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grounds. But the wheat-crop, when sown upon the newly. broken prairie, yields such abundance as to astonish the most sanguine, who have not the advantage of experience in the interesting and truly enviable pursuits of a prairie farmer. Forty bushels to the acre may be the maximum. For a long period after the settlement of this part of Missouri, the cultivation of prairie-lands languished, and the axe was freely laid to the root of the tree. The value of the prairie-lands was not fairly estimated. It was feared that the soil on which timber had not taken root would yield other products sparingly. That although these meadows of the Great Spirit were thickly clad with grasses, valuable for hay and pasturage, yet it was feared that graincrops might occasionally fail.
A few experiments, however, tested the comparative value of the prairie-lands, and these are now sought with avidity. In the early settlement of the country, the value of the prairies was underrated by a knowledge of the mischievous power vested in the greenheads, or prairie fly. The sting of this insect, when swarming around the inexperienced traveller, in the midst of a sea of prairie, has, on more occasions than one, dismounted him; and several sentimental travellers have been constrained to utter a lament, like that of STERNE, over a dead horse. But the “ horse-guards" within a few years have arisen, to scourge the scourgers of the prairie. There may be observed, in the vicinity of all prairie plantations, a yellow insect, larger than the fly, which seems to make pastime in the sweeping destruction of "greenheads" The process of this insect, in all of its ramifications, is ingeniously interesting.
They may be observed on the surface of hard-trodden soil at the road-side, where the stock of a farm are accustomed to ruminate, digging their miniature dens, as places of deposite for their prey. They penetrate into the earth twelve or eighteen inches, and in these burrows are placed the killed and wounded fies that the horse-guards snatch from the bloody repast which they are found making on the ox or ass, while grazing in nature's common fields, or the steed of the weary and anxious traveller. The instinctive qualities of an animal, experienced
in prairie roads, will instantly detect the presence of the horseguards, when he approaches such points in his route as furnish a surface suitable for their burrows; and in place of the nervous agitation caused by the sting, a patient tranquillity is observable on the arrival of the guards, who are recognised by their colour and cheering tones. Ploughing in prairie-lands, at a period when these auxiliary forces were unknown to the farmer, was pursued with great interruption and much loss of time. The ploughman was forced to cover his animals with netting, or, in the absence of this precaution, it was the practice to plough after nightfall, and while the heavy dews of summer kept down the Alies in the morning. These interruptions are now happily brought to an end by the summer campaigns of the horseguards, to whom the freedom of the public prairie-lands should be presented, with a suitable address from the individual whose silver tones astonished Balaam.
The mill-streams of Cooper are Lamine and Petit Saline. The former is large, and navigable as far as the salt-works of the Messrs. Heaths, about ten miles from the mouth of the river. On Petit Saline there are several saw and grist mills. One of these, built by Mr. Force, is an extraordinary specimen of mechanical ingenuity. There is little necessity for the people of Cooper to employ animal power in grinding their bread-stuffs, and none of them are forced to depend on the primitive mill of armstrong
By the enterprise of Messrs. A. L. and C. D. W. Johnson, Cooper county has the advantage of a steam flouring-mill and á saw-mill, both situated on the river-bank at Booneville.
The native grasses of the prairies, and the timbered lands throughout the state, as well as in Cooper, invite hither the herdsman and shepherd; or, as we denominate them in this country, stock-raisers. An additional inducement for the establishment of stock farms here, is found in the experiments which have been made in the cultivation of clover, herds'-grass, timothy, and blue-grass. The timothy meadows, in almost every description of soil, are excellent, and nowhere on earth surpassed in the amount of product per acre.
Clover and blue-grass cover the ground with a rich carpet, whenever the least encouragement is afforded. The herds'-grass is more productive in wet land.
In Cooper county the timber consists of several kinds of oak, hickory, white and black walnuts, ash, linn, sycamore, &c. The prairie-lands, that seem destitute of fuel, are often based on a substratum of excellent bituminous coal; and in Cooper this advantage is known to exist to an exhaustless extent. One mile from Booneville coal is obtained, with inconsiderable labour in the operation of mining; and within two miles of Palestine there is a bank of coal sixteen feet thick.
