Semantics, Culture, and Cognition: Universal Human Concepts in Culture-Specific Configurations
Oxford University Press, 1992年10月22日 - 496页
Not everything that can be said in one language can be said in another. The lexicons of different languages seem to suggest different conceptual universes. Investigating cultures from a universal, language-independent perspective, this book rejects analytical tools derived from the English language and Anglo culture and proposes instead a "natural semantic metalanguage" formulated in English words but based on lexical universals. The outcome of two and a half decades of research, the metalanguage is made up of universal semantic primitives in terms of which all meanings--including the most culture-specific ones--can be described and compared in a precise and illuminating way. Integrating insights from linguistics, cultural anthropology, and cognitive psychology, and written in simple, non-technical language, Semantics, Culture, and Cognition is accessible not only to scholars and students, but also to the general reader interested in semantics and the relationship between language and culture.
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Fate and Destiny
EMOTIONS ACROSS CULTURES
Are Emotions Universal or CultureSpecific?
Describing the Indescribable
MORAL CONCEPTS ACROSS CULTURES
Apatheia Smirenie Humility
Courage Bravery Recklessness
Lexical Universals and Psychological Reality
Alternate Generations in Australian Aboriginal Languages
LANGUAGE AS A MIRROR OF CULTURE AND NATIONAL CHARACTER
The Russian Language
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Aboriginal adjective affectionate Alan Dench alofa aloha Anglo-Saxon apatheia attitude Australian Australian Aboriginal languages Australian English back-formations bad things called component concept contrast courageous culture dative Descartes destiny diminutive discussion disharmonic dusa Dyirbal emotion en'ka encoded English word example expressive fact fago fate feel toward children feels something bad feminine names full names girl happen hard stem human humility Ilongot imply kind kinship language Leibniz lexical liget linguistic linked litost Maasai masculine names meaning mind mother and father natural semantic metalanguage noun ocka one's person Pintupi Pitjantjatjara Poland Polish polysemy proposed prototype reference reflected relationship respect Russian Russian language Schicksal seems semantic metalanguage sentences short forms show they feel smirenie social soft stem someone soul speak to children speaker sud'ba suffix suggest tion Tolstoy toska translated Tsvetaeva universal usia verbs want to show want to speak whereas Wierzbicka
第4页 - It was found that the background linguistic system (in other words, the grammar) of each language is not merely a reproducing instrument for voicing ideas but rather is itself the shaper of ideas, the program and guide for the individual's mental activity, for his analysis of impressions, for his synthesis of his mental stock in trade.
第4页 - It is quite an illusion to imagine that one adjusts to reality essentially without the use of language, and that language is merely an incidental means of solving specific problems of communication or reflection. The fact of the matter is that the "real world" is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.
第37页 - O Hamlet, speak no more : Thou turn'st mine eyes into my very soul ; And there I see such black and grained spots As will not leave their tinct.
第4页 - We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way — an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language.
第4页 - Human beings do not live in the objective world alone, nor alone in the world of social activity as ordinarily understood, but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society. . . . The fact of the matter is that the "real world" is to a large extent unconsciously built up on the language habits of the group.
第4页 - The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds — and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds.
第4页 - social reality'. Though language is not ordinarily thought of as of essential interest to the students of social science, it powerfully conditions all our thinking about social problems and processes. Human beings do not live in the objective world alone...