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overture had failed of success, will be aroused from the torpid indifference with which they have hitherto witnessed the unexampled fate of the Indians, and nobly and fearlessly stand forward in their defence.
The other subjects here discussed have all a reference to the main object I had in view; as it appeared to me highly important to demonstrate, (from their entire opposite tendency,) that the conduct and sanguinary institutions of the Jews, from which we have derived our crude and unworthy notions respecting the Deity, can have no connection with the pure and heavenly religion of Jesus.
The Cherokees have been publishing the speeches of Washington, 'their venerated father, to his beloved children of that nation, wherein he urges them to quit the chase, and practise the arts of agriculture, and become herdsmen and artisans; with the assurance that, should they accede to the proposal, the United States would take them under their protection, and guarantee to them their land within specific limits. With a view to encourage them to become herdsmen and cultivators of the soil, the United States agreed to furnish them gratuitously with domestic animals and implements of husbandry. The Cherokees have in pursuance
of this advice become a civilized community, and have moreover parted with much land for the accommodation of the United States. Nevertheless, they are now urged to quit their territory, with all their improvements, and retire to the western wilds, where they must erelong miserably perish, to gratify the insatiable cupidity of the Georgians. If the craving rapacity of this state cannot otherwise be satisfied, it would assuredly be preferable to pay them an equivalent for their claims, which, setting aside all higher considerations, would require a sum less exorbitant than would be expended in their removal. These remarks are peculiarly applicable to all the Indians who border on the southern states.
What are state rights,' exclaims an indignant Cherokee chief, 'in comparison to original possession, and inheritance from the King of kings?'
Mother. HAVING concluded what I had to relate of our Southern Indians, I will now give you some account of those who inhabited this part of the country when it was first visited by our ancestors.
The Pequods, a powerful and intelligent people, who dwelt on the river Thames in Connecticut, had declined all intercourse with the English, as they were engaged in commerce with the Dutch, by whose instigation it was supposed the Pequods were forbidden to bring any of the English into their territory. These people were all destroyed in revenge of the death of captains Stone and Norton. Stone, the principal, had been guilty of the most atrocious offences, he had been imprisoned and ordered to leave the
colony; nor is it probable that Norton was superior to Stone, or he would not have been his associate. It cannot be doubted that these men were the aggressors, from their subsequent conduct: we must therefore admit the testimony of the Pequods, in reference to the cause and manner of their disaster and death. The Pequods sent messengers
peace, with gifts, to the Massachusetts, explaining the cause of Stone's death, and alleged that he had been justly slain for having seized some of their men, and compelled them to show him the way up their river ; and that the Pequods slew Stone and two others, who had come on shore, to rescue their own men. They also stated, that afterward the bark had been suddenly blown up by the explosion of gunpowder, which had been set in an open vessel to be more ready for use. This account does not appear to have been credited readily by the English, though it could not be denied, as none of the company belonging to the bark escaped the conflagration.* After a conference, which lasted many days, the governor and council concluded a peace with the Pequods, and agreed to trade with them as friends, which we
* This was related with such confidence and gravity, as, having no means to contradict it, we inclined to believe it.Winthrop's Journal, Vol. i. Page 220.
are told they greatly desired. *The English of Massachusetts, after their peace with the Pequods, sent a bark thither for trade; but we are told they found them treacherous and false, and that no advantage was to be had by any commerce with them, insomuch as they took up a resolution never more to have to do with them.' The next year John Oldham, a contentious, turbulent man, who had for some time traded with the Indians, and had been treated not only with kindness but with great liberality, was found dead in his vessel, with many Indians on board, who were all destroyed, except two who escaped. No cause has been assigned for the death of Oldham ; but, from the temper of the man, it must be supposed he had done some great injury to those who had heretofore been his friends and benefactors. The Indians who committed this murder were supposed to be inhabitants of Block Island, which was subject to the Narragansets. Shortly after, messengers came from Canonicus, chief sachem of Narraganset, with a letter from Mr. Roger Williams to the governor, to certify what had befallen Mr. Oldham, and how grievously they were afflicted, and that Miantonimo was gone, with seventeen canoes and two hundred men, to take revenge, &c. A few days after, two boys belonging to Oldham were sent