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ingly, that relate to this agency and its results in the experience of the churches in the United States, are those in which he himself feels most interest, and to which he would specially direct the attention of the reader.
The author has divided his work into eight Books. The First is devoted to preliminary remarks intended to throw light on various points, so that readers the least conversant with American history and society may, without difficulty, understand what follows. Some of these preliminary remarks may be thought at first not very pertinent to the subject in hand, but reasons will probably be found for changing this opinion before the reader comes to the end of the volume.
The Second Book treats of the early colonization of the country now forming the United States; the religious character of the first European colonists. -their ecclesiastical institutions and the state of the churches when the Revolution took place by which the colonies became independent of the mother-country.
The Third treats of the changes involved in and consequent upon that event-the influence of those changes the character of the civil governments of the States
and the relations subsisting between those governments and the churches.
The Fourth exhibits the operations of the voluntary system in the United States, and the extent of its influence.
The Fifth treats of the discipline of the churches-the character of American preaching-and the subject of revivals.
The Sixth is occupied with brief notices of the evangelical denominations in the United States their ecclesiastical polity and discipline-the doctrines peculiar to each-their history and prospects.
The Seventh treats in like manner of the unevangelical sects.
The Eighth shows what the churches are doing in the way of sending the Gospel to other lands.
From the very nature of such a work, it was requisite that the author should consult many authorities. In order to procure the requisite materials, he visited his native country last year, and so abundantly was he supplied with what he needed, that, in the actual execution of his task, he found himself in want of only one or two books and documents, and these of no essential importance.
But he would be guilty of great injustice were he not to acknowledge his obligations to many distinguished friends in America for their kind co-operation and aid. Without naming all who have anywise assisted him by furnishing necessary documents, or in communicating important facts, he cannot forbear to mention the names of the Rev. Drs. Dewitt, Hodge, Goodrich, Bacon, Anderson, Durbin, Emerson, and Schmucker, and the Rev. Messrs.. Tracy, Berg, and Allen.* To the secretaries of almost all the Religious Societies and Institutions in the country he is also greatly indebted for the Re
* These gentlemen belong to the Reformed Dutch, Presbyterian, Congregational, Methodist, Lutheran, German Reformed, and Baptist churches, and are among the most distinguished ministers in the United. States.
PREFACE. ports, and in many cases, also, for the valuable hints they have furnished. Nor can he omit to acknowledge the kindness of Dr. Howe, Principal of the Institute for the Blind at Boston, the Rev. Mr. Weld, Principal of the Deaf and Dumb Asylum at Hartford, in Connecticut, and Dr. Woodward, Director of the Hospital for the Insane at Worcester, Massachusetts.
For the invaluable chapter on Revivals, the reader, as well as the author, is indebted to the Rev. C. A. Goodrich, D.D., who has long been a distinguished professor in Yale College, at New-Haven, in Connecticut, than whom no man in the United States is more capable of treating that subject in a judicious and philosophical manner.
Nor should the names of the Honourable Henry Wheaton, the Minister for the United States of America at the court of Prussia, and of Robert Walsh, Esq., now residing in Paris, be omitted. Among other obligations, to the former of these gentlemen, the author is indebted for some views which the reader will find in the Third Book; and he has to thank the latter for many important suggestions which he has found much reason to appreciate in the course of his work. He makes this acknowledgment with the more pleasure, because Mr. Walsh is a Roman Catholic, and yet, with a kindness and liberality in every way remarkable, he tendered his assistance with the full knowledge that the author is a decided Protestant, and that his work, however liberal the spirit in which it is written, was to be of a thoroughly Protestant character.
One word more to the English reader. The author deems it right to say that his work was originally designed and primarily written for Germany and other countries on the Continent of Europe. Accordingly, it is fuller on some points than was absolutely requisite for British readers, these being, no doubt, better acquainted with the United States than are the inhabitants of the Continent.
Deeply sensible that the work is far from perfect, he commends it, nevertheless, to the blessing of Him without whose favour nothing that is good can be accomplished.
GENEVA (SWITZERLAND), September, 1843.
THE NATIONAL ERA.
CHAP. I.-General Notice of North America 9 land and Ireland
Chap. IV.- The Colonization of the Territo- Colonists.-Emigrants from Poland
CHAP. V.-Interior Colonization of the Country 20 Piedmont
CHAP. VII.-On the alleged Want of National ica.-1. In New-England
CHAP. IX.-How a correct Knowledge of the the Southern and Middle Provinces
Chap. XVI. - Obstacles which the Voluntary CHAP. V.-Whether the General Government
of the United States has the power to pro-
CHAP. I.--Religious Character of the early Col. CHAP. VIII.-The Governments of the Individ.
