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again all at once, we may be friends. fell sick of a fever, a brain-fever: the To begin, tell me, what have you on doctor blooded me." your mind ? Come, make a friend of “ Alas! would he had taken mine in

stead.” He looked at her in alarm.

“And I lost my wits for several days; She smiled. “Shall I guess ? " said and when I came back, I was weak as she.

water, and given up by the doctor ; and “ You will never guess," said he ; the first thing I saw was an old hag set “and I shall never have the heart to a-making of my shroud.” tell you."

Here the narrative was interrupted a “Let me try. Well, I think you moment by Mrs. Gaunt seizing him have run in debt, and are afraid to ask convulsively; and then holding him me for the money."

tenderly, as if he was even now about Griffith was greatly relieved by this to be taken from her. conjecture; he drew a long breath ; “ The good people nursed me, and so -and, after a pause, said cunningly, did their daughter, and I came back “What made you think that?” from the grave. I took an inn ; but I

“ Because you came here for money, gave up that, and had to pay forfeit; and not for happiness. You told me and so my money all went; but they so in the Grove."

kept me on. To be sure I helped on “ That is true. What a sordid wretch the farm : they kept à hostelry as well. you must think me!”

By and by came that murrain among No, because you were under a de- the cattle. Did you have it in these lusion. But I do believe you are just parts, too ?” the man to turn reckless, when you “I know not; nor care. Prithee, thought me false, and go drinking and leave cattle, and talk of thyself." dicing.” She added eagerly, “ I do not “Well, in a word, they were ruined, suspect you of anything worse.” and going to be sold up. I could not

He assured her that was not the way bear that: I became bondsman for the of it.

old man.

It was the least I could do. “ Then tell me the way of it. You Kate, they had saved thy husband's must not think, because I pester you life.” not with questions, I have no curiosity. “ Not a word more, Griffith. How o, how often I have longed to be a much stand you pledged for?” bird, and watch you day and night un- A large sum.” seen! How would you have liked that? “Would five hundred pounds be of I wish you had been one, to watch me.

any avail ? " Ah, you don't answer. Could you have “ Five hundred pounds!

Ay, that it borne so close an inspection, sir ? " would, and to spare ; but where can I

Griffith shuddered at the idea ; and get so much money? And the time so his eyes fell before the full gray orbs of short.” his wife.

“Give me thy hand, and come with “Well, never mind," said she. “Tell me," said Mrs. Gaunt, ardently. me your story."

She took his hand, and made a swift “ Well, then, when I left you, I was rush across the lawn. It was not exraving mad.”

actly running, nor walking, but some “ That is true, I 'll be sworn." grand motion she had when excited.

“I let my horse go; and he took me She put him to his stride to keep up near a hundred miles from here, and with her at all ; and in two minutes she stopped at - at- a farm-house. The had him into her boudoir. She ungood people took me in.”

locked a bureau, all in a hurry, and took “ God bless them for it. I'll ride out a bag of gold. “ There !” she cried, and thank them.”

thrusting it into his hand, and blooming “Nay, nay; 't is too far. There I all over with joy and eagerness : “I thought you would want money ; so I awry. Don't wait a moment. Begone saved it up. You shall not be in debt at once.” a day longer. Now mount thy horse, “Nay, nay, if I go to-morrow, I shall and

carry it to those good souls ; only, be in time.” for my sake, take the gardener with thee, “Ay, but,” said Mrs. Gaunt, very - I have no groom now but he, — and softly, “I am afraid if I keep you anothboth well armed."

er hour I shall not have the heart to “ What! go this very day ?” let you go at all; and the sooner gone,

“Ay, this very hour. I can bear thy the sooner back for good, please God. absence for a day or two more,-1 have There, give me one kiss, to live on, and borne it so long; but I cannot bear thy begone this instant." plighted word to stand in doubt a day, He covered her hands with kisses no, not an hour. I am your wife, sir, and tears. “I 'm not worthy to kiss your true and loving wife: your honor any higher than thy hand,” he said, is mine, and is as dear to me now as and so ran sobbing from her. it was when you saw me with Father He went straight to the stable, and Leonard in the Grove, and read me all saddled Black Dick.


