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From thy smoothe wordes-Awaye, if he must die,
Dare confide in me,
Eud. If thou be’est honeste if thou wouldst preserve him,
It may not be.
Eud. Speake, I dare heare-Ætius' noble bloude
Max. Cæsar. must bleede.
No, your tyrante
Yet still my
Mar. If he outlive this houre,
Speak his fate,
Eud. Perfidious man !
Your wronges--the wronges of Rome and human kinde. These extracts will sufficiently show the public attention cannot be too rethe style of this “ Famouse Historie." peatedly and too fondly directed. AIt is more declamatory than the ge mong the labourers in the rich mine nerality of the plays of that period, of old English literature, the Retroand rather resembles the pompous po spective Reviewers deserve especial verty of the French school, than the and honourable mention. Uniting careless richness of the Shakespearian the dissimilar characters of the biblioDrama. This marked difference I grapher and the man of taste, they consider as lending additional inter have produced a work in which the est to the piece, and as warranting a utile is delightfully mingled with the conjecture that the author held no dulce. The literary world, I believe, communion with his brother writers, has very generally observed and apor with the spirit of their works. preciated the merits of this literary There is something dry and meagre in Journal, and I feel much gratified in his dialogue, while the generality of adding the Elizabethan poets pour out their
“My mite bright imaginings with wasteful” Of praise, in payment of a long delight." and sometimes « ridiculous excess. To that golden age of English poesy,
T. [Our readers will find a very interesting account of the rise, exploits, and death of
Ætius, in Vol. VI. p. 9-116, 8vo edition, of Gibbon's History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
VIEW OF THE ELEMENTARY PRINCI and death; and to prompt to the cul. PLES OP EDUCATION, FOUNDED ON
tivation of the severer virtues of magTHE STUDY OF THE NATURE OF
nanimity, fortitude, and self-denial. Hence the codles of Lycurgus and So
lon were little more than extended Education was the primary ob- and comprehensive systems of Public ject of the great lawgivers of antiquity.
Instruction. What, for example, were the codes of But as society advanced in the acBoodh, of Brahma, of Moses, of Ly quisition of political knowledge, and eurgus, of Solon, and even of Mo as great bodies of men conglomerated hammed, but so many systems of into one system of political and civil moral, civil, political, and religious union, such all-grasping schemes of institution?' The natural effect of equalization were found at once insuch systems of extensive and minute compatible with liberty, and with the regulation, was to form a distinctive progress of the human mind in knowand peculiar character, a result which ledge and civilization. Legislators seems to have been contemplated by have, accordingly, in modern times, the renowned lawgivers already men
confined theinselves, in a great meationed, as the ne plus ultra of legis- sure, to their own province, and, satislatorial perfection. Their means were tied with providing for the safety of admirably calculated to the end pro the state, and the security of indiviposeil ; for, to this day, the Chinese, dual life and property, have left the the Hindoos, and the Jews, remain great business of education to those nearly in the same condition as 3000 individuals who are able to appreyears ago; and there cannot, we ciate, and desirous to appropriate its think, be a doubt, that, had the laws blessings. of Lycurgus derived more aid from Every system of education, consuperstition, and been somewhat more sidered strictly as such, resolves itself detailed and specific in their opera- three parts, Physical, Intellectual, tion, they would have possessed à sic and Moral. The first, which rather milar exemption from change. Na- belongs to the science of Pathology, tional character is only unvarying in treats of those means by which the countries wherein religion identifies organs of Sensation and Perception, itself with the daily business, in and the muscular and nervous systercourse, ond affairs of life, no less tem, may be preserved in a sound and than with the administration of jus- healthy condition, and improved in tice, and the laws that regulate pro- vigour and activity. The second perty. In countries of this description, comprehends the processes fit to be the legislator devises the most minute, pursued for the cultivation of those no less than the most comprehensive mental powers, which are generally regulations, and prescribes, with classed under the head of the Under equal authority, the manner of cook- standing. And the third refers to an ing rice, or making ablutions in the examination of all those means, posiGanges, and the great rules of civil tive and negative, prohibitory and reand political union. The laws, con- munerative, by which the affections sequently, are only a system of edu- may be cultivated and directed. cation reduced into practice. Of this
Of all modern writers on educathe oriental nations just mentioned
tion, with whose works we are acare examples. In the republics of quainted, from those of Milton and ancient Greece, too, this legislative Locke downwards, we know of none peculiarity is apparent. Montesquieu who has rigidly followed the order of has shown, that Virtue is the princi investigation here stated, except the ple of a Democracy. It was, there author before us, and the Rev. Dr L. fore, necessary to form the minds of Carpenter, in his ingenious article on the citizens according to the standard Education, first written for Dr Rees's of virtue then received ; to cherish in Cyclopædia, and afterwards publishtheir breasts a predominating love of ed in a separate volume. The“ Tracglory and their country; to inspire a tate” of the author of Paradise Lost, contempt for riches, luxury, danger, is a mere collection of undigested and
unarranged precepts, expressed in By J. G. Spurzheim, M. D. Edin- powerful and highly figurative, but burgh, Constable and Co. 1821.
