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able, nay, perhaps a right honourable tinued dark and lowering. In the man. Here, then, there is an end of natural world it sometimes happens, his virtue. He has now got into a that public current, where his private com

the radiant sun, with farewell sweet, pass can be of no service to him. He Extends his evening beam, the fields revive

, runs in proud career, his sails full

The birds their notes renew, and bleating blown with the monsoons of admira

herds tion and praise, but he runs all the Attest their joy, and hill and valley ring. while to perdition.

We come, then, to consider those Where, in the moral world, do we other grave matters which are insert- find those evening sunshines after they ed in the title. Consistency, among stormy, agitations of prejudices and the first, deserves attention. Con- false alarms ? Burke, and Southey, sistency, meaning conformity, not to and Slop, and other poetical politicians, our own varied views and convictions have seen no inconsistency in joining of right, but to the opinions formed

a prudent (the word is equivocal, and of us by others, is a vice, not a virtue. may, suit every selfish art) age to a He who walks on the banks of the passionate youth. We are proud, Forth, and winds with all the wind- however, to have had the fortune, for ings of its Links, uniformly appears to

the sake of our theories of human him who makes corresponding pro- grandeur in its noblest form, to live

when the Earl of Fitzwilliam achieved gress on the stream, to maintain a straight course. Thus, in the current his splendid acts of inconsistency in

1817 and 1819. of society, he is thought consistent, who deviates according to its deviations, but he who follows a really straight-forward course will often be HUMBOLDT'S PERSONAL NARRATIVE.* charged with inconsistency, only because the relative positions of parties discovery

of America should have in

It is not wonderful that the first are different. Absolute adherence to principle, which is true consistency,

flamed the minds of the natives of would often require the courtier to Europe, and that many magnificent act the patriot, and the patriot the have been entertained respecting the

and unwarranted speculations should courtier, when such conduct would

vast treasures which that new counoccasion an outcry of inconsistency, profligacy, corruption, disappointment,

try contained. Every person is 2or foul ambition. Cæsar, Cromwell,

ware that imagination, when once and Napoleon, were consistent. But excited, is little disposed to submit to so, too, was Washington. The views any restraint, and, in the instance beof the public may correspond with

fore us, there was every thing that right reason and truth, and consis. height. It was not merely an island

could
carry

the illusion to its utmost tency then becomes expressive of adherence to rectitude ; but infinitely been discovered. It was nothing less

or new district of country that had sublimer as a moral spectacle is the than a new world, and in that world, inconsistency that prompts adherence to an honest conviction, in opposition

as it was first beheld, every thing to popularity, patronage, or public tions of nature were on a larger and

seemed to announce that the produccharacter. Human virtue has not supplied many illustrations of this

more magnificent scale than they had kind to the historian. Perhaps the

ever been exhibited on the ancient conduct of Mr Fox, in the year 1793,

continent. To this newly discovered will hereafter be viewed as a splendid all men took wing, and every indivi

world, therefore, the imaginations of instance. Old men are much more consistent than young men. Are they

dual formed dreams for himself rebetter, more generous, more benevo specting what that country contained, lent? They are much more attached, corresponding to his previous habits indeed, to character and to money,

and favourite pursuits. The philosobut not more full of the milk of hu- pher anticipated new discoveries in inan kindness. Often has the pre

nature, or new arrangements in polimature splendour of the morning been overcast, and the day throughout con

• Vol. V. Part II.

cy, the ambitious adventurer pleased and nothing was talked or written himself with the idea of kingdoms to about for a long time but the wonbe conquered, and those whose only ders of El Dorado,-meaning by this desire was to see much, and to have term, that land of gold, which all an opportunity, of active exertion, Europeans wished to conquer, and abandoned all their affections and re- where, in the abundance of its precious latives in Europe, that, amidst the metals, they should find the means of splendid scenery of the new conti- every gratification which the heart, or nent, and amidst simple tribes of sa- fancy, or senses of man could desire. vages, they might give the reins to Those who are anxious to know all all their desires, and lead an unin- that was imagined respecting this terterrupted life of luxurious enjoy- ritory, will find ample satisfaction in ment.