one who has fed his boyish As an example of the use of the word fancy with the stories of pioneers in its mystic signification, the following and hunters has heard of the character may be given. The horse, as is well known among Indians as the “medi- known, was to the Indian, on its first cine-man.” But it may very likely be importation, a strange and terrible the case that few of those familiar with beast. Having no native word by which the term really know the import of the to designate this hitherto unknown creaword. A somewhat protracted resi- ture, the Indians contrived a name by dence among the Blackfoot tribe of In- combining the name of some familiar dians, and an extensive observation of animal, most nearly resembling the men and manners as they appear in the horse, with the “medicine” term dewilder parts of the Rocky Mountains noting astonishment or awe. Conseand British America, have enabled the quently the Blackfeet, adding to the writer to give some facts which may word “Elk” (Pounika) the adjective not prove wholly uninteresting.

“medicine" (tos), called the horse PouBy the term “medicine" much more nika-ma-ta, i. e. Medicine Elk. This is implied than mere curative drugs, or word is still their designation for a horse. a system of curative practice. Among With this idea of medicine, and recolall the tribes of American Indians, the .lecting that the word is used to express word is used with a double significa- two classes of thoughts very different, tion, – a literal and narrow meaning, and separated by civilization, though and a general and rather undefined confounded by the savage, it will not application. It signifies not only phys- surprise one to find that the mediical remedies and the art of using them, cine-men are conjurers as well as docbut second-sight, prophecy, and preter- tors, and that their conjurations parnatural power. As an adjective, it em- take as much of medical quackery as braces the idea of supernatural as well does their medical practice of affected as remedial.

incantation. As physicians, the mediVOL XVIII. NO. 105.


cine-men are below contempt, and, but of reluctance by the Indians, who firmfor the savage cruelty of their igno- ly believed the spirit of the gods to rance, undeserving of notice. The dwell within him. He was an austere writer has known a man to have his and taciturn man, difficult of access, uvula and palate torn out by a medicine- and as vain and ambitious as he was man. In that case the disease was a haughty and contemptuous. Those who hacking cough caused by an elongation professed to have witnessed the scene of the uvula; and the remedy adopted told of a trial of power between this man (after preparatory singing, dancing, - the Black Snake, as he was called burning buffalo hair, and other conjura- and a renowned medicine-man of a tions) was to seize the uvula with a neighboring tribe. The contest, from pair of bullet-moulds, and tear from the what the Indians said, must have ocpoor wretch every tissue that would curred about 1855. give way. Death of course ensued in The rival medicine-men, each fura short time. The unfortunate man nished with his medicine-bag, his amuhad, however, died in "able hands,” lets, and other professional parapherand according to the “highest prin- nalia, arrayed in full dress, and covered ciples of [Indian] medical art.” with war-paint, met in the presence of

Were I to tell how barbarously I a great concourse. Both had prepared have seen men mutilated, simply to ex- for the encounter by long fasting and tract an arrow-head from a wound, the conjurations. After the pipe, which story would scarce be credited. Com- precedes all important councils, the mon sense has no place in the system medicine-men sat down opposite to of Indian medicine-men, nor do they each other, a few feet apart. The trial appear to have gained an idea, beyond of power seems to have been conductthe rudest, from experience.

ed on principles of animal magnetIn their quality of seers, however, they ism, and lasted a long while without are more important, and frequently more decided advantage on either side ; unsuccessful persons, attaining, of course, til the Black Snake, concentrating all various degrees of proficiency and rep- his power, or “ gathering his medicine," utation. An accomplished dreamer has in a loud voice commanded his oppoa sure competency in that gift. He nent to die. The unfortunate conjurer is reverently consulted, handsomely succumbed, and in a few minutes “his paid, and, in general, strictly obeyed. spirit,” as my informant said, “went His influence, when once established, is beyond the Sand Buttes.” The only more potent even than that of a war charm or amulet ever used by the chief. The dignity and profit of the Black Snake is said to have been a position are baits sufficient to command small bean-shaped pebble suspended the attention and ambition of the ablest round his neck by a cord of moose men; yet it is not unfrequently the sinew. He had his books, it is true, case that persons otherwise undistin- but they were rarely exhibited.* guished are noted for clear and strong The death of his rival, by means so powers of “medicine."

