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racter, and so situated as to have it in their power either 10 serve you, or to annoy you, according as you treat them. for allies, or fur enemies.
GALGACUS, THE GENERAL OF TUE CALEDONIL
TO HIS ARMY, TO INCITE THEM TO ACTIONAGAINST THE ROMANS.
WHEN I reflect on the causes of the war, and the circumstances of our situation, I feel a strong persuasion that our united effyrts on the present day will prove the beginning of universal liberty to Britain. For none of us are hitherto debased by slavery; and we have no prospect of a secure retreal behind us, either by land or sea, whilst the Roman fleet hovers around. Thus the use of arms, which is at all times honourable to the brave, here utfers the only safety even to cowards. In all the battles which liave yet been fought with various success agaiost the Romans, ihe resources of hope and ait were in our hands; fur we, the noblest inhabitants of Britain, and therefore stationed in its deepest recesses, far from the view of servile shores, have prestrved even our eyes unpolluted by the contact of subjection. We, at the farthest limits, both of land and liberty, have been defended to this day by the obscurity of our situation and of our fame. The extremily of Britain is now disclosed; and whatever is unknown becomes an object of importance. But there is no nation beyond us; nothing but waves and rocks; and the Romans are
The arrogance of these invalers it will be in vain to encounter by obsequiousness and submission. These plunderers of the world, after exhausting the land by their devastations, are rifling the ocean: stiinulated by avarice, if their eneny be rich; by ambition, if poor:.in. satiated by the east and by the west; the only people who behold wealth and indigence with equal avidily. To ravage, to slaugh:er, to usurp under false tities, they call empire; and when they make a desert, they call it peace.
Our children and relations are, by the appointment of nature, rendered the dearest of all things to us.
These are torn away by levies to foreign servitude. Our wives and sisters, though they should escape the violation of hostile force, are polluted under the names of friendship and hospitality Our estates and possessions are consumed in tribules; our grain in contributions. Even the powers of our bodies are worn down amidst stripes and insults, in clearing woods and draining narshes. Wretches born to slavery are first bought, and afterwards fed by their masters: Britain continually buys, continually feedi her own servitude. Andas among domestic slaves every new comer seives for the score and derision of his fallows; so, in this ancient household of the world, we, as the last and vilest, are sought out for destruction. For we have neither cultivated lands; nor mines, nor harbours, which can induce them 10 preserve ns for our labours; and our valour and unsubmitting spirit will only reniler us mure obnoxious to our imperioas masters; while the very remoteness and secrecy of our situation, in proportion as it conduces to security, will tend to inspire suspicion. Since then all hopes of forgiveness are vain, let those at length assume courage, to whom glory, to whom safety is dear. The Brigantines, even under a female leader, had force enough to burn the enemy's settlements, to storm Their camps; and, if success had not introduced negligence and inactivity, woont have been able entirely to throw off the yoke: anil shall not we, untouched, unsubdued, and s!ruggling not fir the acquisition, but the continuance of liberty, declare at the very first onset what kind of men Caledonia has reserved for her defence?
Can you imagine, that the Romans are as brave in war as they are insolent in peace? Acquiring renown from our discords and dissensions, they convert ihe errors of their enemies to the glory of their own army; an army compounded of the most different nations, which, as success alone has kept together, misfortune will certainly dissipate. Unless, indeed, you ça! suppose that Gauls, and Germans, and (I biuh to say it,) even Britons, lavishing their blood for a foreign state, io which ther have been longer toes than subjects, will te restrained by loyalty and atlection!
Terror and dread alone, weak bonds of attachment, are the ties by which they are restrained; and when these are once broken, those who cease to fear will begin to hate? Every incitement to victory is on our side. The Romans have no wives to animate them; no parents to uphraid their flight.
Most of them have either no habitation, or a distant one.
Few in number, ignorant of the country, looking around in silent horror at the woods, seas, and a haven itself unknown to them, they are delivered by the gods, as it were, imprisoned and bound, into our hands. Be not terrified with an idle show, and the glitter of silver and gold, which can - neither protect nor wound. In the very ranks of the enemy we shall find our own bands. The Britons will acknowledge their own cause. The Gauls will recollect their former liberty. The Germans will desert i hem, as the Usipii have Jaiely done. Nor is there any thing formidable behind them: ungarrisoned forts; colonies of invalids;, municipal towns distempered and dis. tracted between unjust masters, and ill-obeying subjects. Here is your general; here your army. There, tributes, mines, and all the train of servile punishments; which whether to bear eternally, or instantly to revenge, ibis field must deterinine. March, then to battle, and think of your ancestors and your posterity.