the volumes of Sir Walter Raleigh, But perhaps there was a passion and of many other travellers of that stronger than all these, which either period. But Humboldt and his sciprompted the earlier adventurers, or entific companions have recently trawhich at least was speedily awakened versed the very region which was so by the reports which were circulated. much an object of desire, and an auThe simple natives of the new conti- thor who loves so well to shew his nent offered grains of gold for the learning in all rare and wonderful toys of Europe, and wore pieces of points, could not pass over El Dorado this precious metal suspended from with a slight or transient notice. By their ears and noses. The ornaments far the longest dissertations in this voof their hair were of the same materi- lume relate, accordingly, to this fable, al, and the readiness with which they and we confess the author's ideas reparted with it, confirmed their visi- specting it are, to our minds extremely tors in the belief that nothing was probable; when he refers it to the more common in the world they had existence of some rocks of mica slate discovered, and that, in some of its re at the foot of the Andes, and to the moter districts, this great object of practice of the natives of that country desire might be as abundantly met of sticking pieces of that rock upon with as any of the common stones their bodies, after having first beand ordinary ingredients of the soil in daubed them with certain greasy or Europe. Here again imagination was balsamic unguents, with which the let loose, and among those yet unvi- rich vegetation of that country readily sited countries which lie upon the as- supplied them. Before proceeding, cent of the Andes, a region was fan- however, to give our author's account cied, all the rocks of which glittered in his own words, we may notice one with gold, the dust of which was or two other curious matters, which richly impregnated with that sub are nearer the beginning of the vostance, the cities of which were built lume. of stones that glowed with the same va The following dish, which Humluable ingredient, and that a mighty boldt says is not uncommon among lake reflected these palaces of glory am the North American savages, will be round all its borders. Sovery abundant considered by most of our readers as indeed was this metal supposed to be, a rarity. Speaking of roasted monthat the king of the region was describ- keys, he thus proceeds : ed as being every day stuck over with gold, for the adhesion of which he “ The manner of roasting these antlıro. had previously prepared his skin by pomorphous animals contributes singularly haring anointed it with odoriferous to render their appearance disagreeable in materials, and that, thus equipped, the eyes of civilized man. A little grating he went daily into the waters of or lattice of very hard wood is formed, and that lake, the sands and the surface of raised one foot from the ground. The which equally reflected the precious monkey is skinned, and bent into a sitting lustre.

posture; the head generally resting on the In process of time, the materials of sometimes these are crossed behind the

arms, which are meagre and long; but this fiction were altered and pervert- back. When it is tied on the grating, a ed. El Dorado, which properly signi- very clear fire is kindled below. The fies the gilded king, came to be the cur- monkey, enveloped in smoke and flame, is rent name of this fancied region- broiled and blackened at the same time.

On seeing the natives devour the arm or rivers, when fish cannot be procured, leg of a roasted monkey, it is difficult not

our author proceeds to remark: to believe, that this habit of eating animals, that so much resemble man in their physical organization, has, in a certain de

66 At the period of these inundations, gree, contributed to diminish the horror of which last two or three months, the Oto anthropophagy among savages. Roasted

macs swallow a prodigious quantity of monkeys, particularly those that have a earth. We found heaps of balls in their very round head, display a bideous resem

huts, piled up in pyramids three or four blance to a child ; the Europeans, there. feet high. These balls were five or six fore, who are obliged to feed on quadru. inches in diameter. The earth, which the manes, prefer separating the head and the Otomacs eat, is a very fine and unctuous hands, and serve up only the rest of the clay, of a yellowish gray colour ; and, animal at their tables. The flesh of mon being slightly baked in the fire, the hardkeys is so lean and dry, that Mr Bon- ened crust has a tint inclining to red, ow. pland has preserved in his collections at ing to the oxid of iron which is mingled Paris an arm and hand, which had been

with it. We brought away some of this broiled over the fire at Esmeralda ; and no earth, which we took from the winter prosiell arises from thein after a great num

vision of the Indians; and it is absolutely ber of years.” pp. 533, 534.

false, that it is steatitic, and contains mag

nesia. Mr Vauquelin did not discover Nothing is more curious than the any traces of this earth in it: but he found, varieties of food anong mankind. that it contained more silex than alumin, We have already given one in and three or four per cent of time.

