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was hopeless to contend with him or his associates. That he had used a gun that would fire twice without loading, "and then," added he, “he drew out his butcher-knife and shot my brother with it. I was afraid he would make Red Wing his next victim, and shoot me with his pipe !" The Indian had never heard of a double-barrelled gun, and he therefore considered the duplicate discharge the result of magic. The belts pistol he mistook for a butcher-knife, having no definite idea of a miniature firelock, although he might distrust his own senses in the onset, when a double discharge startled him for a moment. He contemplated the second miracle, the discharge of a butcher. knife, with the utmost horror. He deemed it the effect of supernatural agency, and abandoned a confliet where, in imagination, the Great Spirit was an auxiliary of his antagonist.
Throughout the desultory and protracted war waged against the settlers of the Booneslick country, such was their caution and skill, that their loss in killed amounted to only ten men.* After two years hard fighting “on their own hook," an application having been made to Governor Clark by James Allcorn, Esq., a detachment of rangers, under the command of General Dodge, was sent to their relief.
It is reported of this officer, that when his line of march was obstructed by the Missouri, on his route to the Miami village, he dashed into the river, followed by the rangers, sitting steady and erect in their saddles, who swam their horses to the opposite shore.t The transit of their ammunition had been secured in a canoe. By this accelerated movement, the Miamies were surprised and captured in their village. The Booneslickers, who
* Their names are Cole, Campbell, Braxton Cooper, James Busby, Joseph W. Still, Mr. McMahon, Mr. Grigg, Jonathan Todd, Thomas Smith, John Smith, and a negro man.
+ During the land-sales at Old Franklin, a stranger from the frontier, on horseback, accosted the ferryman on the bank of the Missouri in the following terms: “Oh, stranger, what do you ask for ferrying man and horse over this ere little muddy fixing ?”—“A quarter of a dollar," was the reply. “Rip roan! take water !" said he, and the buoyant traveller and his fearless charger gracefully parted asunder the turbid, eddying current of the mighty river, and landed safely on the opposite bank.
formed part of his command in this expedition, were with difficulty restrained by General Dodge from an indiscriminate massacre of the warriors, who had so long and so bitterly annoyed these pioneers. They were the more excited, and therefore more excusable for their momentary ferocity, in the discovery which they made in the village of some of the spoils taken from their murdered comrades.
The government of the United States, always tardy in doing justice to individual claimants, have recently remunerated the early settlers of Booneslick for their losses of stock in the Indian
It is fortunate for the republic that this act of justice was performed at the moment when some of the claimants were lingering on this side the grave, that they may go out of the world with impressions more favourable as to the virtues of mankind.
These old gentlemen, too, who have outlived the tardy scruples of old Mr. “Economy," and old Mr. “Dangerous Precedent,” will be able to carry this cheering intelligence to the Elysian fields, to those who have died of old age, without having been made sensible that rewards are attainable short of the general resurrection.
The Santa Fe trade had its origin in Franklin, where the first enterprise was planned, and an outfit procured in 1822. A profitable and steadily increasing trade has since been carried on. The outfits have since been made in the place where this trade originated, and in all the towns on and near the Missouri, and largely at the city of St. Louis.
The farmers of Howard county, collectively, furnish for the foreign markets hemp, tobacco, wheat, rye, barley, corn, oats, and pork for exportation. When their enclosures shall be extended to dimensions suitable for pasturage, their flocks of sheep may be increased. Cotton for domestic use is here produced with convenience. Hitherto, the home market for farming products, created by the arrival of emigrants, has diminished the exports of this and other old counties ; but now the fine steamers that navigate the Missouri are insufficient to carry out, during the navigable season, the large surplus; and railways are about to be made auxiliaries for this purpose.
On the banks of the Moniteau there is a great congregation of the Indian dead, whose remains have been transported hither, to ensure for them the protection of the Deity, after whom the stream was named, in earth thus consecrated.
A short distance above the mouth of this creek, on the face of the perpendicular cliffs, at the base of which the Missouri runs, there are many curious paintings, the rude work of native artists. The situation of these is so far above high-water mark, that it is impossible to perceive how the artist could ascend to execute the task.
The beetling cliff above seems to forbid approach. by descent, aided with any contrivances within reach of these rude people. It is probable that this work was the result of a great effort, made by some medicine-man, or prophet, to impress on the superstitious minds of his church the confidence which the Great Spirit reposed in him.