CHAPTER VH. THE EARL OF ARUNDEL'S SPEECH, PROPOSING AN ACCOMMODATION BETWEEN HENRY 11. AND STEPHEN.
In the midst of a wide and open pluin, Henry found Stephen encamped, and pitched his own tents within a qururter of a mile of him, preparing for a, battle with all the engernes“, Thut the desire oj empire and glory csule ereite, in a brave und youthful heart, elate with success. Stephen also much wished to bring the contest between them to w speedy decisio:: but, while he und Erestuce were consulting with William of " Lyres, in whose affection they must confided, and by whose prirate advice they took all their measures, the Earl of Arundel; having assemb eit the English nobility, and principal (ficers, poke to this effect:
It is now above sixteen years, that, on a doubtful and disputed claim to the crown, the rage of civil war has amost continually infested this kingdom. During this meJancholy period, liuw much blood has been shed! what devastations and mi-ery hare been brought on the people! The law's hare tost their force, the crown its authority: dicentiousness and impunity have shaken all the foundations of public security. This great and noble nation has been delivered a prey io the basest of foreigners, the abominable scum of Flanders, brabant, and Bretagne, robbers rather than soldiers, restrained by no laws, divine or human, tied to no country, subject to no prince, instruments of all tyranny, violence, and oppression. At the same time, our cruel neighbours, the Welch and the Scotch, calling themselves allies or auxiliaries to the Enpress, but in reality enemies and destroyers of England, have broken their bounds, ravaged our borders, and taken from us while provinces, which we never can hope to recover; while, instead of employing our united force against them, we continue thus madly, without any care of our public safely or national honour, to turn our swords against our own bosonis. What benefits have we gained, to compensate all these losses, or what do we expect? When Matilda was mistress of the kingdom, though her power was fiut yet confirmed, in what manner did she govern? Did she not make even those of her own faction and court regret the king? Was not her pride more intolerable still than his levity, her rapine than his profuseness? Wêre any years of his reign so grievous io the people, so offi.nsive to the nobles, as the first days of her's? When she was driven out, did Stephen correct his former bad conduct? Did he dismiss his odious foreign favourite? - Did he discharge his lawless foreign hirelings, who had been so long the scourge and the reproach of England ? Have they not lived ever since upon free quarler, by plundering our houses and burning our cities? And now, to complete our miseries, a new arniya of foreigners, Angevins, Gascons, Poictevins, I know not
sho, are come over with Henry Plantagenet, the son of Matilda: and many more, no doubt, will be called to assist him as soon as ever his affairs abroad will permit; by whose help, if he be victorious, England must pay the price of their services: our lands, our honours, must be the hire of these rapacious invaders. But suppese we should have the fortune to conquer for Stephen, what will be the consequence? Will victory teach him moderation ? Will he learn from security that regard to our liberties, which he could not learn from danger? Alas! the only fruit of our good success will be this; the estates of the earl of Leicester, and others of our countrymen, who have now quitted the party of the king, will be forfeited; and new confiscations will accrue to William of Ipres.
But let us not hope, that be our victory ever so complete, it will give any lasting peace lo this kingdon. Should Henry fall in this battle, there are two other brothers to succeed to his claim, and support his faction, perhaps with less merit, but-certainly with as much ambition as he. What shall we do then to free ourselves from all these mis. fortunes ?-Let us prefer the interest of our country to that of our party, and to all those passions, which are apt, in civil dissensions; to inflame zeal ipto madness, and render men the blind instruments of those very evils, which they fight to avoid. Let us prevent all the crimes and all the horrors that attend a war of this kind, in which conquest itself is full of calamity, and our most happy victories de serve to be celebrated only by tears.. Nælure herself is dismayed, and shrinks back from a combat, where every blow that we strike may murder a friend, a relation, a paa! rent. Let us hearken to her voice, which commands us. to refrain from that guilt. Is there one of us here, who would not think it a happy and glorious act, to save the life of one of his countryinen? What a felicity then, and what a glury, must it be to us all, if we save the lives of thousands of Englishmen, that must otherwise fall in this baule, and in many other battles, which, hereafter, may be fought on this quarrel! It is in our power to do so It is in our power to end the controversy, both safely and honourably; by an amicable agreement, not by the sword. Stephen may enjoy the royal dignity for his life,