Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa

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Harvard University Press, 2009年6月1日 - 291 頁
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In 1792, nearly 1,200 freed American slaves crossed the Atlantic and established themselves in Freetown, West Africa, a community dedicated to anti-slavery and opposed to the African chieftain hierarchy that was tied to slavery. Thus began an unprecedented movement with critical long-term effects on the evolution of social, religious, and political institutions in modern Africa. Lamin Sanneh's engrossing book narrates the story of freed slaves who led efforts to abolish the slave trade by attacking its base operation: the capture and sale of people by African chiefs. Sanneh's protagonists set out to establish in West Africa colonies founded on equal rights and opportunity for personal enterprise, communities that would be havens for ex-slaves and an example to the rest of Africa. Among the most striking of these leaders is the Nigerian Samuel Ajayi Crowther, a recaptured slave who joined a colony in Sierra Leone and subsequently established satellite communities in Nigeria. The ex-slave repatriates brought with them an evangelical Christianity that encouraged individual spirituality--a revolutionary vision in a land where European missionaries had long assumed they could Christianize the whole society by converting chiefs and rulers. Tracking this potent African American anti-slavery and democratizing movement through the nineteenth century, Lamin Sanneh draws a clear picture of the religious grounding of its conflict with the traditional chieftain authorities. His study recounts a crucial development in the history of West Africa.

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Abolitionists abroad: American Blacks and the making of modern West Africa

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Sanneh (history and world Christianity, Yale Univ.) argues that modern antislavery in Europe and America emerged from an evangelical Christianity centered on personal salvation that empowered a bottom ... 閱讀評論全文

內容

Change in the Old Order
140
Brokers or Collaborators?
142
Thomas Jefferson Bowen and the Manifest Middle Class
145
Crowther and the Niger Expedition
150
The Niger Mission Resumed
161
Antislavery and Its New Friends
165
The Native Pastorate and Its Nemesis
167
Anatomy of a Cause
170

Historiography
19
The American Slave Corridor and the New African Potential
22
The Historical Significance of Olaudah Equiano
24
Antislavery and Black Loyalists in the American Revolution
31
The Black Poor in London
40
The Sierra Leone Resettlement Plan
41
Antislavery and Early Colonization in America
45
Moving Antislavery to Africa
50
Freedom and the Evangelical Convergence
53
Upsetting the Natural Order
55
Pushing at the Boundaries
59
A Plantation of Religion and the Enterprise Culture in Africa
66
Antislavery and Antistructure
69
David George
74
Moses Wilkinson
80
The Countess of Huntingdons Connexion
85
Paul Cuffee
88
The Voluntarist Impulse
101
Christianity and Antinomianism
103
Abolition and the Cause of Recaptive Africans
110
Christendom Revisited
113
Recaptives and the New Society
122
The Example of Samuel Ajayi Crowther
126
The Strange Career of John Ezzidio
129
The Niger Expedition Missionary Imperatives and African Ferment
139
Debacle
175
Reaction and Resistance
177
American Colonization and the Founding of Liberia
182
Colonization Sentiments
183
Purse and Principle
185
The Humanitarian Motive and the Evangelical Impulse
187
Americas Spiritual Kingdom
192
Mission of Inquiry
194
American Colonization and the Founding of Liberia 197
197
Fact and Fiction
198
Privatization of Public Responsibility
203
Lott Carey and Liberia
210
Expansion and Exclusion
212
Black Ideology
221
Conclusion
238
Antislavery
239
Antistructure
240
The American Factor
241
Crowther the CMS and Evangelical Religion
243
New World Lessons
246
Notes
251
Sources
281
Index
283
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第 183 頁 - Nothing is more certainly written in the book of Fate, than that these people are to be free; nor is it less certain that the two races, equally free, cannot live in the same government.
第 48 頁 - He has waged cruel war against human nature itself, violating its most sacred rights of life and liberty in the persons of a distant people who never offended him, captivating and carrying them into slavery in another hemisphere, or to incur miserable death in their transportation thither.
第 254 頁 - We must not forget that these little communities were contaminated by distinctions of caste and by slavery, that they subjugated man to external circumstances instead of elevating man to be the sovereign of circumstances, that they transformed a self-developing social state into never changing natural destiny, and thus brought about a brutalizing worship of nature, exhibiting its degradation in the fact that man, the sovereign of nature, fell down on his knees in adoration of Hanuman, the monkey,...
第 37 頁 - What further is to be done with them?" join themselves in opposition with those who are actuated by sordid avarice only. Among the Romans emancipation required but one effort. The slave, when made free, might mix with, without staining the blood of his master. But with us a second is necessary, unknown to history. When freed, he is to be removed beyond the reach of mixture.
第 132 頁 - It is a partnership in all science ; a partnership in all art ; a partnership in every virtue, and in all perfection . As the ends of such a partnership cannot be obtained in many generations, it becomes a partnership not only between those who are living, but between those who are living, those who are dead and those who are to be born.
第 31 頁 - And I do hereby further declare all indented servants, negroes, or others (appertaining to rebels) free, that are able and willing to bear arms, they joining his majesty's troops as soon as may be, for the more speedily reducing his colony to a proper sense of their duty to his majesty's crown and dignity.
第 274 頁 - A Practical View of the prevailing Religious System of Professed Christians in the Higher and Middle Classes of this Country, contrasted with Real Christianity...
第 237 頁 - Our constitution secures to us, so far as our condition allows, "all the rights and privileges enjoyed by the citizens of the United States ;" and these rights, and these privileges are ours. We are proprietors of the soil we live on ; and possess the rights of freeholders. Our suffrages, and, what is of more importance, our sentiments and our opinions, have their due weight in the government we live under. Our laws are altogether our own ; they...
第 121 頁 - The three combined bodies, Missionaries, Government and Companies, or gainers of money, do form the same rule to look upon the native with mockery eyes. It sometimes startles us to see that the three combined bodies are from Europe, and along with them there is a title, "CHRISTENDOM.
第 38 頁 - His Britannic Majesty shall with all convenient speed, and without causing any destruction, or carrying away any Negroes or other property of the American Inhabitants, withdraw all his Armies...

關於作者 (2009)

Lamin Sanneh was born in a tiny river town in Gambia on May 24, 1942. He was born a Muslim but converted to Christianity as a teenager and became a practicing Roman Catholic. He received a bachelor's degree in history from Union College, a master's degree from the University of Birmingham, and a doctorate in Islamic history from the University of London. He held teaching posts at the University of Ghana, the University of Aberdeen, and Harvard Divinity School. He taught at Yale Divinity School and Yale University for 30 years. He was a naturalized United States citizen. He became a scholar of Christianity and Islam. He was the author or editor of more than 20 books including Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture, Abolitionists Abroad: American Blacks and the Making of Modern West Africa, Summoned from the Margin: Homecoming of an African, and Beyond Jihad: The Pacifist Tradition in West African Islam. He died from complications of a stroke on January 6, 2019 at the age of 76.

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