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timber cheaply, it being the growth of this poor land in the vicinity of the ore and the water-power. Much wood is consumed in the iron business, in making charcoal; and in the timbered land and barrens, and in the prairies, the timber will grow as fast as it will ever be used for this purpose, if the fire is kept out of the woodland and prairie. Much of this land is too poor ever to be noticed by a purchaser of public lands ; but, amid all this region of poor land, many fertile and very desirable spots of earth are found, where good farmers live and grow rich, as independently as the great landholders in other counties. This county, as a stock country, is very valuable on account of the pasturage of the waste lands by which the fertile tracts are surrounded. The acorns that fall in the timbered tracts feed and fatten the hogs in autumin, at the precise time when the “ hogkilling" season is approaching. A little corn is given to harden the meat thus fattened in the forests. Near the confluence of the three forks of Merrimac, about twelve miles below Massie's, on the right hank of the river, and a mile and a half from it, is situated the seat of justice for Crawford county. This place is very appropriately named STEELVILLE. The county of Crawford has the advantage of water-power sufficient to saw and grind for the whole state of Missouri. Besides the various branches of the Merrimac, a branch of the Gasconade, called Little Piney, rises in this county, and flows many miles through the western part of it. The indications of the existence of lead mineral in Crawford promise great sources of wealth to those who may there employ the means of untiring penetration into the earth.

FRANKLIN County is bounded in the following manner, as described in the Revised Statutes. · Beginning at the northwest corner of St. Louis county; thence south to the line between townships forty-two and forty-three; thence direct to the northeast corner of Washington county ; thence west to the middle of range four, west; thence north to the Missouri river; thence down the same to the beginning.” The county of Franklin is well located, with mill-streams of various sizes, and these are happily distributed over the extensive territory of the county. In the northwest corner of the county is River au Berger and River

au Beuf. These empty into the Missouri above Newport, and St. John's a little below. Dubois Creek and Labaddie Creek empty their waters into the Missouri still farther down that river. The main branch of the Merrimac rises in Crawford county, and runs through Franklin. The river Bourbeuse (the French word for muddy), one of the principal branches of the Merrimac, rises in Franklin, and runs through almost the whole length of the county, furnishing much water-power. There are now on this stream three saw and grist mills, and one powdermill. Indian Creek rises in Washington, and empties into the Merrimac. It has one mill on it. Although there is a part of Franklin that is hilly and barren land, yet this may be considered a good farming country. There is but little Missouri bottom in Franklin, but the river bluffs are exceedingly rich. Wheat and corn are the farming products, and stock to a considerable amount is raised in Franklin. The farmers keep a few sheep, but these are not suitably provided with clean pasturage. The danger, too, that is justly apprehended from wolves, necessarily confines them to narrow limits in muddy pens, where they generate disease. High, rocky grounds, or, at least, dry lands, are best suited to sheep; and in such situations, with change of pasture, will ensure thern health and large fleeces, with wool of good qual. ity. The timber of this county is good, and abundant in quantity. There is no prairie in the county, except a small one near Union.

UNION, the seat of justice, is situate fifty-three miles from St. Louis, and seven miles from the Missouri river. Washington has been the landing for Union. There are two stores at Washington, and the place is high and attractive in appearance from the river. South Point, about two miles below. Washing. ton, is the nearer landing for Union, and the most resorted to for business purposes. There is one store at South Point. There are four stores at Union, but the public buildings are not valuable or commodious. Union is pleasantly situated, on good ground for a town, and is a place where a fair business is done, and is as prosperous as interior towns in a new county generally are.

NEWPORT, formerly the seat of justice, is situated towards the northwest corner of the county, and about a mile from the river, on the high bluffs. It is well supplied with spring-water of good quality. There is one or perhaps two stores in Newport. There is another landing and warehouse higher up the Missouri, and opposite Pinckney. At this point the city of Griswold is laid out and offered for sale. The shore is rocky here, and the water always deep. Steamboats usually stop at this place, both in ascending and descending the Missouri. - Lead ore is found in various places in Franklin, and on the Merrimac one of the most productive discoveries was made about two years ago that is known in Missouri. This mine is on a tract of school-lands, commonly called the sixteenth section. The sixteenth section of every township of land in Missouri is granted to the township, by act of Congress, for the use of common schools. Fortunately for the people of the Merrimac township, the sixteenth section had not been sold when the discovery of lead was made. It has yielded a large revenue, which is greatly needed for the purposes to which it will be appropriated. It is a singular fact, that in Missouri very many of these tracts of school-lands prove to be not only first-rate, but exceedingly valuable. It is unfortunate for the interests of learning, that many of these tracts of school-lands have been hurried into market, and sold at reduced prices. These sales, however, are all illegal, and there is now no party in existence, or who will ever exist on earth, that is, or will be, competent to convey or make a title to these lands. Having been granted to the people of the township, born and unborn, to the end of time, no title to these lands can pass without the deed and acknowledgment of these parties, tenants in common, after they shall become of lawful age. Until the last and youngest child in the township shall become of lawful age to make such conveyance, the purchaser of a tract of school-lands can never acquire a perfect title.