“ The Otomacs do not eat every kind of stance, and though the following clay indifferently; they choose the alluvial quotation is long, it relates to so very beds or strata that contain the most uncturemarkable a practice, that we are ous earth, and the smoothest to the feel. I sure it must be read with interest. inquired of the missionary, whether the It relates to the practice of eating moistenedl clay were made to undergo, as clay, which is common to a great va

Father Gumilla asserts, that peculiar deriety of savage tribes, and which composition, which is indicated by a disenHumboldt found to be especially in gagement of carbonic acid and sulphuretuse among the North American Oto ted hydrogen, and which is designated in

Those who have not formerly every language by the term of putrefaction ; thought of this matter will probably but he assured us, that the natives neither find some difficulty in believing that it with flour of maize, oil of turtles' eggs,

cause the clay to rot, nor do they mingle the practice can be either so common

or fat of the crocodile. We ourselves ex. or so innocent as it is here represent- amined, both at the Oroonoko and after ed to be. It seems, however, to be a our return to Paris, the balls of earth, fact, that this is really one of the which we brought away with us, and found whims to which the caprice of man no trace of the mixture of any organic subkind has led them, and which custom stance, whether oily or farinaceous. The has rendered necessary. We believe savage regards every thing as nourishing also, that Humboldt's explanation of that appeases hunger: when, therefore, you the effect of this diet in appeasing inquire of an Otomac, on what he subsists hunger, may be considered as the true during the two months when the river is He admits, that mere clayey or

the highest, he shows you his balls of clayey

earth. This he calls his principal food ; magnesian, or calcareous earth, cannot for at this period he can seldom procure & have any effect in nourishing the hu- lizard, a root of fern, or a dead fish swimman system, but he thinks that their ming at the surface of the water. If the introduction into the stomach has Indian eat earth from want during two some sort of effect upon it, either sim- months, (and from three quarters to fire ply of stretching and bracing it, or of quarters of a pound in twenty-four hours;) producing a copious discharge of gas- he does not the less regale himself with it tric juice, which is in its turn change during the rest of the year. Every day in ed into aliment, and that it is in this the season of drought, when fishing is most way that hunger is appeased by this abundant, he scrapes his balls of porya, and food. The whole facts and reason

mingles a little clay with his other aliment.

What ings, however, are so curious, that they macs do not become lean by swallowing

most surprising is, that the Oto. may be considered as among those of such quantities of earth : they are, on the our author's speculations which are contrary, extremely robust, and far from most worthy of being generally known. having the belly tense and puffed up. The Speaking of the inundations of the missionary Fray Ramon Bueno asserts,

macs.

one.

that he never remarked any alteration in is found only among women in a state of the health of the natives at the period of the pregnancy, and sickly children. This difgreat risings of the Oroonoko.

ference between hot and temperate climates " The following are the facts in all their arises perhaps only from the inert state of simplicity, which we were able to verify the functions of the stomach, caused by The Oromacs during some months eat daily strong cutaneous perspiration. It has been three quarters of a pound of clay slightly supposed to be observed, that the inordihardened by fire, without their health being nate taste for eating earth augments among sensibly affected by it. They moisten the the African slaves, and becomes more perearth afresh, when they are going to swal- nicious, when they are restricted to a regilow it. It has not been possible to verify men purely vegetable, and deprived of spihitherto with precision how much nutrie rituous liquors. If the latter render the tious vegetable or animal matter the Indi. practice of eating earth less injurious, we ans take in a week at the same time; but may almost felicitate the Otomacs on their it is certain, that they attribute the sensa decided taste for intoxication. tion of satiety, which they feel, to the clay, “ The Negroes on the coast of Guinea and not to the wretched aliments which delight in eating a yellowish earth, which they take with it occasionally. No phy. they call caorac. The slaves who are taken siological phenomeaon being entirely in. to America try to procure for themselves sulated, it may be interesting to examine the same enjoyment; but it is constantly several analogous phenomena, which I have detrimental to their health. They say, been able to collect.