purely non-mechanical or physical, gave Of the three most distinguished medi- the Black Snake a pre-eminence in cine-men known to the writer, but one 6 medicine " which he has ever since was a man of powerful intellect. Even maintained. It was useless to suggest this person preferred a somewhat sedentary, and what might be called a strict- * The Mountain Assinaboins, of which tribe the

Black Snake is if living a distinguished ornament, ly professional life, to the usual active

were visited more than a hundred years since by an habits of the hunting and warring tribes. English clergyman named Wolsey, who devised an He dwelt almost alone on a far northern alphabet for their use. The alphabet is still used branch of the Saskatchewan River, re

by them, and they keep their memoranda on dressed

skins. With the exception of the Cherokees, they vered for his gifts, feared for his power, are, perhaps, the only tribe possessing a written lanand always approached with something guage. They have no other civilization

poison, deception, or collusion, to ex- species of juggling. During many plain the occurrence. The firm belief months of intimate knowledge of Indian was that the spiritual power of the life, — as an adopted member of a tribe, Black Snake had alone secured his tri- as a resident in their camps, and their umph.

companion on hunts and war-parties, I mentioned this story to a highly I lost no opportunity of gathering ineducated and deeply religious man of formation concerning their religious bemy acquaintance. He was a priest of lief and traditions, and the system of the Jesuit order, a European by birth, medicine, as it prevails in its purity. formerly a professor in a Continental It would be foreign to the design of university of high repute, and beyond this desultory paper to enter at large doubt a guileless and pious man. His upon the history of creation as preacquaintance with Indian life extended served by the Indians in their tradiover more than twenty years of mis- tions, the conflicts of the Beneficent sionary labor in the wildest parts of the Spirit with the Adversary, and the Inwest slope of the Rocky Mountains. dian idea of a future state. With all To my surprise, (for I was then a these, the present sketch has no further novice in the country,) I found him concern than a mere statement that neither astonished, nor shocked, nor “medicine” is based upon the idea of amused, by what seemed to me so gross an overruling and all-powerful Provia superstition

dence, who acts at His good pleasure, * I have seen," said he, “ many ex- through human instruments. Those hibitions of power which my philosophy among Christians who entertain the cannot explain. I have known predic- doctrine of Special Providences may tions of events far in the future to be find in the untutored Indian a faith as literally fulfilled, and have seen medi- firm as theirs, – not sharply defined, or cine tested in the most conclusive understood by the Indian himself, but ways. I once saw a Kootenai Indian inborn and ineradicable. (known generally as Skookum-tamahe- The Indian, being thoroughly ignorewos, from his extraordinary power) rant of all things not connected with command a mountain sheep to fall war or the chase, is necessarily superdead, and the animal, then leaping stitious. His imagination is active, among the rocks of the mountain-side, generally more so than are his reasonfell instantly lifeless. This I saw with ing powers, - and fits him for a ready my own eyes, and I ate of the animal belief in the powers of any able mediafterwards. It was unwounded, healthy, ciner. On one occasion, Meldram, a and perfectly wild. Ah!” continued white man in the employ of the Amerihe, crossing himself and looking up- can Fur Company, found himself sudwards, “ Mary protect us! the medic denly elevated to high rank as a seer cine-men have power from Sathanas." * by a foolish or petulant remark. He

This statement, made by so respon- was engaged in making a rude press for sible a person, attracted my attention baling furs, and had got a heavy lever to what before seemed but a clumsy in position. A large party of Crow

Indians who were near at hand, con"I do not feel at liberty to give the name of this sidering his press a marvel of mechaniexcellent man, now perhaps no more. In 1861, he cal ingenuity, were very inquisitive as lived and labored, with a gentleness and zeal worthy of the cause he heralded, as a missionary among the

to its uses.

