I bought of the same man a small ennounced a cheat; and on inquiry it graved emerald, which he had just purwas discovered that the seller had had chased of a peasant, and, without much a copy made of the original, and, while examination, sold me for one scudo, he offered the latter for sale, delivered as a basso-impero of ordinary quality. the former, which was so carefully and My eyes were better, and had seen, in perfectly copied as to puzzle the eye what he thought a handful of flowers, even of the best-instructed amateur. a cross; and on cleaning it we found it

A merchant of antiquities with whom to be an early Christian stone of much I have occasional dealings — we will greater value than he supposed, to his call him A. because that is not his ini- great chagrin. tial – brought me one day a large in- If the perfections of our Scarabæus taglio, which had the appearance of an give us a glimpse of Etruscan existarchaic Etruscan work. A. is known ence, we may perhaps gather from the as one of the piu cognoscenti of Rome; gems some notion of what Rome was, and his dictum is worth any other two. beyond what historians have written, or He declared it an original antique of the ruins of her palaces and tombs have the rarest quality; and Odelli, the best shown. The quantity of intaglii alone, gem-cutter in Rome, coincided in the such as they are, which are dug up in opinion. He held it at two thousand the gardens and vineyards around Rome francs, but would have sold it to me every year, is incredible to one who has for eighteen hundred, I suppose. I did not watched day by day the acquisin't bite, and after a few weeks lured tions of the antiquity shops, and the the collector of whom he had bought stalls of the Piazza Navona. Very it - one of those who make it a busi- few of them are of any artistic value; ness to haunt the markets, and visit but the fact that so many were made distant cities and excavations, to pur- use of is a marvel in itself, and implies chase and sell again to the Roman anti- a greater luxury than marble palaces quaries — to boast his prowess as com- even hint at. I one day remarked to a pared with that of A., who had bitten peasant who brought me some intaglii him severely several times in their to sell, that the ancients must have dealings; and, in the full tide of his worn a great many rings ; and he reself-glorification, I turned the conversa- plied, that in his country the richer tion on the black agate, now become people wore so many that they had to famous among the dealers. He could hold their hands up to keep them from not resist the temptation, and told me falling off. On inquiry I found that all about it. “A. believes it to be an- he came from the Abruzzi, where it tique, don't he?" “O, he is certain seems that the people still hold on to of it,” said I. “Well, I 'll tell you how something of the antique customs; for it is: I bought the thing of the man we know that the Romans began the who made it, and paid him three scudi fashion of covering the fingers to that extravagant degree, so that the num- antiques. Of the common kind, again, ber of rings possessed by a family of there are those which, cut with a great wealth must have been almost in- certain conventionalism in design and estimable. At every irruption of the a facility in execution which incessant barbarians, the villas that covered the repetition only can produce, cannot be Campagna for miles around Rome imitated except at a cost utterly bemust have felt the first fury of their yond their market value. Like the ravages; and as the stones contained designs on the Etruscan vases, their in the ornaments were of no use to the main excellence is, that, being so good, plunderers, they were broken out and they should be done so facilely. An thrown away, many of them to be un- imitator loses the rapidity and spirit covered, more than a thousand years of execution. The mass of imitations later, by the spade of the trencher in are of things only tolerably good, and the vineyards. One of a number of of things whose characteristics are in peasants playing at bowls in one of the the execution merely, as in the Roman roads near Rome struck with his ball and conventional Etruscan work. a point of hardened mud, which few in I will close with one bit of advice to pieces, disclosing an exquisite intaglio my readers. If your fancy finds any head of Nero in carnelian, in perfect satisfaction in Scarabæi ed altri, let condition, for which the finder received your acquisition stop with the first exten scudi.

ample, – take a sample brick from anThe laborers in the fields have so tiquity. If you once commence colfar learned the value of the stones they lecting them in ever so small a way, find, that it becomes almost impossible or with any excuse to your own pockanywhere in the vicinity of Rome to et, you will find yourself subject to a buy them of the finders, even at the fascination more irresistible than the most extravagant prices. Unable to

love of money,

more absorbing than distinguish in quality, and knowing that the search for the philosopher's stone. certain stones have brought such and While you are in Rome, you will find such prices, they refuse to sell any for a yourself unable to keep your feet from smaller price, but retain them until the ways that lead to the antiquaries, or next festa, when they carry them in suc- your money out of the hands of a class cession to all the mercanti di pietre in (with two or three exceptions) of cheats. Rome, to see which will offer the high- You will find the extravagances of one est price, - a kind of vendue which day coming to be the niggardness of evinces greater trade-cleverness than the next; and feverish anxieties lest the Italians get credit for, and which you should not succeed in getting this has the effect of bringing the dealers gem, and irritating regrets that you too at once to their best terms. No matter soon bought that, will divide your torwhat price you offer, they never accept tured soul. And when you finally it until they have tried the value it has leave Rome, as you must some day, for others. It is only when a stone has you will always harbor a small cankersuch great value that it justifies paying worm of immitigable grief, that you did a price passing the imagination of the not purchase one stone you saw and peasant, that the buyer can profit by thought too high-priced; and will pass buying from the first hand.

thenceforward no curiosity-shop withOf the finer kind of intaglii, there out looking in the windows a moment, is little danger of buying counterfeits, in the hope of finding some gem strayed since the art of gem-cutting is too low away into parts where no man knows now to permit of such counterfeits its value. If you feel in you the caas might be mistaken for first-rate pacity of loving them, let them alone.


Crossed the Great Water, Miantowona Passed, with her beauty, Into a legend Pure as a wild-flower Found in a broken Ledge by the sea-side.

Let us revere them,
These wildwood legends,
Born of the camp-fire !
Let them be handed
Down to our children,
Richest of heirlooms!
No land may claim them :
They are ours only,
Like our grand rivers,
Like our vast prairies,
Like our dead heroes !

In the pine-forest,
Guarded by shadows,
Lieth the haunted
Pond of the Red Men.
Ringed by the emerald
Mountains, it lies there
Like an untarnished
Buckler of silver,
Dropped in that valley
By the Great Spirit !
Weird are the figures
Traced on its margins,
Viite-work and leaf-work,
Knots of sword-grasses,
Moonlight and starlight,
Clouds scudding northward !
Sometimes an eagle
Flutters across it;
Sometimes a single
Star on its bosom
Nestles till morning.

Far in the ages,
Rose of the Hurons,
Came to these waters.

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