that the earth of the West Indies is not “I observed everywhere within the tor so easy of digestion as that of their counrid zone, in a great number of individuals, try. Thibaut de Chanvalon, in his Voychildren, women, and sometimes even full. age to Martinico, expresses himself very grown men, an inordinate and almost irre judiciously on this pathological phenomesistible desire of swallowing earth ; not an non. • Another cause,' he says, of this alkaline or calcareous earth, to neutralize pain in the stomach is, that several of the las it is vulgarly said) acid juices, but a fat Negroes, who come from the coast of Guiclay, unctuous, and exhaling a strong nea, eat earth ; not from a depraved taste, smell. It is often found necessary to tie or in consequence of a disease, but from a the children's hands, or to confine them, habit contracted at home in Africa, where to present their eating earth, when the rain they eat, they say, a particular earth, the ceases to fall. At the village of Banco, on taste of which they find agreeable, without the bank of the river Magdalena, I saw the suffering any inconvenience. They seek in Indian women who make pottery continu our islands for the carth the most similar ally swallowing great pieces of clay. These to this, and prefer a yellowish red volcanic Fomen were not in a state of pregnancy ; tufa. It is sold secretly in our public and they affirmed, that · earth is an ali- markets ; but this is an abuse, which the ment, which they do not find hurtful.' In police ought to correct. The Negroes who other American tribes people soon fall sick, have this habit are so fond of caouac, that and waste away, when they yield too much no chastisement will prevent their eating to this mania of eating earth. We found it.' at the mission of San Borja an Indian child " In the Indian Archipelago, at the of the Guahiba nation, who was as thin as island of Java, Mr Labillardière saw, bea skeleton. The mother informed us by tween Surabaya and Samarang, little square an interpreter, that the little girl was redu- and reddish cakes exposed to sale. These cal to this lamentable state of atrophy in cakes, called tanaanipo, were cakes of clay, consequence of a disordered appetite, ha- slightly baked, which the natives eat with ring refused during four months to take appetite. The attention of physiologists, almost any other food than clay. Yet San since my return from the Oroonoko, having Borja is only twenty-five leagues distant been powerfully fixed on these phenomena from the mission of Uruana, inhabited by of geophagy, Mr Leschenault (one of the that tribe of the Otomacs, who, from the naturalists of the expedition to the

Southeffect no doubt of a habit progressively ac ern Lands under the command of Captain quired, swallow the poya without experi- Baudin) has published some curious deencing any pernicious effects. Father Gu- tails on the tanaampo, or ampo, of the Jamilla asserts, that the Otomacs purge them

The reddish and somewhat ferselves with oil, or rather with the melted ruginous clay,' he says, which the infat of the crocodile, when they feel any gas. habitants of Java are fond of eating occatric obstructions ; but the missionary whom sionally, is“ spread on a plate of iron, and we found among them was little disposed baked, after having been rolled into little to confirm this assertion. It may be ask- cylinders in the form of the bark of cinnaed, why the mania of eating earth is much

In this state, it takes the name of more rare in the frigid and temperate zones, ampo, and is sold in the public markets. than ia the torrid; and why in Europe it This clay has a peculiar taste, which is

vanese.

mon.

