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racter, and so situated as to have it in their power either to serve you, or to annoy you, according as you treat them. for allies, or fur enemies.
GALGACUS, THE GENERAL OF TUE CALEDONIL
TO HIS ARMY, TO INCITE THEM TO ACTIONAGAINST THE ROMANS,
When I reflect on the causes of the war, and the circum. stances of our situation, I feel a sirong persuasion that our united efforts on the present day will prove the beginning of unive sal liberty to Britain. For none of us are hitherto debased by slavery; and we have no prospect of a secure' retreal behind us, either by land or sea, whilst the Roman fleet hovers around. Thus the use of arms, which is at all times honourable to the brave, here utters the only safety even to cowards. In all the battles which liave yet been fought with various success agaiost the Romans, ine resources of hope and ai i were in our hands; fur we, the noblest inhabitants of Britain, and therefore stationed in its deepest recesses, far from the view of servile shoresen have preserved even our eyes unpolluted by the contact of subjection. We, at the farthest limits, both of land and liberty, have been delended lo this day by the obscurily of our situation and of our fame. The extremity of Britain is now disclosed; and whatever is unknown becomes an object of importance. But there is no nation beyond us; nothing but waves and rocks; and the Romans are
The arrogance of these invadlers it will be in vain to encounter by obsequiousness and submission. These plunderers of the world, after exhausting the land by their devastations, are rifling the ocean: stiinulated by avarice, if their eneưny be rich; by ambition, if poor:.in. satiated by the east and by the west; the only people who behold wealth and indigence with equal avidity. To favage, to slaughier, to usurp under false tities, they call empire; and when they make a desert, they call it peace.
Our children and relations are, by the appointment of nature, rendered the dearest of all things to us. These are torn away by levies :o foreign servitude. Our wives and sisteis, though they should escape the violation of hostile force, are pollurer under the names of friendship and hospitality Our estates and possessions are consumed in tribules; our grain in contributions. Even the powers of our bodies are worn down amidst stripes and insults, in clearing woods and draining narshes. Wretches born to slavery are first bought, and afterwards fed by their masters: Britain continually bays, continually feeds her own servitude. And as among domestic slaves every new comer seives for the scorn and derision of his fellows; so, in this ancient household of the world, we, as the last and vilest, are sought out for destrnction. For we have neither cul. tivated lands; nor mines, nor harbours, which can induce them 10 preserve ns for our labours; and our valour and unsubmitting spirit will only render us more obnoxious to our imperious masters; while the very remoteness and secrecy of our situation, in proportion as it conduces to security, will tend to inspire suspicion. Since then alt hopes of forgiveness are vain, let those at length assume courage, to whom glory, to whom safety is dear. The Brigantines, even under a female leader, had force enough to barn the enemy's settlements, to storm Their camps; and, if success had not imroduced negligence and inaca tivity, woolll have been able entirely to throw off the yoke: anil shall not we, untouched, unsubdued, and s!ruggling net for the acquisition, but the continuance of liberty, declare at the very first onset what kind of men Caledonia has reserved for her defence?
Can you imagine, that the Romans are as brave in war as they are insolent in peace? Acquiring renown from our discords and dissensions, they convert the errors of their enemies to the glory of their own army; an army come pounded of the most different nations, which, as success alone has kept together, misfortune will certainly dissipate. Unless, inderd, you ca! suppose that Gauls, and Germans, and (I bluch to say it,) even Britons, lavishing their blood for a foreign state, to which iher have been longer fues than suhjrets, will te restrained by loyalty and atlection!
Terror and dread alone, weak bonds of attachment, are the ties by which they are restrained; and when these are once broken, those who cease to fear will begin to have? Every incitement to victory is on our side. The Romans have no wives to animate thein; no parents to upbraid
Most of them have either no habitation, or a distant one. Few in number, ignorant of the country, looking around in silent horror at the woods, seas, and a haven itself unknown to them, they are delivered by the gods, as it were, imprisoned and bound, into our hands. .Be not terrified with an idle show, and the glitter of silver and gold, which can neither protect nor wound. In the very ranks of the enemy we shall find our own bands. The Britons will acknowledge their own The Gauls will recollect their former liberty. The Germans will desert i hem, as the Usipii have laiely donę. Nor is there any thing formidable behind them: ungarrisoned forts'; colonies of invalids;, municipal towns distempered and dis: tracted between unjust masters, and ill-obeying subjects. Here is your general; here your army. There, tributes, mines, and all the train of servile punishments; which whether to bear eternally, or instantly to revenge, ibis field must deterinine. March, then to battle, and think of your ancestors and your posterity.
