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is abundantly provided with men, arms, and all things necessary. There is nothing wanting to secure the success, if our own courage does not fail us. Can all those warriors, who have ever been so brave when foreign enemies were to be subdued, or when conquests were to be made to gratify the ambition and avarice of Tarquin, be then only cowards, when they are to deliver themselves from slavery? Some of you are perhaps intimidated by the army which Tarqnin now commands. The soldiers, you imagine, will take the part of their general. Banish so groundless a fear. The love of liberty is natural to all

Your fellow-citizens in the camp feel the weight of oppression with as quick a sense as you that are in Rome : they will as eagerly seize the occasion of throwing off the yoke. But let us grant there may be some among them, who, through baseness of spirit, or a bad education, will be disposed to favour the tyrant. The number of these can be but small, and we have means sufficient in our hands to reduce them to reason. They have left us hostages more dear to thein than life. Their wives, their children, their fathers, their mothers, are bere in the city. Courage, Romans, the gods are for us : those gods, whose temples and altars the impious Tarquin has profaned by sacrifices and libations made with polluted hands, polluted with blood, and with numberless unexpiated crimes com. mitted against his subjects. Ye gods, who protected our forefathers, ye Genii, who watch for the preservation and glory of Rome, do you iospire us with courage and unanimity in this glorious cause, and we will to our last breath defend your worship from profanation.




I KNOW not, soldiers, whether you or your prisoners be encompassed by fortune with the stricter bonds and neces-, aities. Two seas inclose you on the right and left ; --not a you are

ship 10 flee to for escaping.



is the Po, a river broader and more rapid than the Rhone ; behind the Alps, over which, even when your numbers were undininished, you were hardly able to force a passage. Here then, soldiers, you must either conquer or die, the very first hour you meet the enemy.

But the same fortune which has thus laid you under the necessity of lighting, has set before your eyes those rewards of victory, than which no man was ever wont to wish for greater fiom the immortal gods. Should we by our valour reeover only Sicily, and Sardinia, which were ravished from our fathers, these would be no, inconsiderable prizes. Yet what are these? The wealth of Rome, whaleper riches she has heaped together in the spoils of Harings, all these, with the masters of them, will be yours. You have been long enough, enployeu in driving the cattle upon

the vast mountains of Lusitania and Celtiberia ; you have hitherto met with no reward worthy of the labours and dangers you have undergone. The time is now come to reap the full recompense of your toilsome marches over so many moun. tains and rivers, and through so many nations, all of them in arms.

This is the place which fortune has appointed to be the limits of your labours ; it is here that you will finish your glorious warfare, and receive an ample recompense of your completed service. For I would not have you imagine, that victory will be as difficult, as the name of a Roman war is great and sounding. It has often happened, that a despised enemy has given a bloody battle, and the most renowned kings and nations have by a small force been overthrown. And if you but take away the glitter of the Roman name, what is there, wherein they may. stand in competition with you? For (to say nothing of your service in war for twenty years together with so much valqur and success) from the very pillars of Hercules, from the ocean, from the utmost bounds of the earth, through so many warlike nations of Spain and Gaul, are you not come hither victorious ? And with whom are you now to fight? With raw soldiers, an army, beaten, vanquished, besieged by the Gauds the very last sumener, an army unknown to their leader, and unacquainted with hin,


Or shatt I, who was born. I might almost say, but certainly brought up, in the tent of my father, that most excellent general, shall I, the conqueror of Spain and Gaul, and not only of the Alpine nations, but, which is greater yet, of the Alps themselves, shall I compare myself with this half-year captain? A captain before whom should one place the two armies without their ensign's, I am persuaded he would not know to which of them he is consol? I esteem it no small advantage, soldiers, that there is not one among you, who has not often been an eye-witness of my exploits in war: not one of whose valour I myself hare not been a spectator, so as to be able to name the times and places of his noble achievements; that with soldiers, whom I have a thousand tines praised and rewarded, and whose pupil I was, before I became their general, I shall warch against an army ot' meil, strangers to one another.