Owing to the torrefaction; it is very ab

- When we reflect on the whole of these sorbent, and adheres to the tongue, which facts, we perceive, that this disorderly appeit dries. In general, it is only the Java- tite for clayey, magnesian, and calcareous nese women who eat the ampo, either in earth, is most common among the people the time of their pregnancy, or in order to of the torrid zone; that it is not always a grow thin; the want of plumpness being cause of disease ; and that some tribes eat a kind of beauty in this country. The use earth from choice, while others (the Otoof this earth is fatal to health ; the women macs in America, and the inhabitants of lose their appetite imperceptibly, and no

New Caledonia in the Pacific Ocean) eat longer take, without disgust, a very small it from want, and to appease hunger. A quantity of food; but the desire of be- great number of physiological phenomena coming lean, and of preserving a slender prove that a temporary cessation of hunger shape, can brave these dangers, and main. may be produced, without the substances tains the credit of the ampo.' The savage that are submitted to the organs of diges. inhabitants of New Caledonia, also, to ap- tion being, properly speaking, nutritive. pease their hunger in times of scarcity, eat The earth of the Otomacs, composed of great pieces of a friable lapis ollaris. Mr alumen and silex, furnishes probably noVauquelin analysed this stone, and found thing, or almost nothing, to the composiin it, beside magnesia and silex in equal tion of the organs of man. These organs portions, a small quantity of oxid of cop contain lime and magnesia in the bones, per. Mr Goldberry had seen the Negroes in the lymph of the thoracic duct, in the in Africa, in the islands of Bunck and Los colouring matter of the blood, and in white Idolos, eat an earth of which he had him. hairs ; they afford very small quantities of self eaten, without being incommoded by silex in black hair : and, according to Mr it, and which also was a white and friable Vauquelin, but a few atoms of alumin in steatite. In looking over these examples, the bones, though this is contained abunwhich are all taken from the torrid zone, dantly in the greater part of those vegetawe are struck by the idea of finding a taste, ble matters, which form part of our nourishwhich nature, it would seem, should have ment. It is not the same with man as reserved for the inhabitants of the most with animated beings placed lower in the sterile regions, prevail among races of rude scale of organization. In the former, as. and indolent men, who live in the finest similation is exerted only on those suband most fertile countries in the globe. 'stances that enter essentially into the comWe saw at Popayan, and in several moun- position of the bones, the muscles, and the tainous parts of Peru, lime reduced to a medullary matter of the nerves and the very fine powder, sold in the public mar. brain. Plants, on the contrary, draw from kets to the natives among other articles of the soil the salts that are found accidental. provision. This powder, when used, is ly mixed in it; and their fibrous texture mingled with coce, that is, with the leaves varies according to the nature of the earths, of the erythroxylon peruvianum. It is that predominate in the spots which they well krown, that Indian messengers take inhabit. An object well worthy of research, no other aliment for whole days, than and which has long fixed my attention, is lime and coca ; both excite the secretion of the small number of simple substances spittle, and of the gastric juice ; they take (earthy and metallic) that enter into the away the appetite, without giving any composition of animated beings, and which nourishment to the body. In other parts alone appear fitted to maintain what we of South America, on the coast of Rio de may call the chemical movement of vi. la Hacha, the Guajiroes swallow lime tality. alone, without adding any vegetable mal " We must not confound the sensations of ter to it. They always carry with them a hunger with that vague feeling of debility, little box filled with lime, as we do snuffa which is produced by want of nutrition, boxes, and as in Asia, people carry a betel. and by other pathologic causes. The sen. box. This American custom excited the sation of hunger ceases long before digescuriosity of the first Spanish navigators. tion takes place, or the chyme is converted Lime blackens the teeth ; and in the In. into chyle. It ceases either by a nervous dian Archipelago, as among several Ame- and tonic impression exerted by the alirican hordes, to blacken the teeth is to ments on the coats of the stomach, or bebeautify them. In the cold regions of the cause the digestive apparatus is filled with kingdom of Quito, the natives of Tigua substances, that excite the mucous memeat habitually from choice, and without branes to an abundant secretion of the being incommoded by it, a very fine clay, gastric juice. To this tonic impression on mixed with quartzose sand. This clay, the nerves of the stomach, the prompt and suspended in water, renders it milky. We salutary effects of what are called nutritive find in their huts large vessels filled with medicaments may be attributed, such as this water, which serves as a beverage, and chocolate, and every substance that gently which the Indians call agua or leche de stimulates and nourishes at the same time. lanka.

It is thc absence of a nervous stimulant

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