THE EARL OF ARUNDEL'S SPEECH, PROPOSING
AN ACCOMMODATION BETWEEN HENRY II. AND STEPHEN.
In the midst of a wide and open plnin, Henry found Stephen encamped, and pitched his own tents within a qunrter of a wile of him, preparing for a battle with all the engerness, that the desire oj' empire and glory could errite, in a brave und youthful heart, elule with success. Stephen- also much wished to bring the contest between them to w spredy decisio1: but, while he and Emstuce were consulting with William of lyres, in those affection they must confided, and by whose
prirule advice they took all their measures, the Earl of Arundel, having assemb el the English nobility, and principat (ficers, poke to this effect :
It is now above sixteen years, that, on a doubtful and disputed claim to the crown, the rage of civil war has Wmost continually infested this kingdom. During this meJancholy periud, liuw much blood has been shed! what devastations and mi-ery hare been brought on the people! The laws hare tost iheir force, the crown its authority : dicentiousness and impunity have shaken all the foundations of public security. This great and poble nation has been delivered a prey io the basest of foreigners, the abominable acum of Flanders, brabant, and Bretagne, robbers rather than soldiers, restrained by no laws, divine or human, tied to no country, subjec tło no prince, instruments of all tyranny, viplence, and oppression. At the same tine, pur cruel neighbours, the Welch and the Scotch, calling themselves allies or auxiliaries to the Enıpress, but in reality enemies and destroyers of England, have broken their bounds, ravaged our" borders, and taken froin us wh le provinces, which we never can hripe to recover; while, instead of employing our united force against them, we continue ibus madly, without any care of our public safery or national honour, to turn our swords against our own bosonis. What bene fils have we gained, to compersate all these losses, or what do we expeci?. When Matilda was mistress of the kingdom, though her power was not yet confirmed, in what manner did she govern? Did she not make even those of her own faction and court regret the king ?
Was not her pride møre intolerable still than his levity, her rapine than his profuseness? Wêre any years of his reign so grievous to the people, so offi.nsive to the nobles, as che first days of her's? When she was driven out, did Stephen correct his former bad conduct? Did he dismiss his odious foreign favourite? - Did he discharge his lawless foreign hirelings, who had been so long the scourge and the reproach of England ? Have they not lived ever since upon tree quarter, by plundering our houses and burning our cities? And now, to complete our miseries, a new army of foreigners, Angevins, Gascons, Poicterins, I know not who, are come over with Henry Plantagenet, the son of Matilda: and many more, no doubt, will be called to assist him as soon as ever his affairs abroad will permit; by whose help, if he be victorious, England must pay the price of their services : our lands, our honours, must be the hire of these rapacious invaders. But suppose we should have the fortune to conquer for Stephen, what will be the consequence? Will victory leach him moderation ? Will he learn from security that regard to our liberties, which he could not learn from danger? Alas! the only fruit of our good success will be this; the estates of the earl of Leicester, and others of our countrymen, who have now quitted the party of the king, will be forfeited; and new confiscations will accrue to William of Ipres.
But let us not hope, that be our victory ever so complete, it will give any lasting peace lo this kingdon. Should Henry fall in this battle, there are two other brothers to succeed to his claim, and support his faction, perhaps with less merit, but-certainly with as much ambition as he. What shall we do then to free ourselves from all these misforlunes ! --Let us prefer the interest of our country to that of our party, and to all those passions, which are apt, in civil dissensions; to inflame zeal into madness, and render men the blind instruments of those very evils, which they fight to avoid. Let us prevent all the crimes and all the : horrors that attend a war of this kind, in which conquest itself is full of calamity, and vúr most happy victories de serve to be celebrated only by tears.. Nalure herself is dismayed, and shrinks back from a combat, where every blow that we strike may murder a friend, a relation, a pae! rent. Let us hearken to her voice, which commands us : to refrain from that guilt. Is there one of us here, who would not think it a happy and
glorious act, to save the life of one of his countryinen? What a felicity then, and what a glury, must it be to us all, if we save the lives of thousands of Englishmen, that must otherwise fall in this baule, and in many other battles, which, hereafter, may be fought on this quarrel! It is in our power to do so It is in our power to end the controversy, both safely and honourably; by an amicable agreement, not by the sword. Stephen may enjoy the royal dignity for his life,