The coal is usually discovered in the ravines that have been excavated by the action of water, pouring down the branches and channels of rivalets, with which this county abounds, and, in a particular manner, near the Missouri. Springs are found in the broken country; but these break out of the earth at the base of the ridges, and frequently at inconvenient distances from good building-sites. On the high and gently-undulating prairies the veins of water gush forth at or near those points of timber where the farmhouse is sheltered, and whence, at one view, the most enchanting landscape is taken in. It is known to few of the inhabitants of Cooper that their saline springs and coal-banks are so situated, as to their relative localities, that this fuel may be extensively employed in the manufacture of salt. This county is rich in limestone and sandstone, large quarries of which are found near and along the banks of the Missouri, not far from Booneville.
BOONEVILLE, on the right bank of the Missouri, the principal town of Cooper, is situated. The site of this flourishing and rapidly-growing place is beautiful in the estimation of the strangers who visit it, as well as the inhabitant, whose partiality for home might make his candour questionable. · Like St. Louis, Booneville is based upon a rock of limestone, so that the rains may descend and the mad waters of Missouri chafe its banks in vain ; its foundation seems capable of resisting a New Madrid carthquake. The courts are held here ; and the courthouse and clerk's office are creditable public buildings. The Method.
ist church is likewise a respectable house. “ The Booneville Her. ald," an excellent public journal, is published here.
There are two ropewalks at Booneville, very profitably man. aged, fifteen stores, with general assortments of merchandise, and mechanics' shops, where various tradesmen supply the wants of the farming population. The name of this town was given by Judge J. B. C. Lucas, in honour of the celebrated pioneer, whose unobtrusive usefulness will be gratefully remembered when wholesale spoilers of the human family are forgotten. Only a few years ago, some of the prairie inhabitants of Cooper observed an aged buffalo pursuing the trace that had long ceased to be trodden by his race, towards one of the salt-springs, his old stamping-grounds, on the bank of Lamine. “He came, he saw," and drank, when the sharp report of a volley of rifles was the last sound that saluted the ears of the last of the buffaloes -in the Cooper range. Cooper county, being one of the large stock-raising districts, furnishes an incalculable amount of animal food for exportation, in addition to the large quantity required for the subsistence of emigrants, who annually pour into this and the neighbouring new counties. As the quantity of freight prepared for downward cargoes is greater than the means of transportation, cattle and hogs will be, to a great amount, driven to the bank of the Mississippi, and then slaughtered. This is no great hardship; and it has been a custom to feed the operatives of the mineral districts in this manner.
Palestine is a new town, near the centre of the county, about twelve miles south of Booneville, and situate in a beautiful, healthy, farming region of country. This village promises to attain as much importance as any other place at the same distance from the river. In this town there are four stores, with a general assortment of merchandise. Bashan would have been a name quite as appropriate "a country famous for its flocks and pastures, lying east of Jordan and the sea of Tiberias."
Pilot GROVE. This is a beautiful little island of timber, in an arm or a neck of prairie, in which some of the first farms of Cooper are kept in high and profitable culture. The road to
Pettis and Rives, and to the Osage agency, leads through this arm of the prairie.
The steamboat arrivals, ascending the Missouri, at Booneville, in 1831, were only five. In the year 1836, on the 20th of September, the arrivals at the same port had amounted to more than seventy, and will probably reach one hundred before navigation closes for the winter. There was one arrival and departure in the month of January, 1836.
Mr. Barr, the proprietor of a large stock-farm in Cooper county, near to Booneville, has brought to his place some of the fullblood Durham cattle, the introduction of which into Missouri will place him on the list of public benefactors.
CRAWFORD COUNTY boundaries, as defined in the Revised Statutes, “begin at the southwest corner of Washington county ; thence west to the line between ranges eight and nine ; thence northwardly with the line of Pulaski .county to the southern boundary of Gasconade county ; thence along the same to the point of intersection between the counties of Franklin and Washington; thence with the western boundary-line of Washington county to the beginning."
This county is rich in iron ore, and it is found in situations near to water-power of sufficient force for iron-works on an extensive scale. Massie's iron-works have been in operation many years, and are very productive to the owners, and literally 80 to the farmers and mechanics of Missouri. The quality of the metal produced at Massie's is universally esteemed excellent. This establishment has been made on one of the principal branches of the Merrimac, near the head spring, which is of capacity to deserve the name of river, where it breaks out of the earth. The iron is hauled to almost all parts of the state in wagons, sent for this purpose by the consumers, to the iron-works ; and the large surplus produced is sent to the Mississippi by land. Recently an attempt has been made to convey it by land to the Gasconade river, and thence by water down the Missouri to market. This will probably prove the cheaper mode of distributing the article. "The country, in the iron region of Crawford, is generally poor; and consequently the iron-masters can obtain