inverted, and often obscure, phraseo
logy. Locke displays vast compass forget the family in which Miss Edge and originality of thought, and, were worth saw exemplified the maxims his Treatise better arranged, and more she records, and, with all deference practical, it would leave nothing al. for her judgment and taste, we caninost to be added on this subject; not but regret that, in her system of but he does not sufficiently distin- institution, Christianity has found no guish between the different parts of place. In our opinion, to attempt to the subject; there is too great a spirit rouse the latent sparks of intellectual of accommodation to the genius of his ambition, or to model or renovate the own metaphysical speculations; and juvenile heart, without calling in the his book is rather a manual of philo- aid of revelation as a constant auxisophical, than of practical education. liary, in the reformatory process, apOf Dr Priestley's speculations, the pears to be like building on the sand, best thing perhaps that can be said is, and to exclude from the mind the that they were intended to be useful. highest influence, the most energetic His Observations on Religious Edu- and salutary agency, and the hallowcation are certainly good, so far as ed and inspiring efficacy of the purest they are general, and do not smell of and most refined feelings. We have his particular tenets in Christianity ; no intention to be unnecessarily but in his Miscellaneous Observations
Yet a female, probably beron Education, we discover an irre self without religious impressions, verence for past experience, a con and attempting to set up a system of tempt, habitually expressed, for es moral perfectability independently of tablished systems, a tendency to ex the gospel, and on the assumed prinperiment and innovation, and an ar ciple, that the human mind involves in rogant hostility to those who have itself a self-rectifying and reformning had the hardihood to dissent from his power, which only requires to be aconclusions, which, while they are droitly developed in order to accomsufficiently characteristic of the au- plish the objects of education, appears thor, must greatly lessen the weight to us to be an object of real pity, and of his authority on the present sub to furnish a humiliating instance how ject. But Dr Priestley's errors in far the highest intellects may somepolitics, metaphysics, and religion, times be deluded and “spoiled through have been so loudly proclaimed, and vain philosophy." But it is more than so frequently exposed, that they have time to proceed to give some account long ago ceased to be dangerous. To of the volume before us. many able female writers on Educa The present book contains a system tion, the public are, also, under ob- of education founded upon what has ligations. Among these, Mrs Hamil- been, somewhat rashly, called “ THE ton is, by general consent, entitled to New Philosophy.' It contains a the first place. To her belongs the great number of valuable, not to say undivided praise of rendering easy original, remarks, chiefly, as might and attractive, to the studious and have been expected, of a physiological the docile of her own sex, the more character. Dr Spurzheim contemsubtle and profound doctrines of Men- plates man rather as an anatomist than tal Philosophy. She thinks closely, a philosopher : and, accordingly, as and expresses herself with precision far as physical education is concerned, and perspicuity. On the other hand, we know of no book equally accessiin all that concerns the regulation of ble, in the English language, in the heart and the temper, Mrs More which the same number of important stands unrivalled ; and, on the sub- truths are collected, or which appears ject of moral education, her works will to have been composed under the inalways furnish many valuable and fluence of better moral and religious original suggestions. Nor, in this ra- feelings. Differing, as we do toto pid enumeration, are the labours of cælo, from the Phrenologists, weshould Miss Edgeworth to pass unchronicled: consider ourselves guilty of an act of both in Professional and Practical most unpardonable injustice were we Education she displays her peculiar not to bear the most ample testimony talent for observation, and an inti to the merits of the unpretending vomate and profound acquaintance with lume before us. Though professeilly the springs of human actions. But foundled upon, and intended as an exthis is the utmost length that we can emplification of a particular system, go.