The influence that these diabolical ministers acquire and exercise over the tribes to which they severally belong, is sometimes of an unlimited character. A good understanding is generally observed to subsist between this dignity of the pagan church and a political chief. The partisan war-chief begins his expedition with a sacrifice to some deity, at which the big medicine-man officiates.
After putting their ingenuity into common stock, each lends the other the force of his influence; and leading the physical power of the tribe, scalps are taken, or horses stolen, to the entire satisfaction of church and state. Horse-stealing is an achievement, in the estimation of an Indian, next after victory in war; and a brave in recounting his deeds, as his own oral biographer, to the assembly of his nation in council, tells over, with almost equal pride, the number of scalps and the number of horses he has taken in his ambitious career.
The frontier white inhabitants can sometimes furnish a few instances of Indian virtues like those just described. It was reported to the compiler of this volume by a facetious trapper, who had some personal knowledge of the devious ways of white and red men, that he had been apprized of the descent of a party of white men upon the Indian country to steal horses. “Now,". said he, “this is what I call' a horse-style party.” On every commanding point of the river-bluffs in Howard there are artificial mounds of rth, the cemeteries of dead Indians.
When the town of Old Franklin was in the most prosperous condition, and increasing in population and wealth in an unparalleled degree, Mr. John Hardeman, a gentleman of peculiarly fine taste, was carrying forward improvements in his horticultural and botanic garden, about five miles above this place, on the bank of the Missouri. The destructive vagaries of the river were not then well understood ; and it was believed that a bottom, protected with a fine growth of forest-trees, as Mr. Hardeman's plantation was, would be secure against the surges of the annual freshets. Ten acres, laid off in an exact square, had been iset apart, and no labour or expense was spared to render this garden, in the richness and variety of its productions, a perfect parallel to the most happy description of Eden. This spot of earth was adorned with fruits, and flowers, and trees, indigenous and exotic, with sombroso foliage, that lent enchantment to the labyrinth through which the serpentine paths led the admiring visiter. Fruit-trees and ornamental shrubbery were transported, with successful care, more than a thousand miles, to perfect this favoured spot. The native grape of Missouri and the Skauppernong of Carolina were introduced into the society of distinguished foreign vines from Madeira and Oporto; and these, in; rich clusters, contributed to the ruby streams of pure and exhilarating juice that flowed from the wine-press, here successfully trodden. It would be more than passive ingratitude for all the survivers of the gay and cheerful groups who once trod the avenues of this court of Flora, to refrain from making record of the unostentatious hospitality of this tasteful devotee of that goddess. Here the fruits of the varying season were dispensed with an open hand, moved by a generous and joyous heart. It was the
joy of reason, chastened with the influence of philosophy. Like. an infinite amount of anticipated enjoyment, the fascinations of this spot, too, were evanescent. When the mountain snows melted and poured their waters in redundant volumes upon this alluvial bank, the earth itself dissolved in the excessive floods, and this garden, with its poetic symmetry, was carried away by the resistless action of Mad river. Its evergreens and richlyladen fruit-trees were uprooted, and dead apples floated upon
the waters : and now a neglected corner, with a section of unpruned orchard, alone remains to mark the spot once devoted to mental and material luxury. It is a just conclusion to arrive at, that the learned and tasteful proprietor of the Elysium, thus ravished from his possession, felt the pain of kindred bereavement when receding, step by step, from the encroachment of the fluid destroyer. The exodus of trees he had planted and pruned, the departure of foliage beneath which he had pored over his classic volumes, in relaxation from the manly toil to which he was then accustomed, inflicted pain, like night-watchings of a parent over his expiring progeny! In connexion with the war of elements, here successfully waged by fluids against solids, the superstitious might have indulged in grave reflections on causes and effects. About the time that the encroachments of the river, as above described, began, a singular being was wrecked near Hardeman's garden. He was of the frontier genus and Crockett species; he strongly resembled him of congressional and Alamo immortality. His own favourite cognomen was “ RING-TAIL PAINTER.” At the period to which reference is now made, he had been elected representative from a frontier county of Missouri.
When the time approached for the meeting of the legislature, Palmer (which was his name) loaded a small keel with salt, on the Missouri, above Hardeman's plantation; and having taken the helm himself, manned the vessel with his son and a negro. Uniting, as he did, business and politics, while afloat on the river he stood astride of the tiller, with a newspaper in hand (not more than six weeks old), out of which he was spelling, with all his might, some of the leading points of a political essay. At this