JOHNSTOWN, situate forty miles above the mouth of Merrimac, fourteen miles from Union, and eight miles from the Missouri river, is on the main road from St. Louis to the lead-mines of Washington county. This new town is surrounded by a lead

and iron mineral district. It is in a timbered and a healthy country. The branch of the Iron Mountain railroad


the Missouri will probably pass through this town. The site is beautiful, and good quarries of limestone and sand for building purposes are found in the immediate vicinity of Johnstown. There are likewise good springs near this place. It is supposed that steamboats of light draught can run as far up the Merrimac as Johnstown.

GASCONADE County boundaries begin at the northwest corner of Franklin county ; thence south to the line between townships thirty-nine and forty ; thence west to the line between ranges eleven and twelve; thence north to the Osage river; thence down the same to the Missouri river; thence down the same to the beginning.

In this county iron ore and sulphur are found in abundance. Water-power, to an unlimited extent, is found in Gasconade, on the Gasconade river, on the Bourbeuse, on the Mary's, Hurd's Creek, and Bear Creek; on all of these many mill-sites exist. With the exception of one mill, none of these advantages have been made available. The face of the country within the county is uneven and broken ; but in the bottoms, and on all the level land, the soil is good; and on the borders of the rivers and small streams exceedingly fertile. The country is generally well timbered with walnut, hickory, cherry, and several kinds of oak. There is very little prairie in Gasconade. The springs are numerous and excellent. The staples in this county consist of stock-horses, cattle, and hogs. Very little grain, hemp, or tobacco is now raised for exportation in the county of Gasconade. An excellent substitute for the French buhr has been quarried in this county along the bluffs of the Gasconade river. The Missouri buhr has been, for a considerable period, used with success in grinding; and it is found to be superior to any thing produced in the United States. It is commonly called the Osage buhr, and is found on the Osage river in various situations. It is presumed that the quality of the stone will improve as the quarries are penetrated, and the enterprise of the country may lead to the discovery of an article equal in quality to that imported from France. The limestone of Gasconade is found everywhere, and in many places it might be spared, and exchanged for the acceptable substitute-good soil.

Extract from Doctor Beck's Gazetteer.

“ Another and a very considerable source of wealth in this county, is the number of saltpetre caves which are everywhere found on the Gasconade. Many of these are worked. The mineral is either sent down the river, or consumed in the manufacture of gunpowder, for which there are several mills. Some of the caves are very large, consisting frequently of a succession of rooms joined to each other by arched halls of great height. 'The walls are uniformly of limestone, and often present the most beautiful appearance. On these, as well as the floors, the saltpetre is found deposited, and in most cases so fine, that it requires only one washing to render it fit for use or export.

“ When these caves were first discovered, it was not unusual to find in them Indian axes and hammers, which led to the belief that they had formerly been worked for some unknown purpose by the savages. It is difficult to decide whether these tools were left here by the present race, or by another and more civil. ized which preceded them. Although it is unusual for savages of our day to take up their residence in caves, considering them places to which the MONITEAU resorts—although they are not acquainted with any of the uses of the saltpetre, and would rather avoid than collect it, the circumstance of finding these tools in the caves would of itself, perhaps, furnish slight evi. dence that the country of the Gasconade was formerly settled by a race of men who were acquainted with the uses of this mineral, or who exceeded them in civilization, or in the knowledge of the arts. But there are other facts connected with these, about which there can be no mistake. Near the sawmills, and at a short distance from the road leading from them to St. Louis, are the ruins of an ancient town. It appears to have been regularly laid out, and the dimensions of the squares and streets, and some of the houses, can yet be discovered. Stone walls are found in different parts of the area, which are

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