We cannot cause ourselves to it is happily adapted to the taste of
the general reader, and contains so “ Education," says Dr Spurzheim, great a mass of undisputed truths fe- “ought to be founded on a knowledge licitously aggregated, that we are de- of man.” It “ought” unquestion, ceived if it do not very greatly ex- ably, provided the doctor does not tend the reputation of the author, beg the question, and assume that that and, probably, the knowledge of his knowledge can only be acquired by the system. Nor is the wonderful cor- study of Phrenology, to the exclusion rectness with which the book is write of the experience, consciousness, and ten, considering the almost insuper- belief of all ages. The very essence able difficulties that lie in the way of of the question at issue between DrTM a writer, composing in a foreign lan. Spurzheim and his opponents is, In guage, one of the least remarkable what manner are we to attain to such things about the present volume. A a certain “knowledge of man” as to few Scotticisms interspersed cannot enable us to build on it as a foundabe supposed to have inaterially quali- tion for a system of general educafied this opinion, especially as they tion?. Again, “ The aim in educatreminded us of the author's connec- ing all must be the same, namely, to tion with our country, where, how- render them virtuous and intelligent.” ever we may differ as to the Physiog- While we admit this to be a correct nomical System, but one opinion was description of the object of moral and ever entertained as to his professional intellectual tuition, we must enter our learning, and the unobtrusive, yet caveat against the unqualified form earnest zeal, with which he sought to in which the doctor has enunciated proinulgate every truth which he be- the proposition which follows it, kered likely to prove beneficial to man- namely, “That all persons are not kiu.
capable of the same improvement, and The limits of this Journal do not that every one cannot be induced by permit us to enter systematically into the same motives to pursue the same this able treatise. We shall, there end.” Now this appears to us to be fore, confine our notice to a few de- partly true and partly false. If we sultory remarks on such parts of the hence infer with Dr Spurzheim, that author's performance as appear to us there are no general laws applicable to be deserving of emendation or cen- to education, and that a different sure. At the same time, we hope course must be pursued in the instructhat the more fastidious class of our tion of every individual, we apprereaders will not allow their delicacy to
hend the conclusion will be singularly be too much shocked by encountering, erroneous. By coming to such a conat the very outset, a chapter on the Laws clusion, we shall not only virtually of Propagation. Though, perhaps, hold that education is in a different not the most valuable in the work, predicament from every other subject we can assure them that it is very of human investigation, where knowchastely written, and that, however ledge consists solely in the discovery it may shock a maiden who has pas- of general laws, but we shall, at the sed her grand climacteric, it contains same time, deprive ourselves of all truths which it will be good for the power of extending the blessings of world generally to know. On the se- instruction by means of scientific cond chapter, which treats of the Vi- combinations and arrangements. If, tal Funciions, and the third, which however, it be only asserted that all lays down the Laws of Exercise, we who have enjoyed the same advanwould be understood to bestow our tages do not equally improve in knowmost unqualified approbation. With ledge, no mortal will contest the truregard to the last, On the Mutual In- ism: if, on the contrary, it be mainfluence of the Powers, which will tained that all are not, generally doubtless be regarded, by the Phre- speaking, possessed of the same faculnologists, as the best and ablest in the ties, we hold the allegation to be subwork, and which developes the au- stantially false. We would lay it thor's peculiar opinions on the sub- down as a general principle, that all jects of Moral and Intellectual Edu- men, whose organization is not defeccation, though it displays unquestion- tive, are endowed with the same faable talent, we must candidly confess culties, though by no means to the . that it appears to us peculiarly assail. same extent. Every man must posable.