Meldram, with an assumpKalispelm Indians, on the west slope of the Rocky tion of severity, told them the machine Mountains. Such devotion to missionary labor as was “snow medicine," and that it would was his may well challenge admiration even from

make snow to fall until it reached the those who think him in fatal error. His memory will long be cherished by those who knew the purity end of a cord that dangled from the of his character, his generous catholicity of spirit, lever and reached within a yard of the and the native and acquired graces of mind which

ground. The fame of so potent a medmade him a companion at once charming and instructive.

icine spread rapidly through the Crow nation. The machine was visited by numerous instances, they proved to be hundreds, and the fall of snow anxious- but the impudent pretensions of charly looked for by the entire tribe. To the latans, it must be conceded, if credible awe of every Indian, and the astonish- witnesses are to be believed, that somement of the few trappers then at the times there is a power of second-sight, mouth of the Yellowstone, the snow or something of a kindred nature, which actually reached the end of the rope, defies investigation. Instances of this and did not during the winter attain kind are of frequent occurrence, and any greater depth. Meldram found easily recalled, I venture to say, by greatness thrust upon him. He has

every one familiar with the Indian in lived for more than forty years among

his native state. The higher powers the Crows, and when I knew him was claimed for medicine are, in general, much consulted as a medicine-man. doubtfully spoken of by the Indians. His chief charms, or amulets, were a Not that they deny the possibility of large bull's-eye'silver watch, and a copy the power, but they question the probof " Ayer's Family Almanac," in which ability of so signal

ability of so signal a mark of favor was displayed the human body encir- being bestowed on a mere mortal. cled by the signs of the zodiac.

Powers and medicine privileges of a The position and ease attendant up- lower degree are more readily acknowlon a reputation for medicine power edged. An aged Indian of the Assinacause many unsuccessful pretenders to boin tribe is very generally admitted, by embrace the profession ; and it would his own and neighboring tribes, to have seem strange that their failures should been shown the happy hunting-grounds, not have brought medicine into disre- and conducted through them and repute.. In looking closely into this, a turned safely to the camp of his tribe, well-marked distinction will always be by special favor of the Great Spirit. found between medicine and the medi- He once drew a map of the Indian parcine-man, quite as broad as is made adise for me, and described its pleasant with us between religion and the preach- prairies and crystal rivers, its countless er. I have seen would-be medicine-men herds of fat buffalo and horses, its perlaughed at through the camp, — men ennial and luxuriant grass, and other of reputation as warriors, and respected charms dear to an Indian's heart, in in council, but whose forte was not a rhapsody that was almost poetry. the reading of dreams or the prediction Another, an obscure man of the Catof events. On the other hand, I have head Sioux, is believed to have seen the seen persons of inferior intellect, with- hole through which issue the herds of out courage on the war-path or wisdom buffalo which the Great Spirit calls in the council, revered as the channels forth from the centre of the earth to through which, in some unexplained feed his children. manner, the Great Spirit warned or ad- Medicine of this degree is not unfavised his creatures.

vorably regarded by the masses; but Of course it is no purpose of this instances of the highest grades are expaper to uphold or attack these pecu- tremely rare, and the claimants of such liar ideas. A meagre presentation of powers 'few in number. The Black a few facts not generally known is all Snake and the Kootenai, before rethat is aimed at. Whether the system ferred to, are, if still alive, the only of Indian medicine be a variety of Mes- instances with which I am acquaintmerism, Magnetism, Spiritualism, or ed of admitted and well-authenticatwhat not, others may inquire and de- ed powers so great and incredible. termine. One bred a Calvinist, as was The common use of medicine is in afthe writer, may be supposed to have fairs of war and the chase. Here the viewed with suspicion the exhibitions of medicine-man will be found, in many medicine power that almost daily pre- cases, to exhibit a prescience truly assented themselves. And while, in very tounding. Without attempting a theory

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