Oh what sile soever I turn my eyes, I behold all full of cobrage and strength ; a veteran intantry; a most gallant cavalry: you, my allies, most faithful and valiant : you, Carthaginians, whom not only your country's cause, but the justest anger impels to battle. The hope, the courage of assailants, is always greater than of thrse who act upon the defensive. With hostile banners displayed, you are coine down upon Italy ; you bring the war. Grief, in juries, indiynities fire your minds, and spur you forward to revenge!--First, the v deinanded me; that I, voor gederal, should be delivered up to inem; next, all of you, who had fuuglit at the siege of Sagonium; and we were to be put to death by the extremezt tortures. Proud and cruel ration! Every thing must be yours, and at your disposal! You are to prescribe to us with whom we shall make war, with whoni we shall 'make peace! You are to set us bounds : to shut us up within hills and rivers; but you---you are not to observe the limits woich yourselves have fixed. Pass not the Iberus. What next? Toush not the Saguntines. Saguntum is upon the Iberus, move pot a step towards that city. Is it a small matter then, that you have deprived us if our arrcient possessions, Sicily anil Sardinia; you would have Spain too? Well, we shall yield Spain and then--you will pass into Africa. Will país, did I say ? ---This very year tiiey ordered oire

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of their consuls into Africa, the other into Spain. No, soldiers, there is nothing left for us but what we can rindicate with our swords. Come on then. Be men. The Romans may with more safety be cowards; they have their own country behind them, have places of refuge to flee to, and are secure from danger in the roads thither; but for you there is no middle fortune between death and victory. Let this be but well fixed in your minds, and once again I say, you are conquerors.


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It is but too common, my countrymen, to observe á ma. terial difference between the behaviour of those who stand candidates for places of power and trust, before and after their obtaining them. They solicit them in one manner, and execute them in another. They set out with a great appearance of activity, humility, and moderation : and they quickly fall into sloth, pride, and avarice. It is, undoubtedly, no easy matter to discharge, to the general satisfaction, the duty of a supreme commander in troublesome times. I am, I hope, duly sensible of the importance of the office I propose to take upon me, for the service of my country: To carry on, with effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of the public money; to oblige those to serve, whom it may be delicate to offend ; to conduct, at the same time, a complicated variety of operations; to concert measures at home answerable to the state of things abroad ; and to gain every valuable end, in spite of oppo: sition from the envious, the factious, and the disaffected; to do all this , my countrymen, is more difficult

, than 18 generally thought. And, besides the disadvantages which are common to ine with all others in eminent stations,

my case is, in this respect, peculiarly hard ; that whereas a commander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of a neglect, or breach of duty, has his great connections, the antiquity of his family, the important services of bis ancestors, and the nultitudes he has by power engaged in his interest, to screen him from condign punishment : my whole safety depends upon myself; which renders it the more indispensably necessary for nie to take care, that my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. Besides, I am well aware, my countrymen, that the eye of the public is upon me ; and that, though the impartial, who prefer the real advantages of the commonwealth to all other considerations, favour my pretensions, the Patricians want nothing so much, as au occasion against me. It is, therefore, my fixed resolution, to use my best endeavours, that you

be not disappointed in me, and that their indirect designs against me may be defeated. I have, from my youth, been famiJiar with toils and with dangers. I was faithful to your interest, my countrymen, when I served


for no reward, but that of honour. It is not my design to betray you now that you have conferred upon me a place of profit. You have committed to my conduct the war against Ju. gurtba. The Patricians are offended at this. But where would be the wisdom of giving such a command to one of -their honourable body, a person of illustrious birth, of ancient family, of innumerable statues, but-of no experience? What service would his long line of dead ancestors, or his multitude of motionless statues, do his country in the day of battle? What could such a general do, but, in his trepidation and inexperience, have recourse to some inferior commander, for direction in difficulties, to which he was not himself equal? Thus, your Patrician general Would, in fact, have a general over him ; so that the acting commander would still be a Plebeian. So true is this, my countrymen, that I have myself known those, who have been chosen consuls, begin then to read the history of their own country, of which, till that time, they were totally ig. porant; that is, they first obtained the employment, and then bethought themselves of the qualifications necessary for the proper discharge of it. I submit to your judgment, Romans, on which side the advantage lies, when a com

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