sess a certain degree of the faculties
of attention, abstraction, imagination, all the investigations of Mental Phijudgment, reasoning : only some are losophy, the great aim and purpose of gifted with these powers in a high and which we take to be, to discover and pre-eminent degree. The writer of enforce general rules for regulating the this is no mathematician, yet he pos- education of human beings. In fact, sesses as complete a conviction that this theory of Dr Spurzheim reminds the three angles of a plane triangle are us of what Adam Smith has said of equal to two right angles, as either the theories of metaphysicians in geProfessor Leslie or Professor Wallace. neral. As they write of the human Wherein, then, does his knowledge mind, the subject of our consciousness, differ from theirs ? In degree certain- they must tell us so much of the truth, ly, not in kind. All soils may pro- however they may puzzle and conduce the same grain, but it will most found us at the long run; just as a assureally differ, both in quantity and man who presents us with a history quality : it is still, however, generical- of our native parish will be laughed ly the same. There is an immense dis- at and discredited, unless he be aceutance between William Shakespeare, rate in at least the outline of his and James Hogg, the Ettrick Shep- work. herd, or drunken Dermody, the Bac- Nature, by her endowments," chanalian rhymster ; but, with due says Dr Spurzheim, “constitutes some submission, we crave liberty to hold, characters moral, and others religious." that, in all the three, the elemental This is Fatalism with a vengeance. principles of human nature were But the Doctor is not consistent ; for, substantially the same. Hence, it is towards the end of his work, he most not true that " every one cannot distinctly and correctly avers, that, be induced by the same motives to “ whenever moral liberty is wanting, pursue the same end." It is difficult there is no guilt.” Leaving the Docto conceive two human beings expos- tor to reconcile these conflicting allem ed to the influence of precisely the gations as he best may, we think there same motives. Yet, assuming the can be no doubt that the most forthing as possible, we aver that the midable objection with which the same motives, when presented in the Phrenologists have had to struggle same circumstances, will, cæteris pari- consists in the alleged necessary tenbus, produce similar results. Upon dency of their system to an absolute this principle, all our reasonings, as Fatalism. That they have overcome to the conduct of certain agents, placed this objection, notwithstanding their in certain conditions, and all our strenuous efforts for that purpose, we knowledge derived from past expe- are certainly not prepared to admit, rience, entirely rest. And do we not though we hope we shall ever be a-. find, as a matter of absolute fact, that mong the foremost in applauding the in all historical and philosophical dis- ingenuity and perseverance with which quisitions in which the motives of this difficult task has been prosecuted. men have been most carefully weigh- Ifevery faculty of themind acts through ed and most scrupulously appreciated, the medium of a separate organ, the the inferences drawn relative to the doctrine of necessity is, we apprehend, future conduct of men, placed under involved in the very fundamental prothe influence of the same motives, are position of the system. If we open substantially accurate ? Upon what our eyes, we must see; if we listen, other grounds than this have great we must hear; if the moral organ be men, at different times, ventured to “ CONSTITUTED” powerful, we must predict the consequences of certain feel a love of virtue and a hatred of events only in progress of accomplish- vice; and if weak, we will be conment during their own lives? A given scious of these sentiments in a lesser motive may not produce a given effect degree. To take the last instance, to the same degree, in the case of dif- tlie“ constitution” of the moral organ ferent individuals, placed in nearly must precede the virtuous sentiment; similar circumstances, but it will pro- and where the organ does not exist at duce that effect in some degree; all, there can be no moral sense, no which is all that we contend for, knowledge of right and wrong, no reand which, if true, overturns one sponsibility for a course of conduct of the fundamental propositions of pursued. The moral sentiment, thereDr Spurzheim's able Treatise--a pro- fore, being the result of organization, position which strikes at the root of must be independent of the volition