44 ual States organized on the basis of Christi.
of New-England.-Plymouth Colony 47 CHAP. IX. - The Legislation of the States
Colonists.--Founders of New-England.-Col. Chap. X.—The Legislation of the States often
51 bears favourably, though incidentally, on the
Colonists. — Founders of Delaware, at first CHAP. I. - The Voluntary Principle the great
68 Alternative.-The Nature and Vastness of its
Colonists.-Founders of Pennsylvania 69 CHAP. II.- Foundation of the Voluntary Princi.
71 Habits of the People of the United States 131
CHAP. XI.-The Voluntary Principle developed. CHAP. XI.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.--
-Influence of the Voluntary Principle on Ed- The Associate Church.--The Associate Re.
146 formed Church, and the Reformed Presbyte-
CHAP. XIII.-Colleges and Universities 150 CHAP. XII.-Smaller Presbyterian Churches.-
CHAP. XXVII. — Influence of the Voluntary
United States maintain Discipline. 183 Chap. VII.-Board of Missions of the Protest-
our Churches is obtained
185 CHAP. VIII.- Foreign Missions of other Denom:
RELIGION IN AMERIC A.
GENERAL NOTICE OF NORTH AMERICA.
case. These mountains simply stand, as it were, on the plateau or elevated plain on
which those waters have their origin. RiThe configuration of the Continent of sing in the immediate vicinity of each other, North America, at first view, presents sev- and often interlocking, these streams are not eral remarkable features. Spreading out in the least affected in their course by the like a partially open fan, with its apex to- mountains, the gaps and valleys of which wards the south, its coasts, in advancing seem to have been made to accommodate northward, recede from each other with them, instead of their accommodating considerable regularity of proportion and themselves to the shape and position of the correspondence, until, from being separa- mountains. In a part of its northern exted by only sixty miles at the Isthmus of tension, this range of mountains seems to Darien, they diverge to the extent of 4500 detach itself entirely from the plain where miles; the east coast pursuing a northeast those streams have their source, and lies ern, and the west a nothwestern direction. quite east of it, so that the streams that
Parallel to these coasts, and at almost fall into the Atlantic, in making their way equal distances from them, there are two to the southeast, as it were, cut through ranges of mountains. The eastern range, the mountain range, in its entire width. called the Alleghany, or Appalachian, runs When first discovered by Europeans, and from southwest to northeast, at an average for a century and more afterward, the long distance of 150 miles from the Atlantic. and comparatively narrow strip of country Its length is usually estimated at 900 miles.* between the Alleghany range and the AtIts greatest width, which is in Virginia and lantic Ocean was covered with an unbroPennsylvania, is about 120 miles. Rather ken forest. The mountains, likewise, up a system, than a range, of mountains, it to their very summits, and the valleys that is composed of parallel ridges, generally lay between them, were clad with wood. maintaining a northeast and southwest di- Nothing deserving the name of a field, or rection. But as it advances towards its a prairie, was anywhere to be seen. northern extremity, and passes through the On the western side of the continent, as New-England States, it loses much of its has been stated, another range of mountcontinuity, and gradually runs off into a ains runs parallel to the coast of the Pachain of nearly isolated mountains. The cific Ocean. This range is a part of the imsouthern extremity gradually sinks down mense system of mountains running from into the hills of Georgia, unless, indeed, Cape Horn throughout the entire length we may consider it as disappearing in the of the continent, and seems as if intended, low, central line of the peninsula of Flori- like the backbone in large animals, to give da. The northeastern end terminates in it unity and strength. It is by far the longthe ridges of Nova Scotia. The whole of est in the world ;* and bearing different this range is within the limits of the Uni- names in different parts of its extent, it is ted States, excepting that part of it which the Andes in South America, the Cordillestretches into the British Provinces of New ras in Guatimala and Mexico, and the Rocky. Brunswick and Nova Scotia. We may re- Mountainst in the north. mark, in passing, that although this mount- The long, and, in many parts, wide strip ain range apparently separates the waters of land between the Oregon Mountains which flow into the Atlantic Ocean from and the Pacific Ocean, is claimed, on the those which fall into the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence, such is not really the be 9000 English miles.
* The entire length of this range is estimated to
+ The proper name of this portion of the range is * This is the length of the chain considered as a Oregon, a word of Indian origin, and which, whatevcontinuous range, from the northern parts of Geor- er may be its original signification, is a much better gia and Alabama io the State of New-York. Taken name than that which it has so long borne, and which in the extensive sense in which it is spoken of in the has nothing distinctive about it, for all mountains text, the entire range exceeds 1500 English miles. are rocky.